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The Nippon Gakujutsu Shmkdkai Translation of 

with the Texts in Romaji 

With a New Foreword by Donald Keene 

Columbia University Press New York 

Japanese Class tes Translation Committee 
Senchi Taki (Chairman), Imperial Academy 
Masaharu Anesaki, Imperial Academy 
Nobutsuna Sasaki, Imperial Academy 
Izuru Shimmura, Imperial Academy 
Torao Suzuki, Imperial Academv 
Zennosuke Tsuji, Imperial Academy 
Jiro Abe, Tohoku Imperial University 
Sanki Ichikawa, Tokyo Imperial Universirv 

Special Manyoshu Committee 
Nobutsuna Sasaki, Imperial Academy 

Yoshmori Yoshizawa, Kyoto Imperial University (emeritus) 
Yoshio Yamada, sometime of TShoku Imperial Umversiry 
Shinkichi Hashimoto, Tokyo Imperial University 
Shigeyoshi Saito, Imperial Academy of Arcs and Letters 
Yukichi Takeda, Kokugakuin Umversiry 


This work has been accepted in the Japanese Trans- 
lation Senes of the United Nations Educational, 
Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 


ISBN 0-231-02818-0 


10 9876543 


The first translations from the M.anyoshu into a 
European language date back more than a century, well 
before Japan was opened to the West One “envoy” 
(hanka ) to a long poem was translated as early as 1834 
by the celebrated German orientalist Heinrich Julius 
Klaproth (1783-1835) Klaproth, having journeyed to 
Siberia in pursuit of strange languages, encountered some 
illiterate Japanese castaways, fishermen, hardly ideal 
mentors for the study of eighth-century poetry Not 
surprisingly, his translation was anything but accurate 
Other translations appeared from time to time, particu- 
larly after the Meiji Restoration of 1868, and in 187a a 
fair-sized selection of M.anyoshu poetry, some 2.00 poems 
in all, was published by the Austrian scholar August 
Pfizmaier (1808-87). Pfizmaier’s absorption with Man- 
yoshii studies may account for his reputation as a more 
than usually absent-minded professor : it is reported that 
he learned of the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War 
by reading of the event, one year after it occurred, in a 
Japanese newspaper which had been slow in reaching 
Vienna. His versions, for all the singular devotion to 
scholarship they demonstrated, unfortunately were soon 
superseded by the work of the great generation of English 
Japanologists, notably that of Basil Hall Chamberlain 
(1850-1935). From the late nineteenth century onwards 
translations into English, German, French, or Italian 
frequently appeared, sometimes the work of a European 
scholar, sometimes that of a Japanese translating his 
country’s literature into a foreign tongue 

The most satisfactory M.anyoshu translations are those 
of the present volume. Originally prepared by a com- 
mittee of Japanese, scholars of both English and Japanese 


literatures, they were subsequently revised by the Eng- 
lish poet Ralph Hodgson, a resident of Japan at the time 
Collaboration between Japanese and Western scholars 
has often been urged as the best solution to the eternal 
problem of how to produce translations of difficult works 
which are at once accurate and of literary distinction 
but, as far as I know, The Manyoshu is the only successful 
example of such collaboration Generally, the Western 
member of the team unconsciously seeks to recast the 
literal translations from the Japanese prepared by his 
colleagues into an idiom which he himself favors, though 
it may be inappropriate, or else he intrudes foreign 
imagery and thoughts in an attempt to make the poetry 
more appealing to a Western audience His Japanese col- 
laborators in such cases tend to refrain politely from ex- 
pressing any objections Here, however, the combination 
worked exceptionally well, a tribute equally to the 
Englishman and the Japanese 

The original edition of this translation was published 
in 1940 Since then Manyoshu studies have been extremely 
active in Japan, and new discoveries have repeatedly 
affected our understanding of different poems To cite a 
very simple example, the poem by the Emperor Tenji on 
the three hills Kagu, Miminashi, and Unebi (p. 5) was 
long considered to refer to two male hills (Kagu and 
Miminashi) quarreling over a female hill (Unebi), but 
scholars have recently suggested that Kagu and Mimi- 
nashi were two female hills in love with the same male 
hill, Unebi. Other discoveries have a broader applica- 
tion; the most important, probably, being that the 
Japanese language in the Manyoshu period had eight 
vowels instead of the present five, a fact of enormous 
linguistic significance though it does not affect the 
translations of the poems. 

Not only has Japanese scholarship continued to ad- 
vance and refine previous knowledge of the Manyoshu , 
but Western scholarship, inspired in large part by 
Japanese achievements, has developed apace. The most 

impressive critical study to appear in a Western language 
to date, Japanese Court Poetry by Robert Brower and Earl 
Miner (Stanford University Press, 1961), treats the 
Many'oshu in considerable detail and also gives a general 
background to the themes and methods of Japanese 
poetry. Translations continue to appear, some profiting 
by the new interpretations of the texts, others represent- 
ing little more than reworkings in somewhat more 
poetic language of existing versions. 

Interpretations of the Manyoshu have inevitably re- 
flected the outlook of the modern critic almost as much 
as they conveyed the intent of the original poets Read- 
ing the Introduction to this edition of the Manyoshu, we 
cannot help but be struck by the repeated allusions to a 
philosophy of the Japanese state which, though normal 
in 1940, has largely been discredited since. Not only is 
the imperial authorship of many poems stressed (though 
more recent scholars cast doubt on these attributions, 
aware that anonymous poems were often dignified by 
associations — however unlikely — with rulers of the 
distant past), but the glory of the Imperial House itself 
is proclaimed in a manner as foreign to the Japanese of 
today as to ourselves: “Turning to human relations, 
Japanese clan morality in its purified form — namely, that 
which is based upon the consciousness of the Imperial 
House as the supreme head of all clans — manifests itself 
in the Manyoshu in spontaneous sentiments of the loveli- 
est kind, giving the Anthology its chief distinction.” 
During the war years of 1941-45, the “spirit of the 
Manyoshu" was constantly invoked by literary men. 
They meant by the phrase worship of the Emperor and 
an insistence on “pure Japanese” virtues untainted by 
foreign influence or by the over-refined, effeminate senti- 
ments displayed in later poetry. As a result of the defeat 
of Japan in 1945, the Manyoshu acquired still another 
meaning: this time it was acclaimed as a “democratic” 
anthology that was given its chief distinction by the 
poetry of the common people (or of the humbler ranks 

of the nobility), unlike subsequent anthologies filled 
with jejune compositions by the decadent courtiers. 

The poetry of the Manyoshu is sufficiently varied and 
abundant to afford corroborative evidence for all these 
theses, but though each is tenable as an interpretation 
of part of the work, it cannot be accepted as a judgment 
of the whole. The compilers of this edition, emphasizing 
the “cheerfulness” of an age when the Imperial family 
ruled without interference, declared that “the prevailing 
atmosphere is happy, bright and peaceful.’’ Yet surely 
the “Dialogue on Poverty’’ by Yamanoe Okura (p. xo5) 
offers unmistakable evidence that, whatever conditions 
may have prevailed at the court, all was not joy and 
light in the villages The Introduction does not dwell 
on the darker aspect of the Manyoshu any more than 
postwar interpreters of its “democratic” character 
choose to examine, say, Hitomaro’s profound devotion 
to the Imperial House. Again, such an assertion as “But 
filial piety, so sincere, intense and instinctive as shown 
in the Manyo poems is not likely to be duplicated by 
any other people and under any other social order” is 
certainly open to challenge, if not to being dismissed 
outright as absurd But this nostalgic view of a distant 
golden age deserves our attention still, if only as a tradi- 
tional, persistent Japanese interpretation of the ultimate 
meaning of the Manyoshu. Even with respect to poetics 
a preconception that the Manyoshu , in contrast to the 
artificial elegance of later Japanese poetry, is marked by 
a “genuineness of thought” unmarred by vanity or 
frivolity led the authors of the Introduction to discount 
technique as a major criterion of poetic excellence, and 
to dismiss as “a simple form of word-play” the highly 
complicated kakekotoba (pivot-words), which resemble 
less an ordinary pun than the portmanteau language of 
Finnegan’s Wake 1 

It might seem, in the light of the shortcomings of this 
Introduction, at least from a contemporary point of 

view, that an entirely new one is desirable Certainly 
recent theories which trace the origin of the choka (long 
poem) to religious observances that were intended to 
quiet the souls of the dead by reciting their deeds on 
earth, or which suggest what the original functions of 
the “envoy” may have been, deserve attention. But 
although it is of urgent importance that the fruits of 
modern Japanese scholarship be introduced to Western 
readers, it clearly would be unfair to the translators of 
this edition to change arbitrarily the introduction which 
they deemed appropriate to their splendid translations 
It has seemed preferable, both out of respect for the book 
as originally conceived, and for the sake of the valuable 
information presented, to reproduce the Introduction 

The great merit of The Manyoshu, it goes without say- 
ing, is the excellence of the translations. Surely no one 
could read these versions of the great choka by Hitomaro 
or Okura and remain unmoved. They make superb poems 
in English, and are worthy of the originals. Even some 
of the lesser works are so beautifully rendered as to ac- 
quire an importance in translation not often accorded 
them in Japan — for example, the poem from the ‘ ‘Tanabe 
Sakimaro Collection” (pp. 133-34) The selection too is 
exceptionally intelligent, offering not only such poems 
of an immediate emotional or aesthetic appeal as we 
might expect in a volume intended for Western readers, 
but others which, viewed against the subsequent course 
of Japanese poetry, seem atypical, and even un-Japanese. 
These include narratives (e.g.,pp. 190, 116,114), “beggar 
songs” (p. 175), admonitory poems (pp. 154, 178), com- 
memorative odes (pp. 83, 150, 110), and poems prefaced 
by extended prose explanations (pp. 74, 171). These 
poems suggest possibilities of poetic development which 
either never materialized at all in Japan, or else were 
directed (as in the case of the poems with prose prefaces) 
into the domain of prose rather than poetry Another 
feature of the selection is the inclusion of various poems 

on the same themes by men of different times, those 
which echo the themes and language of Hitomaro (e.g , 
pp 41, 115, 313, 46, 117, 133) bear witness not only to 
his enormous influence on later poets but to the inimit- 
able nature of his manner, no matter how slavishly the 
externals were followed 

The original texts were recorded in a script which 
used Chinese characters in an almost perversely difficult 
manner sometimes for meaning, sometimes for sound 
when read as Chinese, sometimes for sound when read 
as Japanese Many problems of decipherment remain to 
be solved, but for the general reader the pronunciations 
favored by Japanese philologists when The Manyoshu 
first appeared in 1940 are still acceptable, though it 
should be borne in mind that some vowel sounds had 
unfamiliar pronunciations in the eighth century, and 
many reconstructions are still tentative The reader who 
wishes to follow the Japanese texts will not be far wrong 
if he consults the Romaji versions in the back of this 

For years The ManycTshu was out of print and virtually 
unobtainable. Its importance and excellence were widely 
recognized, but the difficulties of making arrangements 
with the various parties involved in the publication 
made it seem dubious that a reprinting would ever ap- 
pear. Mr Kensuke Tamai of the Iwanami Publishing 
Company proved especially helpful during the long 
negotiations; indeed, without his efforts the present 
edition might have had to wait for another five years 
or more of tedious correspondence. UNESCO sponsor- 
ship of the new edition also encouraged us to persevere 
despite repeated frustrations. Now that at last this fine 
translation of the greatest of Japanese anthologies has 
been included in the Records of Civilization series, it is 
hoped that The Manyoshu will be accorded by the read- 
ing public its rightful place of distinction among the 
poetic masterpieces of the world. 


The importance of rendering Japanese classics into 
foreign languages as a means of acquainting the world 
with the cultural and spiritual background of Japan can- 
not be over-emphasized. Few Japanese, however, have 
ventured into this field, the work so far having been 
largely undertaken by foreigners. It is in view of this re- 
grettable fact that the Japanese Classics Translation Com- 
mittee was appointed in 1934 by the Nippon Gakujutsu 
Shinkbkai, and the present English version of Manyo 
poems represents the first enterprise of the Committee. 

The Manyoshii has long attracted the attention of foreign 
translators, and there exist several versions of its poems 
in English, French and German, which deserve high com- 
mendation. But the work is unwieldy material to deal 
with, abounding as it does in obscure and difficult pas- 
sages, and the collaboration of a number of scholars and 
specialists is required in order to produce an adequate and 
authoritative translation. For this reason a Special Com- 
mittee, consisting of eminent authorities on the subject, 
was formed. 

The selection of the poems for translation was based 
upon : 1) their poetic excellence, 2) their role in revealing 
the Japanese national spirit and character, and 3) their 
cultural and historical significance. The selected poems 
were first paraphrased by the Special Committee into plain 
Japanese, and the paraphrases drafted by each member 
were submitted to joint sessions of the two Committees 
for criticism and correction. It was with the help of these 
paraphrases that tentative translations were made. These 
were then revised by an eminent English poet, and sub- 
mitted to the Committees in full session for examination 
and final revision. Altogether it has taken four years 

since the work of paraphrasing was begun until the Eng- 
lish version of the last poem was approved. It may be 
added that the preparation of the Romaji text entailed 
no small labour on the part of the Committees when 
investigating and deciding upon the various disputed 

The Committee desire to acknowledge the important 
contributions of Messrs. Haxon Ishii and Shigeyoshi Obata, 
who made the tentative translations, Mr. Ralph Hodgson 
who revised them, and Dr. Sanki Ichikawa who supervised 
all matters relating to the English. Their thanks are due 
also to Assistant Professor Yoshimoto Endo, of the Kyoto 
Imperial University, and Assistant Professor Fumio Tada of 
the Tokyo Imperial University, the former in connection 
with the preparation of the Romaji text and the latter 
with the making of the maps. 

Seiichi Taki 

Chairman of the Japanese Clas- 
sics Translation Committee, The 
Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai* 


December, 1939 

*The Japan Society for the Promotion of Scientific Research. 


FOREWORD, by Donald Keene 






























faces xxx 












General Remarks 

The Manjosbu is the oldest of the early Japanese antholo- 
gies, and by far the greatest both in quantity and quality. 
It consists of 20 books and contains more than 4,000 poems, 
written for the most part by the poets who flourished in the 
Fujiwara and Nara Periods, which coincide with the Golden 
Age of Chinese poetry — the eras of Kaiyuan and Tienpao 
under the T’ang dynasty, when Li Po and Tu Fu lived and 
sang. In England it was the Anglo-Saxon period of 
Beowulf, Caedmon and Cynewulf. The Anthology reflects 
Japanese life and civilization of the 7th and 8th centuries, 
and not only does it record the indigenous thoughts and 
beliefs, but also touches, even if only casually, upon 
Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism imported from the 

The Manjosbu, unlike the Kokin Wakashii (generally known 
as Kokin shu), and other ‘imperial’ anthologies later com- 
piled by the sovereign’s command, is rich in the poems of 
the people as well as in those of the court. It embraces and 
harmonizes both patrician and plebeian elements, and reveals 
the brilliance of city life side by side with the charm of the 
country-side. It forms a happy contrast that many sov- 
ereigns and members of the imperial family are represented 
in the Anthology, together with a great number of excellent 
works by humble and nameless poets. That no less than 
500 poems in the rude dialect of eastern Japan should be 
grouped together at two different places, is an unparalleled 
phenomenon in the ancient anthologies of the Orient. 
These provincial poems consist not only of occasional and 
extempore pieces, but of what appear to be the then cur- 

rent folk-songs, altered or recast in the course of transmis- 
sion from place to place ; and there may also well be a few 
by city poets who composed them in imitation of the rustic 
style. It is to be noted that the strain of folk-song is 
also frequently encountered in the works, especially in the 
amatory verse, of some urban singers. In addition there are 
some ballad-like poems dealing with legendary stories, and 
a small number of humorous pieces, which will not escape the 
reader’s notice. It should be added that the Manjoshu boasts 
a number of women poets representing various strata of 
society from the highest to the humblest. 

Genuineness of thought and feeling pervades all the 
Manyo poems, with scarcely any trace of vanity or frivoli- 
ty. The prevailing atmosphere is happy, bright and peace- 
ful. Frontier-guards departing for distant shores pledge 
their loyalty to the Throne and frankly record their per- 
sonal loves and the sorrows of separation, but never a 
murmur of grudge or resentment. A sanguinary and 
martial spirit is conspicuous by its absence : not a single 
war-song is to be found in the whole collection, there 
being only one poem which contains a passage describing 
a battle. Those who compare the Manjoshu with the Shi 
King (* Book of Songs ’), supposed to have been compiled 
by Confucius, generally begin with the first poems of the 
respective anthologies — the one by the Emperor Yuryaku 
and the other regarding the consort of a Chinese king of 
the Chou dynasty. No matter what may be the alleged 
allegorical virtue of the Chinese poem, no one will fail to 
discover in the Japanese piece an artistic masterpiece, 
combining sincerity with dignity, and elegance with 
pastoral simplicity — a charming revelation of the close in- 
timacy and friendliness that characterized the relationship 
between sovereign and subject in ancient Japan. It is 
scarcely necessary to say that the pervading spirit of the 
Manjoshu is the Japanese spirit of genuine simplicity and 

The Manjoshu with its infinite variety and the intrinsic 


value of its superb poetry occupies a foremost place 
in the history of Oriental literature. In quality it 
stands inferior to none of the numerous Chinese collec- 
tions of verse. In quantity it can compare with the Greek 
Anthology , surpassing the latter in pure lyricism, and in its 
ardour and vigour of spirit, probably due to the fact that 
the Greek epigrams are the products of a decadent civiliza- 
tion, while the Manyo poems are the flower of a culture 
at its zenith. Thus the importance of the Manyoshu in 
world literature cannot be gainsaid. 

The name ‘ Man-yo-shu ,’ though often translated as 
£ Collection of a Myriad Leaves,’ is authoritatively in- 
terpreted to mean ‘ Collection for a Myriad Ages.’ No 
name more fitting could have been chosen to indicate the 
faith and the blessing with which the Anthology was be- 
queathed to posterity and to the world. 

The fact that the Manyoshu consists of 20 books has set 
a precedent for the majority of later imperial anthologies. 
In its manner of classification and arrangement also it has 
provided, to a certain extent, a model for later collections 
which followed the method used in some books of the 
Manyoshu. In the number of its poems, however, the 
Manyoshu exceeds all the imperial anthologies of later 
periods. According to the Kokka Taikan (1st edition, 
1 90 1-2), the popular reprint of all the old anthologies, in 
which the poems are numbered in the order they appear 
in each original collection, the Manyoshu contains 4,516 
poems. This figure can be reduced slightly if the dupli- 
cations and variants are subtracted, so that 4,500 is com- 
monly given as the actual number of the poems in the 
Manyoshu , while the poets whose names are either mention- 
ed or ascertainable, are about 450 in all. 


It is impossible to ascertain how and when the compilation 
of the Manyoshu was completed in the form in which it has 


been handed down to this day. It may, however, be safely 
said that the collection came into being some time during 
the late Nara Period — the latter half of the 8th century. 
Of course the entire 20 books were not compiled system- 
atically, nor at the same time. Most likely a few of them 
were compiled early in the century, which served as a 
nucleus to which were added later — at least on two different 
occasions — the remaining books, while the entire collection 
was subjected to revision at frequent intervals before the 
Anthology assumed its present form. That is to say, it 
required a rather complicated process extending over half 
a century to compile the Manydshu in 20 books as we now 
have it. 

There existed no definite principle of compilation. The 
standard of selection varied according to individual com- 
pilers ; nor was the manner of classification and arrangement 
uniform. The great poet Yakamochi, of the illustrious 
clan of Otomo, is generally regarded as the last man who 
had a hand in the compilation of the entire collection. 
Yakamochi, who was involved in various political incidents 
after reaching middle age, died in 785 in adverse circum- 
stances, and his clan itself declined steadily down to the 
end of the 9th century. In the meantime, the vogue for 
Chinese prose and poetry took possession of court circles 
for over xoo years from the late Nara Period to the early 
Heian Period, during which Japanese poetry was more or 
less neglected. It is probably owing to these circumstances 
that the Manydshu , still lacking the intended final touch, 
was handed down in an unfinished form. 

Of the sources of the Manydshu , historical works such as 
the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki are mentioned in the book 
itself. In addition, collections of the works of individual 
poets, miscellaneous papers, memoirs and diaries were 
drawn upon, as well as poems preserved only through oral 
transmission. Evidence is scattered throughout the An- 
thology of the efforts of the compilers to gather material 
from books and fragmentary documents, and other available 


sources, both public and private, old and new. In some 
cases the compiler gives, together with a poem, its original 
source, reference matter, or even his personal opinion of 
the poem itself. Because the task of compilation was not 
completed, the Anthology contains here and there indica- 
tions of the process of selection and the traces of the 
conscientious labours of the compilers, which constitute 
a unique and interesting feature not found in the later 
anthologies. Repetition of the same poems and inclusion 
of slightly varied versions in different parts of the book are 
also another characteristic quality of the Manjoshu. 

One of the most important source books is the R uiju- 
Karin (Forest of Classified Verses), mentioned elsewhere, 
which was compiled by Yamanoe Okura — a pioneer of 
Manyo poetry as well as a profound student of Chinese 
literature. This book having long since been lost, nothing 
is known as to its form or the number of books into which 
it was divided, but from its title we may suppose the poems 
to have had some sort of classification. There are reasons 
to conjecture that this anthology may have served as a 
model for at least the first two books of the Manjoshu. The 
name ‘ Karin ’ (Forest of Verses) appears in an Imperial 
Household document dated 751, a quarter of a century 
after the death of Okura, though it remains a question 
whether or not the book is to be identified with the Kuiju- 
Karin. Another anthology on which the Manjoshu draws 
heavily is Kokashu (Collection of Ancient Poems), which 
was in all likelihood an anthology of a general character. 
Besides these, the Manjoshu mentions four individual 
anthologies, known respectively as the Hitomaro, Kana- 
mura, Mushimaro and Sakimaro Collection, but it is im- 
possible to ascertain whether each was the collected work 
of the poet whose name it bears, or included poems by 
others ; or whether it was simply a collection of poems 
compiled by the poet. 

As a general rule, an individual poem or a group of 
poems in the Manjoshu is preceded by the name of the author 


and a preface, and is frequently followed by a note. In 
these prefaces and notes are given the occasion, the date 
and place of composition, the source book or the manner 
of transmission, or anecdotes or legends concerning the 
authors or the poems. Occasionally in the notes the 
compilers’ comments and criticisms are given. All the 
prefaces and notes and dates are written in Chinese. In 
some of the books the letters and introductions in Chinese 
prose, sometimes quite lengthy, which were sent together 
with the poems, are included. Even Chinese poems, 
though this is rare, find their way into these pages. 

The texts of the poems are transcribed in Chinese char- 
acters. The syllabaries called kana which came into being 
a century or so later, were still at an incipient stage in their 
development. Accordingly, in writing Japanese poems, 
Chinese characters were borrowed for their phonetic values, 
or they were used ideographically in their original sense. 
Sometimes the first method was employed exclusively in 
copying a poem, but more often the two methods were used 
simultaneously. The so-called ‘ Manyo-gana ’ are the Chi- 
nese characters which were commonly used as phonograms 
in the Manyoshu , from which the present system of kana was 
evolved. Besides the above two methods, Chinese charac- 
ters were frequently used in playful and fantastic combi- 
nations like puzzles, to denote syllables or words. The 
problems arising from the difficulty of deciphering them 
in the last-mentioned instances, and more often from 
uncertainty as to the exact reading of the characters used 
ideographically, have been gradually solved in subsequent 
ages, but there remain certain words and passages of which 
the reading is still disputed among specialists. 

In this connection it may be pointed out that while the 
Manydshu had necessarily to be clothed in a Chinese garb, so 
to speak, in the absence of any other system of writing, the 
very idea of making such a collection of poems was in 
all probability inspired by the examples imported from 
China, where the work of compiling anthologies had early 


developed, and where in later ages it grew to be almost a na- 
tional industry of unparalleled magnitude. The Shi King of 
Confucian canon, already mentioned, and the famous Chu 
Tsu, a collection of metrical compositions, compiled toward 
the end of the first century b. c., had long been known in 
Japan by the time the first two books of the Manyoshu are 
conjectured to have been completed. Later works, especial- 
ly anthologies made in the 6th century, were widely read 
by Japanese. Of these the most important was the Wen 
Hsuan in 30 books, containing both prose and poetry, 
which was popular in and around the court of Nara, and 
which came to be the standard text-book of Chinese litera- 
ture in Japan after the 8th century. The Yiitai Sinyung, 
another collection of elegant and somewhat voluptuous 
lyrics, which appears to have been privately cherished, may 
also be mentioned. It is significant that of the Manyo 
poets, more than twenty are known as accomplished 
versifiers in Chinese, and that a small collection of Chinese 
poems composed by Japanese was published in 75 1 under 
the title of Kaifuso, preceding by several years the supposed 
date of the completion of the Manyoshu. The wonder is that 
at a time- when Japan had yet to possess a writing system of 
her own, and when the literature of the continent, as well 
as its arts and crafts, were being bodily transplanted and 
assiduously cultivated, there should have emerged the 
Manyoshu — a monumental collection of native verse in the 
purest Yamato speech. For an explanation of this point, 
the reader is referred to Part II, in which the political and 
social background of the Manyo age and the life and the 
spirit of the nation are dealt with at length. 

Versification and Rhetorical Devices 

Many 5 versification consists in combining in varied ways 
several or more lines, which as a rule are made up of five 
or seven syllables. The most prevalent form in the 
Manyoshu , which accounts for more than ninety per cent of 


the total number of its poems and which still flourishes 
to-day as the form par excellence of the national poetry of 
Japan, is the tanka — a verse of five lines of 5 - 7 - 5 - 7-7 sylla- 
bles. On the other hand, the so-called ‘ long poem ’ or 
choka consists of alternate lines of 5 and 7 syllables, finishing 
with an extra 7-syllable line. Though called ‘ long,’ the 
longest choka in the Manyoshu does not exceed 150 lines. 
The Anthology contains some 260 choka , including many 
masterpieces by Kakinomoto Hitomaro, the £ Saint of 
Poetry.’ The presence of these poems, unsurpassed in 
number as well as in quality by later anthologies, constitutes 
an outstanding feature of the Manyoshu. Generally speak- 
ing, the choka is accompanied by one or two, or even several, 
short poems called banka, somewhat in the manner of an 
‘ envoy,’ summarizing, or supplementing, or elaborating 
on, the contents of the main poem. The word banka 
meaning £ verse that repeats,’ was derived from Chinese 
classical poetry, in which the term is applied to a similar 
auxiliary verse. Though such repetition was not unknown 
in ancient Japanese poetry, its development and standardi- 
zation in the Manyo age may have been due to Chinese 
influence. A third verse-form is called sedoka — a name 
presumably of Japanese invention — which repeats twice 
a tercet of 5 - 7 - 7 . This form fell into desuetude in later 
ages, the Manyoshu itself containing only about 60 examples. 
There is yet another curious form called £ Buddha’s Foot 
Stone Poem’ by virtue of the fact that there are extant 21 
poems of this type commemorating a stone monument 
bearing Buddha’s foot-mark, which was erected in 752 in 
the precincts of the Yakushi-ji temple near Nara. The 
poem consists of 6 lines of 5 - 7 - 5 - 7 - 7-7 syllables, and only 
a few specimens are found in the Manyoshu. Finally it may 
be mentioned that there is in Book VIII (Orig. No. 1635) 
a brief form of renga ( £ poems-in-series ’) which became 
extremely popular in the 14th century and after, and in the 
composition of which a number of persons participated. 

Japanese verse is generally based on the combination of 


syllables in fives and sevens. It takes no account of the 
question of stress, pitch, or length of syllable ; nor is rhyme 
employed for poetic effect. This is an inevitable conse- 
quence of the phonetic system of the Japanese language, 
in which, as far as concerns its standard form, known since 
the beginning of history as the Yamato language, all syllables 
end in vowels, and there is no clear distinction between 
accented and unaccented, or long and short syllables, thus 
rendering impossible a metrical system based upon rhyme 
or accent. Thus, the number of syllables, which serves 
usually as only one of the bases of metrical structure in 
other languages, has become the sole principle of Japanese 

Of the different rhetorical devices, alliteration, which is 
so conspicuous in old Germanic poetry, is employed 
consciously or unconsciously, and frequently with consider- 
able effect in the Manyoshu, as it is also in all forms of Japa- 
nese poetry, both ancient and modern. On the other hand, 
parallelism, as it is found in Shinto litanies and more com- 
monly in Chinese verse, is used invariably in choka , often 
with consummate skill. 

Among the other devices in Japanese poetry, what are 
known as kake kotoba (pivot-words), makura kotoba (pillow- 
words) and joshi (introductory verses) are the most peculiar, 
the effect of which depends upon a subtle association 
produced by similarity or identity of words in sound or 
sense. Of the three, the kake kotoba is the simplest, being 
a form of word-play which, however, occupies in Japanese 
poetry a legitimate and important place. 

The ‘ pillow-word ’ modifies the word that follows it in 
various ways, either through sound or sense association. 
As a poetic technique the use of pillow-words had been 
practised from the earliest times so that by the Many5 age 
many of them had become conventionalized, while others 
were obscure and unintelligible. There are pillow-words 
which may be construed in more than one way, and there 
are some which invoke images extraneous and incongruous, 


confusing to the uninitiated reader. But where they are 
used properly, and in a proper place, the effect is extremely 
felicitous. The nearest counterpart in Occidental poetry 
is the ‘ permanent epithet ’ in Homer. But the pillow- 
word is far more free, daring and imaginative. It is not 
necessarily an adjective, but may be an attributive form of 
a verb, a noun in the possessive or objective case, and so 
on, and considerable freedom and ingenuity is shown in its 
application. Thus, ‘ grass for pillow ’ is natural and ap- 
propriate as a pillow- word for £ journey/ reminding one of 
the hardships of a traveller in primitive ages, but where the 
word ayusa yumi (birchwood bow) is applied to the noun 
haru (spring time), the connection cannot be established 
except through another word haru, a verb meaning * to 
string/ The phrase akane sasu (madder-root coloured) 
for the ‘ morning sun ’ may be applied by gradual trans- 
ference of association to £ sunlight/ £ day/ £ purple ’ and 
finally even to £ rosy-cheeked youth/ Taku tsunu (fibre 
rope) is made to serve as a pillow-word for Shiragi, because 
the taku fibre is white, and the Japanese word £ white/ 
shiro or shira, is partly homophonous with the name of the 
Korean state. These are just a few examples. While 
many of these pillow-words had been, as has already been 
stated, partly conventionalized by the 8th century and 
handed down to poets as stock phrases, their vitality had by 
no means been exhausted. In fact, it appears that there was 
still room for the invention of new pillow-words, for the 
Manydshu contains a number of epithets not found in poems 
of earlier date. 

The joshi or £ introductory verse ’ is based on somewhat 
similar principles, but it is longer and admits of greater free- 
dom in application than the pillow-word. More than 5 syl- 
lables in length, the introductory verse modifies the con- 
tents of the succeeding verse, usually by way of metaphor. 
For instance, in Poem No. 205, the lines describing a warrior 
standing with his bow, etc., constitute an introductory verse 
to the Bay of Matokata, the target ( mato ) he is aiming at be- 


ing partly homophonous with the name of the bay. Here be- 
tween the introductory verse and the main part of the poem 
there is no connection whatever, either actual or logical, 
and their juxtaposition may appear unnatural and perplex- 
ing ; but such abrupt transition from one image to another, 
without destroying the latent association, is one of the 
characteristics of Japanese poetry, in which lies also the 
secret of the technique of modern haiku. Without investiga- 
tion of such points it is perhaps not possible to elucidate 
the psychological foundation and historical development of 
Japanese poetry. 

The characteristic rdle of the introductory verse is to 
invoke images lying outside the mental vista of the reader. 
After having carried him aloft into an unsuspected realm, 
it suddenly but gently sets him down in another world 
(Nos. 205 , 316, etc.). The very absence of actual connection 
or co-relation between the modifier and the word modified 
is what makes this form of oblique comparison so effective. 
Since it is the way of the Japanese language to introduce a 
comparison with no connective term corresponding to ‘ as ’ 
or ‘ like,’ the blending of different ideas and images is 
achieved in a most direct manner and examples of the 
felicitous employment of the introductory verse abound 
throughout the Manyoshu. 

Individual Books 

In order to indicate the general appearance and composi- 
tion of the Manyoshu as a whole, it may be useful to give here 
a brief account of the individual books, their characteristics, 
and the periods with which they are concerned. 

The first two books are sometimes regarded as collec- 
tions compiled by imperial order, so carefully are they edited 
as to matter and form. Book I contains poems written 
between the reign of the Emperor Yuryaku (456-79) ^ 
the early Nara Period {circa 712), whereas Book II covers a 
more extended period, with poems believed to have been 


written in the reign of the Emperor Nintoku (3x3-99) 
and those dated as late as 7x5. 16 choka are found in the 

former and 19 in the latter. In both books the poems gener- 
ally are arranged in chronological order, and Hitomaro is 
the poet most copiously represented, while imperial pro- 
gresses constitute the favourite theme of Book I. Though 
small in size as compared with others, these two books are 
of great importance for their poetry of the so-called ‘ Early 
Palace Style.’ Book III covers the long interval between the 
reign of the Empress Suiko (592-628) and the 16th year of 
Tempyo (744), including the brilliant periods of Fujiwara 
and Nara. In contrast to its predecessors, which contain 
large numbers of poems by sovereigns, princes and princes- 
ses of the blood, this book includes more works by courtiers. 
Here we encounter for the first time the poems of Akahito. 
Tabito and Yakamochi and the illustrious company of poets 
centreing about the Otomo clan also make their appearance. 
Book IV, with the exception of a few earlier works, consists 
largely of poems of the Nara Period, especially those of 
Tabito and his group and those exchanged between young 
Yakamochi and his lady-loves ; while Book V consists of 
poems exchanged between Tabito and his friends, to which 
are added the works of Okura, covering the years be- 
tween 728 and 733, and containing a number of important 
choka, besides verse and prose in Chinese. Book VI, cov- 
ering the years between 723 and 744, is more or less 
identical with Books IV and VIII as regards period and 
poets. It contains as many as 27 choka, and is distinguish- 
ed by the inclusion of a large number of poems of travel, 
of imperial progresses and poems composed on the occa- 
sion of banquets. Book VII, like Books X, XI and XII, con- 
tains anonymous poems which may be ascribed roughly to a 
period extending from the reign of the Empress Jitb (686 — 
96) to that of the Empress Gemmyo (71 5-23). Many poems 
from the * Hitomaro Collection ’ are included, while the 
inclusion of 26 sedoka forms a notable feature of this book. 
Book VIII, as stated above, resembles Book IV, the earliest 


poem in the collection being a tanka by the Emperor Jomei 
(629-41), while the latest are dated 743-45 . The poems are 
divided into £ miscellaneous poems 5 and ‘ epistolary poems ’ 
(largely amatory), and each kind is subdivided under the 
heads of the four seasons — a form of classification which 
served as a model for later imperial anthologies. Book IX, 
except for a single tanka by the Emperor Yuryaku, contains 
poems written between the reign of the Emperor Jomei and 
744, which are drawn largely from the Hitomaro and Mushi- 
maro Collections ; it also includes 22 choka and many on 
legendary subjects. Book X, while consisting of anonym- 
ous poems, as does Book VII, appears to include more of 
later work — many pieces being delicately and beautifully 
finished. Its nature poems reveal a new tendency, as in the 
case of those dealing with gardens. Poems in Books XI 
and XII, which are also anonymous, may be ascribed to the 
Fujiwara and the early Nara Periods, and many of them are 
in the style of folk-songs. Book XIII is a unique reposi- 
tory of 67 choka of unknown authorship. Although many 
of these may be traced to the transitional period between 
the age of the Kojtki and the Nihonshoki and the Manyo age, 
there are included poems of unmistakably later origin, so 
that it is difficult to ascribe the book as a whole to any 
definite period. 

Book XIV is a collection of the so-called c Eastland 
poems,’ of which neither the authors nor the date of compi- 
lation can be ascertained, but which stand apart as provincial 
poetry, unique in language and style. Book XV contains 
among others a group of sea poems written by the members 
of the embassy despatched to Korea in 736 and a series of 
63 impassioned love poems exchanged about the year 740 
between the courtier Nakatomi Yakamori and his sweet- 
heart Sanu Chigami. Book XVI is distinguished by its 
inclusion of legendary poems and humorous verse, cover- 
ing a period from the reign of the Emperor Mommu (697- 
706) to the Tempyo era. It is generally conjectured that 
these first 16 books were put more or less into their present 


shape by Yakamochi. Some scholars believe that certain 
books, especially Book XIV, were completed some time 
after the year 771. Though no final conclusion has yet 
been reached in this matter, it is evident that there is a gap 
between the first 16 books and the 4 following. 

Books XVII- XX appear to be personal compilations 
made by Yakamochi of his own poems and those of others 
about him. All the poems are of the Tempyo era — the 
glorious years of the Nara Period : Book XVII covers the 
years from 730 to 748 ; Book XVIII, from 748 to the early 
part of 750 ; and Book XIX, thence to the beginning of 
753. These 3 books contain altogether 47 choka, some of 
which are of great literary and historical value. It should 
be noted that the works of Yakamochi constitute the prin- 
cipal contents of these books — especially Book XIX, of 
which fully two-thirds of the poems are his ; and while 
there are numerous exchange and banquet poems in the 
conventional vein, there are also found many bom of pure 
creative impulse. It is this book which contains the majority 
of Yakamochi’s masterpieces, and provides the richest 
source for the study of his poetic genius. Book XX covers 
the years from 753 to 759, and contains many banquet 
poems. There are also poems composed by the frontier- 
guards — brave Eastlanders who went to defend the coast 
of Kyushu —and their parents and wives, expressing their 
patriotism and genuine personal emotions. The name, 
native province and district, status and rank of each 
soldier are carefully set down, together with his verse. 
In conjunction with the other group of Eastland poems 
by anonymous singers in Book XIV, these poems are 
of exceptional interest to the reader. The year 759 is the 
latest date mentioned in the Manjoshii, and is attached to 
the last poem in Book XX, written by Yakamochi, at that 
time Governor of Inaba Province. It is a date that provides 
a clue to fixing the time when the whole Manjoshii was final- 
ly completed. 



Political and Social Background 

Behind the Manjoshii there looms the epochal Reform of 
Taika (646), which brought in its train, in rapid succession, 
a series of political and social changes, progressive and 
reactionary. Some acquaintance, therefore, with the signifi- 
cance and far-reaching influence of that reform is indispens- 
able to a proper appreciation of the Manvo poetry. 

From the beginning of history Japanese society was 
built upon a patriarchal foundation. The unit in the system 
was the uji, or clan, consisting of a group of families headed 
by the main house and bound into a compact and well-order- 
ed community by the ties of common ancestry. Each clan 
was under the control and leadership of a chief called ujz- 
no-kami , and the members of the clan were known as uji- 
bito or clansfolk. Generally a clan embraced within its 
system alien people working for it as serfs and enjoying its 
protection. These were called kakibe. As is usual in an 
agricultural society, the clans possessed lands of their own, 
which they exploited with the help of the man-power at 
their disposal, so that even economically each formed a sort 
of commonwealth independent of the others. When thus 
stated, it would appear that the social order of old Japan was 
nothing but a primitive and decentralized one that had 
grown up naturally on the soil. But such was not the case. 
Though there were numerous clans, with their three ‘ di- 
visions ’ according to ancestry — (1) scions of the Imperial 
House, (2) descendants of the imperial followers or of the 
aboriginal tribal chiefs who had submitted to the imperial 
rule, and (3) descendants of alien settlers, — they were official- 
ly recognized only by virtue of their respective services to 
the Throne ; and, theoretically as well as actually, they 
formed a vast and unified society with the Imperial House 
as its centre. 


The reality of the imperial prestige and power lay in the 
very principle of this clan system. The emperor was the 
supreme head of all clans. Every man born in Japan owed 
allegiance to him, served and obeyed him as he would serve 
and obey the chief of his own clan, and looked up to the 
Imperial House as the head of his own family. With a 
sovereign of unbroken lineage reigning above, Japan’s clan 
system formed a great family state, transcending the rivalry 
and strife of individual clans. Under this system the chiefs 
of various clans were subjects of the Imperial House for 
which they performed their respective hereditary functions, 
some as priests or ministers of state, others as soldiers or 

It should be noted, however, that the system permitted the 
authority of an individual clan chief to intervene between 
the people and the Imperial House, for the latter ruled 
directly only over state lands and the people living thereon, 
while the rest of the country and its population were subject 
to the Throne through the clan chiefs. And wherever the 
chief of a clan controlled a wide domain and large numbers 
of clans-folk and kakibe, there was likely to emerge an in- 
dependent local regime which cut off the people from the 
Imperial House. Moreover, greed for power and wealth 
on the one hand, and the growth of population and land 
development enterprises on the other, led to a struggle 
between clans for territory and serfs and to the evil practice 
of annexation, which destroyed the peace and stability of 
the country. In fact, from the 6th to the middle of the 7th 
century, this tendency became more and more pronounced. 
The lands of the weaker clans were annexed or absorbed by 
the more influential families. There were quarrels among 
powerful houses over spoils, especially in connection with 
the newly conquered territories in Korea. The period 
was marked by deep social unrest and frequent political 
upheavals, culminating in the rise of the Sogas, father and 
son, who conspired to augment their own power at the 
expense of the Imperial House. It was this situation that 


called for the Reform of Taika. 

What had to be done at that time was clear. It was neces- 
sary in the first place to check the domination of the mighty 
families at court and in the country, and to eliminate the 
excesses of intermediate powers so as to enable the people 
at large to enjoy the direct rule of the Imperial House ; and 
in the second place, to suppress the practice of annexation, 
to strengthen the national finance and to promote the 
welfare of the people. The need of these remedial steps was 
well realized without any prompting from abroad. At the 
same time, as regards the actual procedure, Japan could, 
and did, learn much from China. 

Some historians call this period the ‘ age of imitation of 
China under the Sui and the T’ang dynasties,’ and in a 
sense they are justified. The significance of the Reform of 
Taika could never be grasped without taking into account 
its continental elements. It should, nevertheless, be re- 
membered that those elements were adopted only in so far 
as they suited the conditions in Japan, and moreover that 
it was not a case of blind imitation, for the reforms were 
carried on with an ardour and ambition which not only 
equalled but surpassed the examples set by the continent. 

Japan’s political and cultural contact with the Asiatic 
continent was first established through Korea. The Japa- 
nese-Korean intercourse, which may probably be traced 
back to remotest times, becomes a matter of recorded 
history with the expedition of the Empress Jingu to the 
peninsula in the year 200 (according to the Nihonshoki). 
For several centuries subsequently Korea proved politically 
a source of perpetual trouble for Japan, but from the cul- 
tural standpoint that country rendered a signal service by 
acting as an intermediary for the introduction of Confucian- 
ism along with Chinese arts and letters, and also by sending 
her own scholars and craftsmen, and large numbers of 
immigrants. In the middle of the 6 th century the King of 
Kudara, a state in the south-western part of Korea, pre- 
sented to the Japanese court an image of Buddha together 


with some Buddhist scriptures and ritual furnishings. 
This was an event that marked a decisive stage in the history 
of Japanese cultural contact with the continent. 

With the advent of Buddhism there developed a new 
situation that had two important aspects. One was that 
this sudden confrontation of the native cult of Shinto, the 
backbone of Japanese life, by a strange faith from abroad, 
had considerable repercussions. So violent was the shock 
that it caused an open breach between the new and the 
old schools of thought and even produced a movement 
among the conservatives against the importation of foreign 
culture in general. The other was that the continental 
culture now entering Japan had assumed a cosmopolitan 
character, considerably widening the field of Japanese 
vision. Concerning the former of these two aspects more 
will be said later. Here a few words will be added regard- 
ing the latter. 

In the year 5 89 China was unified under the Sui dynasty 
— China that had been torn for many centuries, during 
which the so-called ‘ Three Kingdoms ’ and the 4 Six Dy- 
nasties ’ rose and fell. It is recorded that during these 
periods of internecine strife, bands of war-stricken Chinese 
sought refuge in Japan, but it appears improbable that any 
attempt was made on the part of Japan to establish friendly 
intercourse with any of the Chinese states for the sake of 
cultural benefits. There was, of course, prior to those 
periods, the mighty empire of the Hans ; but of its civiliza- 
tion, only a meagre stream, trickling through Korea, had 
entered Japan. But when under the Sui a new China 
emerged, reunited and re-vitalized, and a swelling tide of 
Asiatic culture began to sweep the continent, Japan, with 
new vistas opened up to her by Buddhism, was in a fer- 
ment, eagerly seeking to import the continental civiliza- 
tion. The movement was headed by the great and pro- 
gressive national leader — Prince Shotoku (d. 622). In 607 
Ono Imoko was despatched as ambassador to the court of 
the Sui emperor. Friendly intercourse with China being 






thus formally inaugurated, Japan herself joined in the 
broad current of Asiatic civilization. 

The civilization of the Sui dynasty and its successor, the 
T’ang, was characterized by its cosmopolitanism. Mili- 
tarily and politically the Han empire, whose armies marched 
far into foreign lands and whose government effectively 
held the conquered territories, was also cosmopolitan. 
But the Han culture possessed few international elements. 
It is this essentially Chinese civilization of the Han race 
that was preserved and even enhanced by the Three King- 
doms and the Six Dynasties, notably by the state of Wei in 
the north, and by the states of Tsi and Liang in the south, 
and that had found its way to Korea, and thence to Japan. 
The Sui and T’ang, showing a far more liberal and tolerant 
attitude towards alien races and alien cultures, proceeded 
to create a new cosmopolitan fusion of all cultural elements. 

Military campaigns opened new routes of travel and 
commerce. Products of Persia and India and their arts 
and religions were brought into China through Central 
Asia. Even traces of Graeco-Roman civilization from 
farther west were discernible. Above all, Buddhism played 
an important part in stimulating the creation of a new cul- 
ture as it brought not only its tenets and creeds but also 
the music, arts and learning of the countries which were 
situated along its long road to China. Thus, contact with 
the Sui and T’ang meant that Japan was able to be in touch 
with the rest of the world as far as was possible at that 

The Sui dynasty, which fell in less than 30 years, was 
followed by the T’ang dynasty, under which the new 
civilization continued to make swift strides toward its 
consummation and usher in the golden age of China. Such 
a brilliant cultural progress could not have been achieved 
without political and economic stability. Naturally, atten- 
tion was first focussed upon the centralization of power 
with a view to reuniting the country that had suffered so 
long from being a house divided. In order to execute this 


policy, men of talent were required to serve in various 
Government posts. Accordingly, an elaborate system of 
civil service examinations was inaugurated. Something 
like a socialization of land was also adopted, to ensure 
revenue from taxation and to put national finance upon a 
solid basis. The so-called ‘ Land-allotment Law ’ which 
was promulgated in this connection was designed to render 
plastic the private title to immovable property and to effect 
wider and more equitable distribution by prohibiting per- 
petual ownership and forestalling unrestricted expansion 
of large estates. It was these and other laws and institutions 
of the early T’ang that supplied Japan with valuable models 
and examples. 

Centralization of power was also one of the crying needs 
of Japan for which the country with its patriarchal system 
headed by the Imperial House had long been prepared. 
The principle of government by a central authority was 
already there, deep-rooted like a religious faith in the minds 
of the people. What was necessary was to remove the 
noxious incrustations of later centuries that had obstructed 
its operation. Consequently, in Japan the desired reform 
was accomplished far more smoothly and thoroughly than 
in China. The first task of the reformers was the elimina- 
tion of the extraordinary political powers and economic 
privileges enjoyed by the great clans which had grown 
semi-independent of the Imperial House, and of which the 
Soga family was the most powerful, arrogant and unscru- 
pulous. In the 4th year of the Empress Kogyoku’s reign 
(645) the Soga usurpers were put to death, Emishi, the 
father, at his home and Iraka, the son, in the Council Hall 
of the Palace. The heroes of this historic drama which 
paved the way for the Taika Reform, were the Prince 
Naka-no- 5 e (later, the Emperor Tenji) and Kamako (later, 
Fujiwara Kamatari) of the priestly clan of Nakatomi. In 
the same year the system of eras was established, to the 
first of which the name Taika was given. Hence the name 
of the series of reforms which were begun with that year. 


Thus the first obstacle to the proposed reform was re- 
moved, but the real work still lay ahead. After having 
disposed of the obnoxious clan system, what new order 
was to be set up in its place ? What steps were to be taken 
to facilitate the transition from the old order to the new ? 
These were large and difficult problems. However, judg- 
ing from the manner in which the Prince embarked upon a 
series of innovations immediately after destroying the Soga 
family, it may be that his programme had been carefully 
formulated in advance in consultation with Kamatari and 
other advisers. Be that as it may, the principal features 
of the reform were as follows. All free citizens, instead of 
being left under the control of their clan chief, were made 
subject to, and protected by, the Central Government. All 
lands were turned over to the Government and re-distribut- 
ed among individuals according to their family standing, 
their services to the state, and their needs of a livelihood. 
The country was newly divided into provinces, provinces 
into districts, and local administration was put in the 
hands of officials appointed by the Central Government. 
Hereditary office-holding was considerably curbed to make 
room for the appointment of the most talented to govern- 
ment posts. Such drastic innovations were bound to be 
attended by profound and alarming social changes. Prac- 
tical statesmanship was obliged to face the question of how 
to adjust to the new age the old forces that still remained 
unextinguished. The Government instituted a new system 
of court ranks and grades and conferred various caps and 
titles upon persons of distinguished lineage, or appointed 
sons of great families to offices and provided them with 
emoluments from the national treasury, in an attempt to 
compensate the clans for the loss of their former powers 
and prosperity. Although such measures tended neces- 
sarily to obscure the principle underlying the socialization 
of land or the mobilization of the country’s best talents, 
the prevailing spirit of progress was not so weak as to be 
checked by mere compromises of this kind. Those nobles 

-without ability, although some out of sheer discontent 
offered a feeble resistance, had no alternative but to follow 
the road of steady decline, while new forces with a new 
spirit gained ascendancy and proceeded to build up a new 
Japan. All such innovations, of course, are bound to be 
attended with excesses. As time passed the new order 
disclosed its maladjustment with reality at various points : 
the Reform of Taika had to be modified and revised in 
many ways according to the actual conditions of the country. 
The earlier part of the Many 5 age, i. e. the three decades 
from 673, when the Emperor Temmu moved the court to 
Asuka, to 710 when the capital was established at Nara by 
the Empress Gemmyb, was a period of political experi- 
ment and innovation. It was in the next 50 years, the 
later Manyo age, that the Reform of Taika was brought to 
a stage of completion, and this period coincides with the 
reign of the T’ang emperor Hsuantsung under whom 
China reached the zenith of her civilization. 

As for the new Japan born of the Taika Reform, its most 
conspicuous aspect was a deep and pervading devotion to 
the Throne and the thorough consolidation of its authority. 
In a way, of course, this was nothing new either in fact or 
in idea, since the Imperial House as political centre was 
a thing as old as Japan itself. What was new was the free 
and untrammelled operation of the old principle now that 
it had been embodied in a proper political frame-work. 
The common people throughout the land, delivered from 
the control of intermediate powers, rejoiced in the direct 
rule of the Imperial House. The newly-awakened sense of 
loyalty in all its freshness and fullness may be perceived on 
almost every page of the Manyo shit . It was a joyful devotion 
arising from the close relationship between sovereign as 
parent and subjects as children — a relationship based upon 
the idea of a great family-state, which was then so forcibly 
projected upon the national consciousness. The clan 
system was not destroyed, but refined and elevated. Each 
clan, rising above its selfish interests, re-discovered its 


raison-d'etre in the light of its obligations to the Imperial 
House. The clansman realized his responsibility to uphold 
the reputation of his ancestors and strove to live and act 
accordingly, as may be readily seen from the works of the 
poets of the Otomo clan. This moral awakening was not 
confined to great families alone : that even the humblest 
people in the provinces were animated by a noble spirit of 
loyalty is amply demonstrated by the poems of the frontier- 

Centralization of power required the maintenance of 
close contact between the capital and the provinces. For 
purposes of efficient local administration it was necessary 
to construct new roads and to develop a courier service, 
posts, ports and other facilities for travel and communica- 
tion. The growing intercourse with the capital meant for 
the provinces a gradual elevation of their culture and living 
standards. Moreover, with the firm establishment of 
internal order and security, and the enhancement of the 
Government’s power and prestige, the borders of the empire 
were extended into remoter regions occupied by untamed 
tribes such as the Ye^o in northern provinces or the Hayato 
in south-eastern Kyushu. Thus, the Many5 age was one of 
unprecedented cultural progress and political expansion. 
Viewed from the present day, what was then actually 
accomplished appears quite small in scale, but its signifi- 
cance is to be discovered in the temper of the ManyS man 
in the course of this expansion and growth. An exuberant 
enthusiasm, a buoyant spirit and a highly imaginative and 
susceptible mind gave to his emotional life a refreshing 
and colourful glow, as of the dawning sky, and produced 
this rich crop of poetry. That there are so many fine 
poems of travel is but an indication of the pioneering nature 
of the age. 

Places which had an important bearing on the Manyo 
poems are, with the exception of the metropolitan area 
surrounding the capital, more or less outlying provinces, 
such as Izumo, Iwami, Koshi, Hitachi, of which the last 


three are associated respectively with Hitomaro, Yakamochi, 
and Mushimaro. The island of Tsukushi, which recalls 
the names of Tabito and Okura, has a wider significance ; 
it invites our attention to Japan’s foreign relations at that 
time and their influence upon the life of the nation. 

The Asiatic continent was not only the motherland of a 
new culture, with which Japan had to keep on good terms, 
but also a conceivable enemy against which she had to 
make military preparations to defend herself. Thus, the 
Government General of the Dazaifu in northern Kyushu, 
which was charged with foreign affairs and the local ad- 
ministration of the island, was also a military centre direct- 
ing the frontier-guards garrisoned along the coast. Nu- 
merous officials plied back and forth along the way between 
the capital and the Dazaifu. The soldiers were obliged to 
spend long years at forlorn outposts on islands or capes 
far from their homes in Eastland : embassies despatched to 
Shiragi (a Korean state in the south-east of the peninsula) 
or to China sometimes passed through the Dazaifu before 
they set out on their perilous journeys across the ocean. 
The envoys to Po-hai (in Manchuria), it should also be 
mentioned, departed from the port of Tsuruga on the Japan 

The sea journey was fraught with dangers, and all the 
more poignant was the sorrow of leave-takings and the 
longing for home. It was due to these circumstances that 
the Many5 age produced hosts of sea poets, such as are 
encountered nowhere else in Japanese literature ; and the 
poems by members of the Embassy to Shiragi found in 
Book XV (Nos. 738-763) afford a most conspicuous in- 
stance of this. On the other hand, there were in the Nara 
Period not a few foreigners who came to Japan on their own 
account, like the c Brahmin Prelate,’ who came from India, 
with an Annamese priest Buttetsu, or Abbot Ganjin of 
China who arrived as a blind man after a series of trying 
hardships at sea, or the nun Rigan (Nos. 388-9) who im- 
migrated from Shiragi and spent the rest of her life in 


modest seclusion as a guest of the Otomo family. 

The fruits of this intercourse were many and varied, rich 
and dazzling. Not only religion and learning were im- 
ported, but also Buddhist sculpture and architecture, 
together with their auxiliary arts and crafts. These gave 
Japan temples and palaces of unheard-of splendour and 
grandeur. Musical instruments , like flutes, drums, gongs 
and cymbals brought from India, Central Asia, China and 
Korea sounded, as it were, the sweet music of the Land of 
Bliss. There arrived cargoes of rare treasures and articles 
of exquisite beauty and workmanship, such as may be seen 
to-day in the Sh 5 so-in (Nara), where have been preserved 
under imperial seal the personal belongings of the Emperor 
Shbmu. No wonder then that on this new rich soil poetry 
blossomed like flowers in spring. It is rather surprising 
that the Manjoshu contains comparatively few allusions to 
these articles of alien cultures and civilizations, but we 
should not overlook the role they had played in creating 
the necessary atmosphere for an efflorescence of poetry. 
It is not difficult to imagine, for instance, with what wonder- 
ment, with what ebullition of enthusiasm and joy the 
Many 5 men hailed the dedication of the Great Buddha of 
the T5dai-ji temple, in 752, which was performed with 
great pomp and magnificence. 

The Manyo age naturally fostered the growth of cities. 
The immemorial custom of removing the court at each 
change of reign was broken, and Nara remained the capital 
for seven successive reigns. There may have been many 
reasons for this, but the growth of the city’s population, 
the permanence of its various establishments, the importance 
of its trade and industry, were no doubt some of the most 
important considerations against the transference of the 
court. At that time Nara was a great metropolis, four 
miles long and more than three miles wide, with its imperial 
palaces and official mansions, its beautiful temples and 
towers, and its broad avenues planted with willows and 
orange-trees. The city had two markets — one on the 


east side, the other on the west. Money economy was 
beginning to prevail, and trade was steadily expanding. 
Poems with reference to commerce (e. g. No. 885) which are 
occasionally found in our Anthology are the reflections of 
yet another aspect of this new age. 

Thoughts and Beliefs 

The Manyd man lived in a world peopled by multitudes 
of gods and spirits, genii and fairies. And it is noteworthy 
that despite the wide acceptance of Confucianism and 
Buddhism, almost all the gods whom he sang, or who fed 
the well-spring of his lyric inspiration, were purely Japa- 
nese. They were gods of the indigenous cult which was 
named Shinto, or the Way of the Gods, in contradistinction 
to Buddhism. 

There is here no need of attempting to explore the whole 
field of Shinto mythology. So far as the Manyoshii is con- 
cerned, it suffices that on the one hand there were the spirits, 
which had survived from the remote past in folklore, 
and which still affected daily life ; and on the other, those 
whose influence was steadily rising as gods of the clan or 
nation. When analyzed historically, it will be seen that the 
Manyo idea in this connection was really an admixture and 
fusion of concepts which had different origins and which 
were in various stages of development. There were 
mysterious powers which moved and had their being in 
nature but which were too vaguely felt to be personified : 
lands and provinces, mountains and rivers, trees and herbs, 
and even human acts such as speech, were believed to be 
endowed with spirits, and as such were made objects of 
reverence or fear. There were gods possessing full perso- 
nalities, namely the ancestors of the Imperial House and of 
various clans, the patrons of arts and industries, the tutelary 
deities of communities and the spirits of nature. Thus, 
individual objects of nature in their various capacities, 
sometimes as mediums through which gods manifested 


themselves to man, sometimes as gods m themselves, and 
sometimes as divine property or demesne, occupied their 
respective places in the religious life of the nation. The 
practice of taboo, charm and divination, so frequently 
alluded to in the Manyoshu , points unmistakably to a belief 
in the mysterious powers of the first category. Belief in 
gods of the second category in all its simplicity and naivety 
is illustrated in the poems of the ‘ Three Hills ’ (Nos. 9-10), 
although similar cases of the deification of mountains or 
districts are to be met with frequently throughout the 
Anthology. The spirits of nature, such as storm and 
thunder, fire and water, seem to occupy an intermediate 
place between the first and second categories. The transi- 
tion from the second to the third is exemplified in Tatsuta- 
hiko — the deity who ruled the wind. Finally there were 
gods conceived as personalities. This concept, which has 
all the other feelings for the supernatural as its background 
and as its intrinsic element, is best embodied in the ancestral 
gods. It is this concept which developed as the central 
idea, purifying, assimilating and unifying all other beliefs, 
and whose growth was parallel with the progress of the 
political unification of the country. The Goddess Ama- 
terasu — the ancestral deity of the Imperial House — was the 
chief guardian of agriculture, as well as the supreme god 
of heaven and earth. Consequently all the gods of heaven 
and earth and all the ancestral gods of clans were gradually 
systematized into a cult on the basis of communal and nation- 
al life. It is, therefore, most natural that the ‘ eight hundred 
myriad gods 5 came to form a pantheon with the Goddess 
Amaterasu as its central figure. 

Now how did the Manyo man seek to communicate with 
his deities ? Generally in worshipping his god, he set in 
the earth before the altar a sacred wine-jar filled with sake 
brewed with special rites of purification ; hung up mirrors 
and beads on the sacred posts ; tied his shoulders with a cord 
of yii- fibre, presented the sacred nusa, ‘ with the sakaki 
branch fresh from the inmost hill ’ (No. 386), and bending 


on his knees, recited his litany (norito). The greatest 
impediment to his prayer reaching the god was ‘ unclean- 
liness 5 of body and mind. He did not therefore neglect 
to redeem himself in the eyes of his deity by performing the 
rites of ablution ( tmsogi ) and purification ( harat ) (No. 803). 
It was his ideal of life that he should keep himself clean in 
body and soul, and in constant communion with his gods, 
to obtain their protection and thereby live and work in 
a happy world. 

Gods were worshipped either in supplication or in 
thanksgiving. There were national feasts and communal 
feasts and those observed by individual households. Of the 
national feasts the most important were those held to pray 
for good crops and to give thanks for harvest, as was quite 
natural with an agricultural country like Japan. The first 
took place in spring, in the second month of the year, and 
the latter in autumn after the harvest. On the latter 
occasion the emperor himself offered new rice to the gods, 
after which he himself partook of it. Hence the feast was 
called niiname or ‘ new-tasting.’ On the following day, at 
the palace, the court nobles and officials were invited to 
a grand banquet of Toyo-no-akari (Nos. 730-1, etc.). The 
observance of the ‘ Feast of New-tasting ’ was not confined 
to the court but was celebrated throughout the country by 
each community and family. 

Life had many trials and tribulations in the Many 5 , as in 
any other, age. There were, for instance, the universal 
pitfalls of love. Equally unforeseen and vexing were the 
dangers of travel and military campaigns. The Manyo 
man before starting on a voyage would pray to the Gods of 
Suminoe for safety, or he would worship at the Shrine of 
Kashima, if he were setting out as a soldier. Even in 
crossing a steep mountain he would make offerings to the 
god of the ‘awesome’ pass (Nos. 882, 812, 237, 781, 
782, 533, etc.). Prayer was also the usual recourse for 
the love-lorn (Nos. 161, 165). But when hope was fast 
waning and his fate seemed uncertain, the Manyo man 


resorted, now to charms to exorcize evil spirits, now to 
magical spells for the fulfilment of his desires ; and for 
telling his fortune he relied on omens and divinations. The 
use of the shime (sacred rope) to mark off a place, or an 
object, was the principal method for making taboo (No. 35), 
while the binding of a stalk or spray of a plant for happiness 
and long life (No. 21, etc.) and sleeping with one’s sleeves 
turned back to anticipate a visit from a lover or friend, were 
some of the commonest forms of sympathetic magic (No. 
442). Among the omens, which were believed to be 
auguries of the coming of one’s lover, an itch in the eye- 
brow, a sneeze, or unfastening of the girdle, may be cited 
as examples. It was believed that desired information was 
transmitted to a person in mysterious ways through certain 
mediums. Dreams served as this medium while one was 
asleep (Nos. 865-6) ; while in waking hours it consisted of 
such physical phenomena as mentioned above, to which may 
be added the stumbling of a horse a man was riding, which 
was regarded as a sign of the anxiety and longing of his 
people at home (No. 284). Apart from these natural and 
unsolicited signs there was another means by which the 
divine will was sought and man’s fortunes told. This was 
divination, which was widely practised and for which there 
was even an hereditary office called urabe. Many were the 
forms of divination. There was one of native origin called 
* deer oracle,’ of which the exact character is not known. 
There was another introduced from China, according to 
which a forecast was made by the cracks appearing in a 
tortoise-shell roasted over the fire (No. 330). But among 
simpler and more popular forms were the ‘ evening oracle ’ 
and * foot divination,’ of which the first was supposedly 
performed by standing at a cross-roads in the evening and 
listening to the words spoken by those passing, and the 
second by counting the number of steps from one place to 
another, or by noting which foot, the right or the left, was 
required for the last step in covering a given distance. 
There was divination by dreams, and also divination by 


stone, based on a superstition that a stone varied in weight 
according to whether the occasion was evil or auspicious. 
The Manyo man’s world was pervaded by mysterious 
powers, even to its minutest detail. These beliefs, generally 
held by the Manyo man, which appeared to comprise all the 
religious notions of his ancestors from primordial times, 
were undergoing changes with the progress of the age and 
through contact with alien influences. There were indica- 
tions that some had already lost their positive ‘ awesome- 
ness ’ and were being treated with levity and freedom, while 
others were being elevated to a predominant place in the 
religious life of the people. Among decaying beliefs, we 
may cite, for instance, a poem (No. 837) in which a readi- 
ness is expressed to commit sacrilege for the sake of love. 
This is a romanticism exalting passion at the expense of the 
gods, and it is significant that such a sentiment is discovered 
in the works of apparently common people. In another 
poem (No. 833) its author, in his grief and despair, having 
lost his beloved wife, doubts the existence of any gods. 
Still another poem (No. 249) falls into sheer fantasy, as it 
speaks of persuading the moon-god to prolong a beautiful 
moonlight night 1 There occurs even a cynical poem by a 
disillusioned poet who demands the return of the offerings 
made to a god because his prayers for a tryst with his maid 
had failed. Obviously in many cases magic, taboo, and 
divination were practised not through a complete reliance 
upon their efficacy, but more or less as sentimental exercises. 
They were even sometimes treated in a whimsical spirit and 
their failure was of little concern. While the folklore 
beliefs, retained in the twilight of sentimental attachment, 
were being transferred into the province of poetic symbol- 
ism, the belief in ancestral gods, gaining more and more in 
its solemn and spiritual qualities, came to be clothed with 
high authority. This development went, as we have seen, 
hand in hand with the process of centralizing the political 
power. The ancestral gods of clans being placed in 
subordinate positions under the ancestral gods of the Im- 


perial House, the emperor, as ‘ succeeding to the Celestial 
Throne/ was to wield its divine authority over the land. 
He was called Akitsu-kami (Manifest God) who stood 
above and over all other deities of heaven and earth, com- 
manding their devotion and services. (Nos. 79-80, etc.) 

Lo, our great Sovereign, a goddess, 

Tarries on the Thunder 

In the clouds of heaven. (No. 118) 

So sang a poet, with genuine conviction in the divinity of 
the sovereign, which was one of the basic concepts underly- 
ing the Shinto faith. Since the authority of the emperor 
was derived from the virtues and powers of his imperial 
ancestors which he had inherited, the poems magnifying 
a sovereign usually begin with a solemn description of the 
tradition concerning the Celestial Throne, and sometimes 
imperial princes are spoken of, by anticipation, as possessing 
the prerogatives of the sovereign. (Nos. 94, 103, etc.) 

The emperor clearly occupied a place in which, not only 
as political but also as religious head of the country, he was 
to rule over the state with divine authority. As a matter of 
fact all the efforts of the reformers were concentrated upon 
moulding Japan into a great state with the emperor as its 
central figure ; and it was with this high purpose that foreign 
cultures and civilizations were transplanted, adopted and 
assimilated. The ultimate aim was to bring into being 
a new Japan that should rival and surpass China or India in 
splendour. The fact that continental institutions and 
systems of government were imported in accordance with 
this policy is plainly seen by comparing the laws and 
statutes of the T’ang empire with those which were promul- 
gated in Japan subsequent to the Reform of Taika. The 
acceptance of Buddhism was also part of the same pro- 
gramme. In other words, the new faith was embraced with 
the avowed purpose of making it serve as a mighty spiritual 
power to guard the state, and to provide the nation with 
new and high ideals in the field of culture. 


When Buddhism was officially imported, it produced 
repercussions far more profound than those caused earlier 
by the introduction of Confucianism, for Buddhism came 
as a distinctly new religion to confront the native cult of 
Shint5, whereas Confucianism was largely a system of 
moral teachings. Buddha was, it was contended, a strange 
god from a strange land, who would compete with the 
deities of the nation. Acceptance of Buddhism would 
incur the displeasure of those gods of old and invite 
calamities to fall upon the country. In the face of bitter 
opposition and dire warnings Prince Shbtoku displayed 
both wisdom and statesmanship by accepting Buddhism, as 
he had accepted Confucianism before, when he installed the 
alien god in the pantheon of native deities. The prince 
himself welcomed and fervently embraced the new faith in 
order that it might be made, together with the continental 
culture behind it, an important factor of national progress 
and enlightenment. It is this progressive policy of tolerance 
that won over, as it did repeatedly thereafter, the temporary 
opposition from conservative and reactionary forces, and 
laid the foundation of the Japan that was to be. 

From the Taika era to the Tempyd the above policy of 
Prince Shotoku was followed. What was expected, then, 
of Buddhism was that it should provide the country with 
guardian deities and patrons of national well-being and 
progress. In this spirit ‘ provincial temples ’ and also the 
Great Buddha at Nara, which constitute the most conspi- 
cuous monuments of those times, were constructed. Simi- 
larly, the Sutras of the Golden Light ( 'Konkomyo-gyo ) and of 
the Benign King ( 'Ninno-gyo ) were, in all probability, taught, 
read, and copied more widely than any other of the nu- 
merous Buddhist books. After all, these were more or less 
cultural enterprises differing little from the compilation of 
books and the decoration of the capital for the basic purpose 
of rendering Japan a happier land to live in. 

The external manifestations and proselytizing methods 
thus preceded the spiritual penetration of Buddhism. The 


view of the earthly existence as one of sorrow and pain, the 
ardent desire inspired thereby for deliverance, the idea of 
karma , and the practice arising therefrom of pious dedication 
— to these phases of the new religion, the Manyoshii contains 
few direct references, although Buddhistic thoughts and 
allusions are scattered here and there. The fact that 
sentiments concerning life’s vanity and evanescence, such 
as ‘ life frail as foam ’ (Nos. 141, 543), ‘ all is vain ’ (Nos. 
716, 69, 809, 276, 443), * nothing endures ’ (Nos. 368, 388, 
809, 499, 300, 513), are frequently encountered, indicates 
that it is at this point that Buddhism first entered the pro- 
vince of Japanese poetry. Nevertheless, it should be 
recalled that to the Manyo man who had accumulated rich 
personal experiences, having witnessed stupendous political 
upheavals and social changes and standing at a concourse of 
sundry cultural streams, this sort of idea made a great 
appeal. It should, however, be remembered that it gave 
rise to no intense religious aspirations ; nothing more 
than what appear to be rather lukewarm and conventional 
sentiments (Nos. 828, 541-2). More genuine, perhaps, is 
the calm contemplative attitude which was induced by the 
same view (Nos. 501,315). In the poems of the later Nara 
Period, there is to be found a pensive mood, ready to res- 
pond to the slightest quivering of nature, presaging the 
approach of a new age of lyricism. (Nos. 521-2, 523) 

As regards what is to come after death, generally speak- 
ing, the traditional' notions prevailed. The dead are either 
to rise to heaven (No. 94), or to descend to the nether- 
world (No. 639), or wander in the vague space between 
(No. 640). The Buddhistic belief in a life to come crops 
up as a solace in a hopeless case of love (No. 267 ), but the 
Manyo man was not seriously concerned over the vexed 
problem of metempsychosis. The idea of the possibility of 
a man’s being born an insect or a bird in his next life is 
introduced in one of a series of Anacreontic verses of 
Taoistic inspiration (No. 369) for no other purpose than 
to emphasize the importance of the pleasures that the 


present life holds in store 

Chinese learning was introduced into Japan much earlier 
than Buddhism. In the days when embassies were des- 
patched to China, each ship bearing an ambassadorial suite, 
accompanied by students and monks, returned with a cargo 
of books on laws and institutions, astronomy and mathe- 
matics, arts and crafts, and various other subjects. Confu- 
cianism was a new lore imported thus from China and was 
readily accepted in Japan as a practical system of social 
morality and statecraft. To say this is not to deny the 
essential difference in character between the Japanese ‘ way 
of living ’ of those days and the Confucian attitude of 
mind. In the moral sphere the Japanese valued honesty 
and sincerity, and regarded uncleanliness in any form as 
a vice. As for individual conduct, importance was attached 
to candour and spontaneity. Difference there was indeed 
between the Japanese way of living and the Confucian 
attitude, which was didactic and disciplinary, and which 
strove in the main to regulate life socially and institutionally 
by the application of external laws and standards. But the 
realization of this basic incompatibility was to come later. 
Japan in the Manyo age, in the midst of rapid social changes, 
needed order and discipline. Confucianism must have been 
gratefully accepted since it ministered to this need and 
supplied something like a canonical basis for those social 
values that had already prevailed. Loyalty, filial piety, 
brotherly affection, conjugal devotion, faithfulness, etc. 
taught by Confucianism, were virtues that had naturally 
grown within, and been fostered by, the clan system of 
Japan. Then why is it that Confucianism has left so few 
traces of its influence in the Manyoshu ? The first and simple 
reason is that few Japanese at that time had any proper 
training for reading Chinese classics and assimilating the 
mental attitude of Confucianism. The second reason is 
that Confucianism by its own nature as a teaching of social 
adjustment through ‘ etiquette and music * has little to do 
with pure lyricism ; only in the realm of didactic poetry may 


it become a source of inspiration. In these circumstances 
Confucianism possesses among the many Manyd poets 
only a single representative in the person of Yamanoe 
Okura. A scholar sufficiently distinguished to be chosen 
and sent to China, and a man of the utmost honesty with 
a keen concern in social welfare, Okura was naturally 
inclined to didacticism. Although he has but few follow- 
ers among the lyric poets of later ages, he occupies an 
important place in the history of Japanese thought, as the 
one poet in the Manyoshu reflecting the doctrine of Confu- 
cianism which, starting from its encouragement by Prince 
Shdtoku, was to spread over the entire country. 

Taoism is another cult that was imported from China. 
Largely derived from the transcendental teachings of 
Laotsu and Chuangtsu, but compounded with all manner of 
folklore and superstition, it had fostered on the continent 
a belief in fairies and genii, and gave rise in certain circles 
to the vogue of the so-called ‘ serene conversations ’ and 
voluntary retirement from the world ; and through its 
varied and startling manifestations it had left indelible 
marks on Chinese thought. It was received, however, in 
Japan with divided interest, in some quarters with an 
apparently evasive, even hostile attitude. Its spiritual 
influence on the Manyoshu is even less, as compared with that 
of Buddhism. In the Anthology we find sometimes 
meditative tendencies and Arcadian longings, Taoism 
serving as an adjunct to Buddhistic thought and providing 
a certain vocabulary, or sometimes supporting an Epicurean 
philosophy of life, as in the case of the series of verses 
composed by Tabito in praise of sake. Of course it should 
not be forgotten that, as regards subject matter for poetry, 
Taoism contributed, as is noted elsewhere, a rich store of 
parables and fables of a highly imaginative character. 

Life, Manners and Customs 

How did the Japanese live in the Manyo age ? What 


did they wear ? What did they eat ? And how were 
they housed ? 

Let us turn first to the clothing. The common materials 
in use were fabrics of taku (paper-mulberry fibre) and hemp. 
In the finer class stood silk, while the coarsest material was 
cloth woven of the ku^u-v ine fibre ( Pueraria Thunbergiana). 
Rarely were furs worn. All fabrics were ordinarily plain : 
but there existed, besides the much-prized native weave of 
striped patterns called shrspi, various richly-figured silks 
obtained by the weaving methods imported previously 
from Korea and China, such as aya (twill) or nishiki (brocade) 
or even a gauze * shining like the wings of a dragon-fly.’ 
A primitive mode of dyeing was retained in the suriginu or 
‘ rubbed cloths ’ — so called because they were obtained by 
rubbing with the flowers or leaves of the season such as 
bush-clover (Lespede^a bicolor ), iris and £ mountain-indigo ’ 
(Mercurialis leiocarpa). At the same time there were dyes 
for red, purple, green, blue, black, etc. and numerous half- 
tones compounded thereof, so that it was possible to 
produce fabrics of many colours and shades. Although 
the common people were usually clad in plain white, the 
wearing of coloured dresses was by no means rare. The 
court prescribed different hues and shades for officials and 
nobles according to their ranks and grades ; one can, 
therefore, imagine what processions of gorgeous colours 
must have moved up and down the broad avenues of the 
capital city ! 

The style of dress differed between the periods before and 
after the introduction of the T’ang customs. But most 
commonly a tight-sleeved coat of a comparatively short 
length was worn by both men and women. This coat was 
either unlined, lined, or wadded, according to season. 
Over the coat, a sort of loose trousers, called hakama, was 
worn by both sexes, while women put on, in addition, 
a long skirt {mo), or let the girdle-ends hang down. Among 
special accessories, the osuhi- — probably a cape or shawl of 
a sort — was worn by men as well as women, while on 


a journey or in worshipping the gods, the ayut (leg-ties) 
were used by soldiers, travellers and workmen to bind their 
hakama at the knees, and women wore hire (scarfs) about 
their shoulders. 

As for personal adornments, there were gems or beads of 
various shapes and colours, which had been extensively 
used from the earliest times. Strings of these worn round 
the neck, on arms and ankles, were prized, especially as 
female ornaments. Young girls clinking their bracelet 
gems as they danced (No. 152), or the ‘ Weaver Maid ’ at 
work with all the jewelled bangles on her wrists and ankles 
swinging (No. 921), were visions invoked by the poets and 
sung with a genuine warmth of feeling. Kushiro, or rings 
of metal or stone worn on the arm, were also favourite 
ornaments for men as well as women. The coiffure changed 
from time to time. The typical mode for men was to bind 
the hair into two knots on either side of the head, or in 
a single large knot on the top. The style for women 
varied according to age. A child had the hair bobbed 
short, while a young girl wore it long, sometimes parted 
and hanging down to the shoulders ; but as soon as she 
reached marriageable age it was either done up, or left to 
hang down still longer. Both sexes wore combs in the 
hair, a boxwood comb being considered a precious addition 
to female charm. Thus, the comb-case, together with 
mirror, made an indispensable and most intimate item of 
a lady’s personal effects. In their full attire, gentlemen of 
rank wore the prescribed caps, which sometimes were 
decked with garlands, either artificial or of fresh flowers and 
leaves. A pretty custom of breaking off sprays of flowers 
or autumn leaves and wearing them on the head as orna- 
ments prevailed with both sexes. For foot-wear, shoes of 
leather or cloth were worn by the upper classes. However, 
since even the beautiful maid of Mama, famous in story, is 
going barefoot (No. 672), the use of shoes appears to have 
been rare in rural communities. A simpler wear for the 
commoners was sandals made of rice-straw. 

Turning to food, the main article of diet was, of course, 
rice — a staple which was destined to shape Japan’s industrial 
structure for all the succeeding ages, and even to colour the 
religious life of the nation. Millet, kibi (Panicum milia- 
ceum), barley and hie {Panicum frumentaceum') served as supple- 
ments to, or substitutes for, rice. The subsidiary dishes 
included vegetables, both cultivated and wild, such as wild 
celery, bracken shoots, yam, lettuce and other greens, onion 
and garlic, and sea-weeds of various kinds ; such fish foods 
as bream, bonito, bass, carp, trout, eel, abalone, crab, 
mussel, etc. ; birds like the wild goose, duck, pheasant, 
quail, snipe, and so on. It is interesting to note that no 
beef or horse-flesh was used, but whale-meat was undoubt- 
edly eaten. The chief game animals were deer, boar and 
rabbit. All these things were served raw, boiled, broiled, 
or pickled. As may be gathered from the above list, 
fishing was a flourishing industry all along the sea-coasts. 
Hunting was also an occupation, but it was quite frequently 
done by the aristocracy as a knightly exercise or merely for 
sport. The Manyoshii mentions specifically hawking and 
the ‘ medicine hunt,’ the latter being undertaken to obtain 
the horns of young deer for medicinal use. As for fruits, 
there were melons, chestnuts, oranges, peaches and many 
others. The principal beverage of the time was sake 
brewed from rice, which was universally drunk and used 
also as a sacred offering to the gods. 

Thirdly, housing. Buildings varied widely in size and 
appearance and in their manner of construction, ranging 
from a hut in the primitive style to the palaces and temples 
constructed according to architectural plans and methods 
introduced from the continent. A rural dwelling had 
logs for posts, grass or board for roofing, and its earthen 
floor was covered with rushes or rice-straw. Wealthier 
families lived in larger, sometimes two-storied, houses, 
which had wooden floors, and also barns and stables. The 
fences were sometimes of living bushes, and sometimes of 
dead brushwood, reed or bamboo. Alongside such hum- 


ble quarters, there rose palaces and temples in the new style. 
The building material for these edifices was still mainly 
timber, but construction was on a grand scale with vermil- 
lion-tinted pillars and beams and tiled roofs. The mansions 
of the nobles and the rich followed suit. And in conso- 
nance with this architectural magnificence, many a great 
garden was laid out with its rocks, artificial lakes and 
islets, its pines, willows and plum-trees and clumps of 
staggerbush and azalea and flowers of the four seasons, and 
even with mandarin-ducks in the lakes. With the increas- 
ing luxury in house and garden, the old ritual feasts always 
held in connection with the construction of a new dwelling 
(No. 152, etc.) were celebrated all the more heartily. 

The mode of life differed radically between town and 
country. The contrast was not perhaps so marked in the 
early part of the Manyo age — namely, the Omi Period and 
the Asuka and Fujiwara Periods — when the court was 
being removed from place to place and the influence of the 
capital remained comparatively insignificant despite the 
steady enhancement of the metropolitan greatness through 
the importation of T’ang culture and civilization. That 
the prosperity of a capital in those periods was altogether 
transitory may be seen from the fact that as soon as it was 
evacuated by the court, it fell rapidly into ruin, so rhat the 
decay of an ‘ old Imperial City ’ came to be one of the stock 
themes for poets. But with the Nara Period, the capital 
was really the glorious centre of national life. The Em- 
peror Shomu transferred the court once to Kuni, and then 
to Naniwa, but each time he was drawn back irresistibly 
to Nara, so powerful had that city grown. 

The Imperial City of fairest Nara 

Glows now at the height of beauty. 

Like brilliant flowers in bloom. (No. 282) 

Young gallants wearing silver- wrought swords paraded 
the wide boulevards while ladies of the court walked along 
the tree-shaded avenues trailing their crimson skirts. It 


was such a picture of the gay metropolis which the officials 
stationed at the Empire’s outposts, ‘ the far courts of the 
Sovereign could never forget and which caused them the 
most unbearable pangs of nostalgia (Nos. 5 5 8-9). Various 
functions, temple services, holiday outings, banquets and 
entertainments, occurring from day to day, made life in 
Nara a delightful thing not only to those ‘ lords and ladies 
of the Great Palace ’ (No. 912), but to the common run of 
its citizens. Of course there were the poor who grieved of 
having £ no sackcloth for my children to wear ’ and envied 
‘ those silks and quilted clothes ’ thrown away by the rich 
(Nos. 634-5). But that, in the face of the general temper 
and actual prosperity of the metropolis, was allowed to cast 
no shadow to mar its brilliance and gaiety. 

On the other hand, life in the country, keeping the tenor 
of the ancient days, went on with charming simplicity. In 
the Manjoshu we find a village maid who, at a river-side 
overgrown with green willows, draws no water from the 
stream but waits for her lover, ‘ ever stamping the ground ’ 
(No. 856), or a working girl worrying how her hands, 
chapped from rice-pounding, might distress ‘ my young 
lord of the mansion ’ (No. 850), and again a lad asking his 
lass to give him water out of the well-pool for the post- 
horses : ‘ Mind you, straight from your own sweet hand ! ’ 
(No. 847). This last instance recalls the system of high- 
ways and posts, which in those days carried the exhilarating 
air of the country into the town and at the same time 
preserved rural communities from falling into stagnation 
and decay. 

Mention has been made of embassies to the continent, of 
frontier-guards, and of province officials. It was their 
comings and goings that enlivened and invigorated the 
entire nation. Besides, a direct link between the court 
and the country was found in the occasional or periodical 
progresses of the sovereign to various hot spring resorts 
(Arima Hot Springs in Settsu Province and the spas of Iyo 
and Kii) or to the imperial villas at Yoshino and elsewhere. 


The journeys of palace-guards between the capital and their 
homes in the provinces, and the imperial excursions and 
hunting-trips may also be mentioned in this connection. 
All these things not only enlivened the country-side and 
served as a tonic for the city-dwellers, but provided the 
Manyo poets with an inexhaustible source of inspiration. 

Distant journeys on land and sea were attended with 
dangers and difficulties. Although there were already in 
existence large vessels that could carry hundreds of pas- 
sengers and a considerable quantity of goods, in most 
cases the ships were small and frail. The seafarer had to 
wait for favourable winds before he could hoist sail ; and 
relying upon good weather, he steered his uncertain course 
along rugged coasts and from island to island. Neither 
was the lot of the land traveller to be envied, for he had 
to make his way over steep hills or by a 4 new-cut ’ road 
bristling with tree-stumps. Hostels were few and far apart, 
so that even a prince of the blood was sometimes obliged 
to spend the night in a hurriedly improvised hut, to say 
nothing of the common wayfarer who frequently had to 
sleep literally 4 with grass for pillow.’ The Manydshu 
contains a number of poems on the drowned or starved 
found on the roadside, giving a vivid proof of the extreme 
hazards of travel in those days. These hardships and 
privations, however, only served to reveal the depths of 
human existence, as contrasted with the amenities afforded 
by imperial progresses and hunting excursions, of a few 
days’ duration and not even very far away from the capital. 
It was indeed a delightful privilege for courtiers to accom- 
pany their sovereign on these occasions and to wade 
through the dewy grass, starting the birds to flight, or to 
stain their clothes with the bloom of lespedeza in the autumn 
fields, or to stroll along the seashore and gather shells for 
their wives at home ; and in this way to disport themselves 
in the very bosom of nature. 

Now let us follow from season to season the principal 
festivals in the calendar of the Manyo age. New Year’s 


Day is celebrated with a state banquet at court, and with 
the feastings of relatives and friends in private homes. On 
the first Day of the Rat, in January, another banquet is held 
in the palace and ‘ jewelled brooms ’ are distributed — 
a symbolic act for the encouragement of sericulture, a 
broom being used to collect young silk- worms. On the 
same day, people went out into the country, and gathered 
the young spring herbs, which were boiled and eaten. On 
the 7th of January the Feast of the Blue Horse is celebrated 
at the court. Blue being the colour of spring, according to 
Chinese tradition, ‘ blue 5 (black) horses were led before the 
Throne and prayers were offered for a prosperous year. The 
15th and 1 6th days were reserved for a song-feast, also of 
Chinese origin, at which the participants sang, keeping time 
by stamping on the ground. Early in February the im- 
portant rites of praying for a good crop were performed. 
Also during this month some clans held the festivals of 
their respective tutelary gods. These clan festivals took 
place twice annually, in spring (either in February or in 
April) and in winter (November). Now, as the balmy spring 
invites country-folk as well as townsmen out-of-doors, the 
roads and the fields are crowded with holiday-makers. On 
March 3, the court holds in some years a poetry festival in 
the Chinese style, in which the courtiers sit here and there 
alongside running water and compose Chinese poems, while 
cups of sake float down the stream towards them. Be- 
tween April and May the ‘ medicine hunt ’ takes place, the 
young nobles on horseback presenting a beautiful and 
thrilling spectacle. May 5 is the Feast of Tango — now 
popularly known as the Boys’ Festival — on which day 
anciently bags filled with spices were hung on the door- 
posts together with sweet-flag leaves or orange-flowers as 
a means of warding off uncleanliness and evil spirits. This 
is about the time when the cuckoo begins to sing. In fact, 
all the birds and flowers of the season seem to join in the 
festival. On the last day of June the rites of Obarai (Great 
Purification) are observed. Great importance was attached 


alike by court and people to the sacred rite of misogi by 
which mortals were to be cleansed of their sins and stains. 
With the autumn comes the Feast of Tanabata — on the 
Seventh Night of the Seventh Month. The feasts of 
Tango and Tanabata are both Chinese in origin, but they 
were assimilated and absorbed into Japanese folklore just 
about this time, and have since been preserved even to this 
day. The number of * Seventh Night ’ poems in the 
Manjoshii exceeds 120 ; which helps us to judge how deeply 
the * Romance of the Milky Way ’ thrilled the hearts of the 
ManyS man and kindled his imagination. The story is 
about the love of two stars — the Oxherd and the Weaver 
Maid who, having incurred the displeasure of the Ruler of 
Heaven, were doomed to live on the opposite shores of the 
Heavenly River, and were allowed to meet only once in the 
year — namely on the Seventh Night of the Seventh Month, 
which as such is celebrated by mortals to share in the joy 
of the celestial lovers. It is to be noted that in the Manyd 
poems, man goes to maid instead of maid going to man as 
the original Chinese version has it, and the boat used by the 
Oxherd for crossing the Heavenly River and the costumes 
and the loom of the Weaver Maid are all quite naturally in 
the Japanese style of that time. As the season advances, 
autumn flowers and foliage, with an appeal no less tender 
and irresistible than spring flowers, call out the people once 
more to hill and field. Towards the end of November, 
Thanksgiving, the ‘ Feast of New-tasting,’ is solemnly 
observed at court and throughout the land. This is the 
last and most important of the series of agricultural feasts 
and festivals of Japan held in the year, beginning with the 
prayer for a good harvest early in February. Finally, another 
‘ Great Purification ’ takes place in December. Having 
been purified thereby, body and soul, the nation is now 
ready to welcome the New Year. 

Turning to human relations, Japanese clan morality in 
its purified form — namely, that which is based upon the 
consciousness of the Imperial House as the supreme head 


of all clans — manifests itself in the Manjoshu in spontaneous 
sentiments of the loveliest kind, giving the Anthology its 
chief distinction. Parental love, such as pervades the poems 
of Okura, may be regarded as a natural human feeling, 
common to all races and to all ages. But filial piety, so 
sincere, intense and instinctive as shown in the Manyo 
poems is not likely to be duplicated by any other people 
and under any other social order. Among the upper 
classes this virtue was so extended from parents to fore- 
fathers as to include an obligation to keep one’s ancestral 
name unspotted and to enhance the prestige of one’s 
family ; and in that sense it was necessary to guard jealously 
one’s integrity and honour (Nos. 470, 538-40, etc.). How 
warm and genuine filial devotion was also in the lower 
strata of society may be seen in the poems of the frontier- 
guards, who, on taking leave of their families, exhibit as 
much, if not more, tenderness and solicitude toward their 
parents as toward their wives and children (Nos. 766, 767, 
772, 774, 775, 789, etc.). From this love between parents 
and children is derived the love between brothers and sisters, 
such as is revealed in the tanka of Princess Oku on her 
ill-fated brother Prince Otsu (Nos. 54-5, 56-7), or in the 
cboka composed by Yakamochi on the death of his younger 
brother (Nos. 496-8). Because of the custom of that time, 
the sense of consanguinity tended to be restricted to the 
children born of the same mother and brought up under 
one roof. As a notable case we may mention that of Lady 
Otomo of Tamura who displayed intense love for a half- 
sister, Lady Otomo of Sakanoe’s Elder Daughter (No. 
408, etc.). 

Then there was the love between man and woman — the 
most personal of all attachments. What attitude did Japa- 
nese society assume towards it under a clan system ? 
Here will be discovered conflicting circumstances. The 
individual man or woman seeks to unite with his or her 
partner in love according to a natural and spontaneous 
inclination. But the ‘ family ’ which was always growing 


in complexity and more rigid in its demands on all its 
members to conform to its needs, does not always give 
countenance to such a union. Already in the Many5 age 
there was a law requiring the consent of parents and the 
formal recognition by society as a sine qua non of marriage. 
Hence passionate love had often to chafe at insuperable 
obstacles. A girl must keep her lover’s name secret at 
the risk of her life. It became a desperate task to guard 
against the prying eyes and the busy mouths of the world. 
But tameless, bold, and unconquerable is the Many5 lover ; 
intense passion pursues its course like a mountain torrent 
that sweeps on — swirling, splashing and crashing against 
the rocks. Herein lies the glory of the Many 6 love-poems. 
The piteous tale of the forbidden love between the courtier 
Nakatomi Yakamori and Sanu Chigami is a good example 
(Nos. 539-48)- 

But unless love is forced to flounder tragically, as in the 
above example, it will eventually arrive at its goal, which is 
marriage. And as far as we may judge from the poems, 
conjugal love, reflecting and retaining the ardour of court- 
ship days, is fraught with genuine warmth and tenderness. 
The wife cherished the husband with a single-hearted 
devotion, which was reciprocated by him with loving care 
and attention, though this, under the existing social system, 
may not have been altogether undivided. At any rate, our 
Anthology contains a poem in dialogue — a choka by a wife 
and a tanka (given as its envoy) by her husband — which tells 
of a conjugal love as unassuming as it is tender. The 
story is worth recounting. The husband is evidently one 
of those men whose business takes him regularly to the 
Province of Yamashiro over a mountain road. The wife 
cannot bear to see him go on foot while others travel on 
horseback. She takes out a mirror and a scarf which she 
has treasured as a keepsake of her mother, and offering them 
to her husband, she asks him to exchange them for a horse. 
The husband declines the present, since his wife must walk 
even if he gets a horse. 1 Though we tread the rocks,’ 


says he, ‘ let’s walk, the two of us, together ! ’ (Nos. 871-4). 

There was one sentiment which demanded, when the 
occasion arrived, a willing sacrifice of all these personal 
affections, no matter how dear, and of which the nobles and 
peasants were always deeply aware. This supreme devo- 
tion was due to the sovereign, under whose rule Tabito at 
the Dazaifu was content to say : ‘ In Yamato or here in 
this far province, I feel ever the same ’ (No. 381). £ At the 
dread Sovereign’s word,’ the embassies to China defied 
storms and went £ whither his royal ships took them ’ (No. 
753). Courage and military prowess were prized by the 
warriors as necessary qualities in their service to the 
Throne. Carrying sword, spear, or shield, or shouldering 
a quiver and grasping a birchwood bow, they went to 
meet their foe in the field. All was for their lord and 
sovereign. It was not only among the educated or the 
higher classes that this sentiment of loyalty to the Throne 

Let us once more turn to the poems of frontier-guards 
(Nos. 769, 783, etc.). These young men, taken out of 
their lowly cottages in Eastland, bravely set forth for 
the far island of Kyushu, leaving behind them their 
beloved parents, their wives and their sweethearts — who 
clung to them, £ even as the creeping bean-vine clings to 
the wild rose-bush by the wayside ’ (No. 777), or who 
£ wept, standing in the reed-fence corner ’ (No. 778). 
Their patriotic zeal is well illustrated by the following 
poem : 

I will not from to-day 
Turn back toward home — 

I who have set forth 

As Her Majesty’s humble shield. (No. 783) 

Thus, all the threads of human relations are drawn to a 
single point — the Throne, Japanese morality ending where 
it ought to end. 


Outlook on Nature 

The Manyo poems display an outlook on nature, which 
excels the later anthologies of Japan in scope and in depth 
of sympathy ; it would perhaps be difficult to find a like 
intimacy with nature in the contemporary lyric poetry of 
any other country in the world. 

Japanese appreciation of nature, deep-rooted in religious 
sentiment, had long been cultivated through an intimate 
contact between nature and man. In the Manyo age nature 
was animated directly by such of its phenomena as were 
still looked upon with religious deference and were identi- 
fied with personal emotions. There were, of course, 
things in nature which had become objects of affection and 
admiration by virtue of their beauty or loveliness. There 
were things which were regarded as resounding with human 
emotions in that they reflected the joys and sorrows of man. 
Even in such cases, where natural objects are dealt with 
purely as poetical material, they seem to retain each their 
individuality and life — a spiritual entity permeated by a 
mysterious atmosphere. Never are they allowed to lapse 
into cold lifeless rhetorical ornament, or metaphor without 
some fringe of emotion. In the great majority of cases 
natural phenomena are still divine manifestations, or 
guardians of life in one way or another to whom man’s 
gratitude is due, or else powers of destruction to be feared 
and dreaded. When their spiritual import or acute bearing 
on life are forgotten — as, for instance, when a man goes out 
gathering violets, and spends the night in the field (No. 599), 
or when young girls are boiling starworts on Kasuga Plain 
(No. 819), or when a poet, mourning his wife, ascribes the 
fog rising on the hill to his sighing breath (No. 610), — even 
then nature is man’s friend and companion and there still 
exists a sense of mutual sympathy. It is this profound 
feeling of mutual sympathy that made the Manyo man look 
far and wide and search deeply with lively emotions into all 


aspects of nature and grasp them with such eminent success. 
Probably every phase of nature that had anything to do with 
the life of those days appears in the Manjoshii in one form 
or another. 

Mountains were considered the most divine of all natural 
phenomena. It is scarcely necessary to recall that Mount 
Fuji, then an active volcano, was worshipped as the tutelary 
god of Japan. The peak is immortalized also by Yamabe 
Akahito (Nos. 567-8), and by another, unknown, poet 
(Nos. 651-3). As these poets sing of Fuji the majestic and 
beautiful, or of Fuji the sublime and mysterious, Japanese 
poetry itself seems to soar to a rapturous height nowhere 
else surpassed. Among other mountains that were rever- 
ed as deities, there is Tateyama, sung by Otomo Yakamochi 
(Nos. 550-2, 553-5); also the Tsukuba Mountain, famous 
for its festival of Kagai which was held in spring and 
autumn, and in which men and women gathered to pass the 
night dancing and singing (Nos. 668-9). All these moun- 
tains, which were greatly revered, are located far from the 
capital ; but there are a number of mountains and hills 
nearer the capital, especially in the province of Yamato, 
which, either by their divinity or by virtue of their graceful 
features, were famous in song and story. In the south of 
Yamato Plain there is Unebi, a female mountain, with the 
two male mountains of Kagu and Miminashi standing near 
by. An old legend of the quarrels of the latter for the 
love of the former forms the subject of Poems Nos. 9-1 1. 
Further southwards, there is Mount Kamunabi of Asuka, 
overlooking the site of the former capital (Nos. 571-2). 
Beyond, rise the Yoshino Mountains which, with an imperial 
villa, their scenic beauties of green slopes and tumbling wa- 
ters, spring flowers and autumn leaves, invoked an endless 
chorus of pious admiration and praise (Nos. 77-8, 79-80). 
Midway between Asuka and Nara and in a slightly easterly 
direction there stands the sacred hill of Miwa, and to its 
north a higher hill, Makimuku. The hill of Tatsuta, 
situated on the way from Nara to Naniwa and celebrated 


in those days for its cherry-flowers, was held in fee by 
Tatsutahiko, the god of wind. Ikoma is a large mountain 
that dominates not only Yamato Plain, but also the province 
of Settsu and the bay of Osaka on the opposite side. It 
was to its blue peak that the men of Nara, sailing out from 
the port of Naniwa, turned with wistful eyes to bid a last 
farewell to their beloved land of Yamato. In the immediate 
neighbourhood of the capital the hills of Kasuga, Mikasa 
and Takamado provided the urban population with con- 
venient and beautiful grounds for outings and excursions. 

The river most praised in the Manyoshu is the Yoshino, 
which rises in the mountains of Yoshino already mentioned, 
and the scenic beauty of its rock-strewn rapids delighted 
visitors from the capital. The Saho, the Hatsuse, and the 
Asuka, sometimes known as the Kamunabi, all flowing 
through Yamato Plain, were also favourite streams of the 
Manyo poets, who sang of their plovers and singing-frogs, 
or the yellow-roses on their banks. The Izumi River and 
the Uji River of Yamashiro were used for the transportation 
of timber required in the construction of a new capital. 
Yet another important waterway was the Horie Canal in 
Naniwa, which was crowded with ships from far provinces. 
Other rivers mentioned in the Manyoshu include the 
Tama and the Tone in eastern Japan, the Chikuma of 
Shinano Province, the Ogami, the Imizu, and the Haetsuki 
in northern Japan, and the Matsura in the island of Kyushu. 
The lake that almost monopolized the attention of the Man- 
yd poet is the Biwa in Omi, the largest lake in Japan, on 
whose shore stood at one time Shiga — the seat of the Emper- 
or Tenji’s court. Even in the Nara Period only ruinous 
traces of his palace and city remained for the melancholy 
contemplation of poets. The lake offered a convenient 
passage to the northern provinces of Japan, but a traveller 
crossing it in the frail boat of those days must have been 
seized by a sense of helplessness, as upon the open sea. 
Of the Fuse Lake, made famous by Yakamochi’s poem, the 
name alone survives to-day, most of it having since been 


converted into cultivated fields. 

The ocean represented, quite as forcefully as did moun- 
tains, the mighty powers of nature to the Manyo man, who 
travelled so much by sea and was personally and intimately 
acquainted with its manifold aspects, fair and genial, awe- 
some and terrible. Of the many beautiful bays of Japan, 
the most famous, lying on the route from Yamato to the 
eastern provinces, was Miho Bay with its beach of white 
sand and green pine-trees and with its magnificent view of 
the sacred peak of Fuji in the distance. Between the bay 
of Naniwa and the Straits of Akashi in the west, or along 
Waka Beach in the south, the sea-coast unfolded a panorama 
of beautiful scenes that charmed excursionists from the 
capital. But the courtier on a journey to the south of 
Ku Province, even as a member of the imperial suite accom- 
panying the sovereign on his visit to the spa of Muro, 
begins to yearn for home, wearied and awe-stricken by the 
waves of the vast Pacific beating upon the shore. As for 
the official journey to his post in Tsukushi, he has to sail 
the whole length of the Inland Sea, trusting his fate to a 
small ship. He crosses the thundering whirlpool of Oshima 
and sails on westwards — sometimes stopping storm-bound 
in an island lee, sometimes steering ahead in the darkness of 
night. The insufferable anxieties and uncertainties of such 
a voyage are graphically told in many a Many5 poem. But 
above all, the most solemn and indelible impressions of the 
sea’s ‘ awefulness ’ were engraved in the minds of those 
envoys to China or Korea who, leaving the shores of Kyushu 
behind them, sailed over the rolling billows of the boundless 
ocean. The difficulties of the voyages seem to have added 
to the enthusiasm with which the Manyo poets sang of ports 
and harbours. From the travel poems by those who went 
to Tsukushi or abroad, it is possible to conjecture regarding 
the ports of call on their route through the Inland Sea. 
Mitsu of Naniwa, as the principal port of embarkation and 
debarkation, is mentioned most frequently in the Anthology. 
Next comes the port of Tomo in Bingo Province. Both 


500 000 

of these served also as ports of landing for foreign embassies 
to the court of Nara. The latter, owing to its beautiful 
scenery, was a harbour specially dear to the hearts of all 
travellers in the Inland Sea. 

As for the names of animals and other creatures appearing 
in the Manyo shit, the Kogi lists 37 kinds of birds, 13 of insects, 
etc., 11 of beasts, 9 of fishes, 6 of shells, or 76 kinds in 
all. With the rare exception of a foreign animal, the tiger, 
and a fabulous creature, the dragon, they were all familiar 
in various ways, so that they are treated with intimate 
knowledge and understanding in the poems. Fish and 
shell-fish ; domestic animals like oxen and horses ; domes- 
ticated birds such as fowls and hawks ; silkworms ; all these 
were of great importance for their practical uses, but 
they also occupied their respective places in the realm of 
poetry as familiar objects of nature, quite irrespective of 
practical consideration. For instance, the univalvular 
appearance of the abalone shell suggested unrequited love, 
while the silkworm cocoon recalled a lady secluded in her 
bower (No. 168). But it is not merely utilitarian purpose 
that binds the animal world to human society. The 
birds and beasts that come and go with the seasons and visit 
hill or field, or waterside, never fail to stir the Manyo man’s 
emotions. What is noteworthy is that the poetic appeal of 
these animals lay apparently not so much in their colours or 
shapes as in their cries and sounds. The uguisu is the harb- 
inger of spring. Though the picture of this dainty warbler 
flitting among the branches of bamboo or plum-trees does 
certainly attract the attention of the Manyo poet, his heart 
is more thrilled by its sweet hymn of joy. In contrast to 
the uguisu , the * night-thrush ’ (nue) is mentioned for its plain- 
tive note. When the sound of the singing-frogs is heard 
from clear streams, the spring is almost over. Summer 
brings the cuckoo. This bird, with its rich legendary and 
other associations, is apt to move the heart of a poet brood- 
ing over long-past ages. Summer dies amid the ’mournful 
shrillings of cicadas. Now the wild geese come crying, 


riding the autumn wind. As the dews thicken on the bush- 
clovers ihctgi), the stag calls for his mate in the wakeful 
night-hours of a lonely lover. The cricket’s chirping in the 
garden only deepens the melancholy. Winter draws near. 
The sanderlings call on the river-beaches, and the wild duck 
among the reeds. Numerous references to the voice of 
the cranes indicate that they were not then rare in central 
Japan. It is these birds, beasts, and insects, with their 
widely varied notes, that played the accompaniment to 
man’s emotional life through all the seasons of the year. 

As for the plants, the Kogi is again our authority for 
stating that there are 157 in number, consisting of 86 herbs 
and grasses, 67 trees and 4 kinds of bamboo. The familiar 
plants used for food have already been mentioned. These 
and many other useful plants, including the mulberry which 
supplied fibre for cloths, birch and spindle-tree for bows, 
bamboos for baskets, arrows and other articles, boxwood 
for combs, the gromwell, madder and other herbs for dyes — 
all served as poetic material exactly in the same manner as 
the useful animals. And it goes without saying that the 
number was especially large of those plants, cultivated or 
wild, which were regarded purely as objects of admiration 
because of their beauty and loveliness. 

The earliest of all flowers was the plum-blossom which 
is described fancifully as offering a hospitable shelter to the 
uguisu , or realistically in a delectable word-picture of its 
white petals fluttering and falling together with the snow- 
flakes. Being a comparatively late importation from the 
continent, the plum-tree must have had a specially fresh 
appeal and charm. Then followed the peach-blossom, 
somewhat neglected by poets who were eager to welcome the 
cherry-flowers, which soon burst forth in all their glorious 
profusion. Here we must not forget to mention the fra- 
grant little violets which were sure to attract the poet’s eye 
and capture his heart. The long-blooming camellia, 
symbolic of the lengthening spring day, the staggerbush, 
still abundant in Kasuga Plain, the wild azalea — so passed 


by the gay procession of vernal flowers with wistaria and 
yellow-roses bringing up the rear. 

In summer bloomed the kakitsubata , a species of iris, 
which is often cited in love poems, owing probably to its 
colour and form, in which there is something that suggests 
feminine beauty. The fragrant sweet-flag, as a plant capable 
of warding off evil spirits, was used together with the 
mugwort to decorate the c medicine bags ’ that were hung 
up for the Feast of Tango on May 5th. The sweet-flag is 
also mentioned frequently in ManyS poems with the cuckoo, 
the favourite summer bird, as are also the unohana (Deut^ia 
crenata) and the orange-flower. The orange-tree, brought 
over with great difficulty from the continent early in the 
history of Japan, was highly valued both for its flowers and 
fruit. Of other flowers of this season two more are 
worthy of mention, the auchi (bead-tree) and the lily — ‘ the 
deep-grass lily on the wayside/ 

‘ The seven flowers that blow in the autumn fields ’ are 
attractively catalogued by Okura (Nos. 645-6). Of these, 
the more particularly liked were the bush-clovers that 
grow in thick clumps, profusely covered with purplish 
flowers, the * tail flower ’ ( Miscanthus sinensis) with its 
glossy ears of dark red, waving as if beckoning a friend to 
its side, and the patrinia, with its clusters of little yellow 
flowers twinkling like golden grains. 

The green willows of spring and the yellow and crimson 
foliage of autumn were also universally admired, perhaps 
in the same sense as flowers were, for the richness and 
brilliance of their colours. But there was another side to 
the Many 5 taste for plants. Non-flowering and unosten- 
tatious plants like bamboo, reeds, and rushes also attracted 
the poet. The pine-tree held a place of honour because of 
the noble and masculine character of its sturdy limbs, or 
because of the clear tone of the wind soughing through its 
branches. There still survived the primitive tendency to 
worship a large elm, or cryptomeria of great age, as a sacred 
object, demonstrating the presence of religious elements in 


the Many 6 man’s love of plants. The epithet maki tatsu 
(true-wood standing) was a favourite pillow-word lot jama 
(mountain). It is quite likely that the sanctity of a moun- 
tain was believed to be enhanced by the luxuriance of its 

Finally, what was the attitude of the Manyo man towards 
the celestial and atmospheric phenomena which hung over, 
surrounded, and enfolded all these terrestrial things ? 
Poetically and symbolically, and no doubt animistically 
also, homage was paid to the sun as the source of light and 
life. The moon was looked upon as a mirror to reflect the 
face of one’s beloved far away. The star Vega shining high 
in the autumn sky was the ‘ Weaver Maid ’ in a romantic 
legend of the heavens. A floating cloud was spoken of as 
a messenger making for one’s distant home, and the fog as 
rising up with the sigh of one in grief. While it is true that 
these phenomena were regarded with reverence or affection 
as living things possessing intimate ties with man, we should 
also remember that the Many5 man was a keen observer of 
all their multiple aspects. It is to his objectivity, combined 
with his sensitiveness, that we owe the rich variety of 
description that we find in the Manyo poems. Take the 
moon, for instance. We read of a young moon as being 
reminiscent of ‘ the eyebrow of you whom I have seen but 
once ’ ; the evening moon that rises before the day is over ; 
the full moon bright and clear ; the moon past its full for 
which one must sit up and wait ; the moon that remains in 
the dawning sky ; again, of the hour when the sky glows 
before moon-rise ; when the moon traverses the sky at night 
or when it hangs low ; or the dusk of dawn produced by the 
sinking of the moon : in fact every phase of the moon as it 
waxes and wanes in the course of a month and all the hours 
as they are affected by it are touched upon. The beauty as 
well as the movements of tht jujutsu (Venus), which both 
as evening- and morning-star ‘ wanders hither and thither,’ 
had been noted so early that in the Manyo time ‘ the star of 
eve ’ is used as a pillow-word for ‘ wavering of the mind.’ 


Since Japan’s range of temperature is rather extreme for 
the temperate zone, and the atmospheric changes are varied 
and startling, the rainbow, hail and thunder, to say nothing 
of the spring haze, the autumn mist, the dew-drop or ‘ the 
frost that falls at night ’ are all used as poetic material. As 
for the clouds, they are mentioned in infinite variety, 
including ‘ banner clouds,’ ‘ heaven-flying clouds,’ * swing- 
ing clouds,’ ‘ fading clouds,’ and ‘ horizontal clouds ’ ; 
while rain is differentiated according to certain poetic 
characteristics into harusame (spring rain), yiidachi (sudden 
shower), shigure (passing shower), and so forth. In Japan, 
the four seasons, though not abrupt in transition, are 
clearly marked off from one another, so that from early 
times each season was associated with a distinct set of 
poetic sentiments, and began to possess a poetry of its own, 
springing from a separate source of inspiration. The sense 
of the seasons and a delicate susceptibility to the peculiar 
aspects of each, which were cultivated more and more, came 
to constitute one of the more important characteristics of 
Japanese literature in all the succeeding centuries. But this 
literary tradition was well established in the Manyo age, 
whose poets showed a very great and lively concern for all 
the seasonal changes. 

Poetry and Poets 

Manyo poems are characterized by directness and frank- 
ness in their expression of life’s joy, love, grief and indigna- 
tion. No poetry of later ages can attain to the level of 
beauty of these poems, alive as they are with sentiments that 
are instinctive, robust and undisguised. This does not 
mean, however, that the Manyosbu forms the primeval 
poetry of the Japanese race, for, as a matter of fact, the 
Anthology represents a literature which presupposes the 
development and cultivation of a language extending over 
centuries. The Manyo man himself was aware of this 
historical background. His emotional reactions to the 


events in his daily life or in his natural environment were 
directly or indirectly linked to the * times of old.’ The 
Manyoshu is by no means primitive. Its artistic value and 
significance are to be found in the fact that it reflects a culture 
that retained its primitive freshness and vigour. A con- 
scious effort is visible throughout the book to discover in 
mythology a basis for the present life. A longing for the 
past, and regret for its disappearance are conspicuous every- 
where, especially in the poems lamenting the decay of form- 
er capitals. Such tendencies served to introduce, in 
addition to the realms of life and nature, a third class of 
subject-matter for poetry — namely the realm of tradition 
and legend. 

Rivalry in winning a wife is the theme of many legends. 
In the ‘ Age of the Gods ’ even mountains, as already noted, 
quarrelled over a prospective spouse (Nos. 9-1 1). The well- 
known tales of the Maiden Unai (Nos. 674-6) and Tekona 
of Mama (Nos. 575-7, 672-3), or of the Cherry-Flower 
Maid (Nos. 823-4) and Ka2urako, all tell of fierce conten- 
tions between lovers. In every case, it is to be noted, the 
story ends with the self-destruction of the poor helpless 
girl. Among the legends concerning the origin of place- 
names, those of the ‘ Scarf-Waving Hill 5 (No. 802) and the 
‘Yor 5 Waterfall’ (No. 556) are best known. The latter 
story, having to do with the c elixir of youth,’ directs our 
attention to the Taoistic elements in the Manyoshu. All the 
poems dealing with the supernatural, the life of perpetual 
youth and happiness, or the marriage between a mortal and 
a fairy maid, and others on like subjects, are to be considered 
as more or less connected with Taoistic superstitions. As 
for the famous legend of Urashima (Nos. 656-7), while no 
hasty conclusion is permissible regarding its origin and 
evolution, it is not difficult to detect the Taoistic influence 
in its description of the ‘ Everlasting Land ’ without age 
and without death. Of a similar and even deeper signifi- 
cance are the stories of ‘ Yamabito Tsuminoe ’ (No. 712) 
and the Maidens* of Matsura (Nos. 793-6). Thus those 


Taoistic ideas, which extend the concept of life beyond the 
bounds of earth, served to enrich considerably the Manyo 
world of poetry. Here one finds an instance of the 
influence of Chinese literature on our Anthology. 

Now, having before him this world of rich poetic ma- 
terial, embracing fife, nature and history, together with 
mythology and legend, how did the Manyo poet grasp it ? 
How did he portray it ? These questions bear upon another 
historical aspect of the Anthology. In the Manyd age, 
though it possessed an artistically finished language and a 
certain tradition in world outlook, Japanese poetry still 
retained its primitive vitality, and was in the process of a 
steady and wholesome development. Hence, the Manyo 
poems are impregnated with the health and virility of 
youth — a fact which has made the Anthology an inex- 
haustible reservoir of strength for Japanese literature of all 
subsequent ages. 

The language of the Manyoshu is highly sensuous ; that 
is to say, a psychological reaction, instead of being described 
in an abstract and general way, is expressed in terms of the 
physical senses, visual or auditory, gustatory or tactual. 
When a man is in love with a maid, it is said that * she 
rides on my heart,’ even as the wave rolls and spreads over 
the beach. The intensification of passion is represented in 
terms of respiration, such as ‘ breath-choking.’ Of course, 
such phrases were not inventions by individual poets ; they 
constituted a literary heritage of the race which was held in 
common by all the people, high and low, in town and 
country. The prevalent use of pillow-words is a good 
illustration of this point. 

We have already spoken of the danger of pillow-words 
becoming meaningless appendages or repetitions. In the 
case of the Manyoshu, however, a pillow-word usually 
serves as an overtone to magnify the amplitude of the tone 
of the head-word, leading us to the contemplation of a 
wider vista. Such juxtaposition of two different ideas does 
not merely affect the question of the structure or rhetoric 


of a language ; it involves the question of how the Manyo 
man grasped his world. When a poet is inspired to put 
into verse a certain emotion that burns within him, he 
seldom stops at giving the mere description of the internal 
state of his mind but, by association, he introduces into the 
realm of his feeling the things about him — especially the 
objects and phenomena of nature — which he has seen or 
felt or which are claiming his attention at that very moment. 
It is by the employment of these things as ‘ sympathetic 
chords,’ so to speak, that he proceeds to play the main 
string of his feeling. Herein lies the function of another 
rhetorical device, the ‘introductory verse.’ There are, 
consequently, a great many lyrics in the Manyo shit , which 
have what might perhaps be called harmonic construction. 

To summarize the foregoing, the characteristics of the 
Manyo poetry consist m its freshness of language, its 
harmonic construction and its firm grasp of life and nature, 
and these may be regarded as a continuation and develop- 
ment of the old traditions of indigenous Japanese culture. 
In this respect the Manyb lyrics stand in marked contrast 
to the plastic arts which flourished in the same period, but 
which were largely continental in style and technique. 
Plastic art, by its very nature, is capable of being trans- 
planted from one country to another and of thriving on the 
new soil practically in its original form — especially when it 
meets with no competition from a native source, as was the 
case in Japan of the 8th century, which could boast no 
greater tradition in this line than what was represented by 
the crude and primitive clay figures known as haniwa. 
Even among the sculptural masterpieces of the Asuka and 
Nara Periods, which mark one of the highest points in the 
history of Japanese art, it is usually difficult to distinguish 
which are the most typically Japanese specimens and which 
the general Asiatic type. The Manyo poetry, on the con- 
trary, was eminently successful in preserving and develop- 
ing characteristically Japanese elements. This is no doubt 
due to the fact that poetry is a word-art forming part and 


parcel of the very life of a race. At the same time, it 
indicates how strong and deep-rooted were the literary 
traditions that the Manyo age inherited from the ages past. 

While the Manjoshu possesses as a whole a unique dis- 
tinctive quality of its own, its poems naturally change in 
style with the changing times. Apart from those few 
works that belong to earlier periods antedating the reign of 
the Emperor Tenji, the bulk of the poems may be roughly 
divided into two groups — one belonging to the Asuka and 
Fujiwara Periods (673-710) and the other to the Nara 
Period (710-84). The poems of the former group are 
imbued with the freshness of elemental emotions and 
animated with a sturdy pioneering spirit. They possess 
an archaic solemnity, as well as masculine and vigorous 
qualities of tone, although marred at times by a crudeness 
or extravagance of expression. The latter group shows a 
marked gain in smoothness and lucidity of style ; some- 
times breathing a note of melancholy, and sometimes striv- 
ing for rhetorical elegance with a tendency to substitute a 
refinement of sensibility for fervour of sentiment. This 
meant, of course, only an internal change within the 
healthy, honest and unsophisticated Manyo mind, and the 
process was influenced and complicated by the genius of 
individual poets. Nevertheless, it may be broadly stated 
that such is the general direction that Manyo poetry fol- 
lowed in the course of its development. 

Among the poets prominent in the Manjoshu there are, 
as stated before, many members of the imperial family, 
beginning with the Emperor Yuryaku and the Empress 
Yamato-hime of the more remote periods. The most 
representative poet, however, of the early Manyo age, both 
in style and ability, is Kakinomoto Hitomaro, who excelled 
both in choka and tanka, and whose works include elegies 
and hymns of praise, as well as poems of love and travel. 
In his poems every scene glows with the fire of his feelings, 
and he often uses sonorous cadences such as recall the sound 
of the sea. In travel poems Takechi Kurohito is con- 


sidered Hitomaro’s equal, but the poet, who has always 
been accorded the place of honour with Hitomaro as one 
of the two ‘ Saints of Poetry,' is Yamabe Akahito who 
flourished in the early Nara Period. In contrast to the 
former’s impassioned attitude towards life, the latter, con- 
templating the world before him calmly and with unclouded 
eyes, wrote poems in a pure and limpid style. Takahashi 
Mushimaro, of whom a number of ballad-like poems 
treating of legendary subjects are preserved, is another 
important representative of this period. 

The later Manyd age, i. e. the Nara Period, is best repre- 
sented by a galaxy of poets centreing round the Otomo 
clan, of whom Tabito, his son Yakamochi, and his one- 
time subordinate, Yamanoe Okura, are the best known. 
They were all civilized men of the age, steeped in conti- 
nental culture and well acquainted with the teachings of 
Confucius and Buddhism, by which they were consequently 
influenced to a considerable degree. Okura, a Confucian 
scholar, was seriously interested in human relations and 
social questions. On the other hand, it is worthy of note 
that Tabito, while showing in the prefaces to his poems 
a profound knowledge of Chinese literature, remained 
throughout his life a passionate and truly Japanese poet. 
But in his son, Yakamochi, we have the pre-eminent figure 
of this period. From the many, and occasionally frivolous, 
love poems which he wrote as a young court noble sur- 
rounded by a bevy of beautiful women, to those in which 
he gravely exhorts his clansmen to tread the path of recti- 
tude and honour, his work ranges widely in content and 
tenor. Specially notable is that group of tanka (Nos. 521-2, 
523) which shows the poet’s soul, pensive and subdued, 
free from all violent emotions, and responding to every 
casual phenomenon of nature. They constitute in fact a 
new brand of poetry created in the closing years of the Man- 
y 5 age. 

Lady Otomo of Sakanoe — a sister of Tabito and a mem- 
ber of the above-mentioned group — is only one of the many 


distinguished women poets of the Manjoshu. There are 
also Princess Nukada who flourished in the reign of the 
Emperor Tenji, and Princess Oku (elder sister of Prince 
Otsu) whose genius was prompted to blossom forth under 
the star of an evil fortune. Then there is the Maiden Sanu 
Chiganu, author of a series of impassioned poems inspired 
by her tragic love. Further, there are those ladies who 
exchanged verses with Yakamochi, and many others, 
known or unknown by name, whose works deserve to 
rank among the best by virtue of the delicacy or tenderness 
or intensity of their feeling. 

Finally, it should be noted that the ’Manjoshu contains a 
great number of excellent poems by anonymous authors 
and common folk, as may be readily seen in the Eastland 
poems, or those by frontier-guards, and some others which 
are scattered in Books XI, XII and XIII. In point of 
style, idea and simile, they are simpler and plainer, as 
compared with the works of court poets ; but their rusticity 
has a rich charm of its own, and they are moreover no whit 
inferior in the genuineness of sentiment and in their obser- 
vation and treatment of nature. Many of these poems 
have the qualities of folk-song, which makes the Manjoshu 
truly a c people’s anthology.’ Those humble poets who 
sang, borrowing old familiar ditties of the country-side and 
weaving their own feelings into them, inject a refreshing 
and vital element into the Anthology, and throw interesting 
sidelights on the thoughts and beliefs of the age and the 
sentiments and modes of life in the provinces. 


The Manyoshv in Later Ages 

The Manjoshu seems to have been almost totally neglected 
for some time after its compilation. The first evidence we 
have of its having attracted any attention is a poem which 
was composed in the latter half of the 9th century in reply 


to a question of the emperor regarding the Anthology, and 
which is included in the Kokinshu , the first of the anthologies 
compiled at imperial command, which appeared in 905, 
and which was itself claimed to be a continuation of the 
Manjoshfi. A small collection of tanka , called Shinsen 
(newly compiled) Manjoshfi , dated 893, is also extant. 

The Kokinshu and the subsequent £ imperial anthologies 5 
continued to include some Manyo poems, though not 
without errors and misquotations. Of the Manyd poets, 
Hitomaro, Akahito and Yakamochi were honoured each by 
a book of random collections of their works. Especially 
Hitomaro and Akahito, as ‘ Saints of Poetry ’ among the 
‘ Thirty-six Master-Poets,’ came to receive universal vene- 
ration from this time onward. But little appreciation was 
shown of the true value and spirit of Many 5 poetry. 

It was some 200 years after the supposed date of its 
completion, tiiat the first attempt was made at a textual 
study of the Manyo poems. By order of the emperor, 
Minamoto Shitago (911-83), the leading poet and scholar 
of that time, who was also a lexicographer, produced a 
Manyo text to render its reading easier. For this work he 
has been accorded the first place in the long list of Manyo 
scholars. Subsequently for three or four centuries, glean- 
ings, selections and classified collections of Manyo poems 
continued to be made, as well as a certain amount of textual 
emendation, and even investigation into the date and cir- 
cumstances of the compilation. There is no doubt that 
the Anthology was cherished by court circles and the 
Shoguns ; and the copying of it was a pious exercise, to 
which fact we owe the scattered volumes and stray leaves 
of manuscript copies of the Manjoshfi done by master cal- 
ligraphers. Of these the most famous are a fragment of 
the ‘ Katsura MS.’ — apparently a copy of selected poems 
made in the middle of the xith century — now one of the 
‘ imperial treasures ’ ; the ‘ Genryaku Comparative Texts ’ 
consisting of parts of a manuscript copy dated 1184, and 
the * West Hongan-ji Temple Book ’ — a complete copy of 


the 13th century. 

A priest named Sengaku (i20 3 -?7 3 ), at Kamakura, by 
order of the Shogun Fuj iwara Yoritsune, carried on a 
thorough revision of the Manyo texts. His commentary 
in 10 volumes, completed in the middle of the 13 th century, 
marks the beginning of really scholarly labour in this field. 
During the 15 th and 1 6th centuries the Manyoshii gained in 
prestige and popularity, but no advance was made in the 
field of critical studies. It may be noted in passing that 
to the new school of renga poets the Manyoshii became 
an object of special esteem, and its great leader S5gi 
(d. 1502) tried his hand at commenting on the Anthology. 
With the 17th century a new age of revival of classical 
learning dawned upon Japan. The first printed edition of 
the Manyoshii was made possible by the use of movable 
wooden types. The third edition, revised and corrected 
and superseding the previous editions, was published in 
1643, an d this is an epoch-making edition that has remained 
to this day as an authority for general consultation concern- 
ing the ManyS text. 

Studies and researches, based strictly on bibliographical 
sources, were inaugurated by Keichu (1640-1701), a learned 
monk of Osaka. Tokugawa Mitsukuni (d. 1700), head of 
the Mito branch of the Shogunate family, who was one of 
the greatest patrons of learning in modern Japan, sponsored 
the labours of Keichu, which bore fruit in the Manyo 
Daishoki — a voluminous commentary in 20 books. For 
two centuries this book circulated, in the form of manuscript 
copies, as a valuable store of information. Keichu, 
a profound Buddhist scholar, was not only acquainted with 
Sanskrit, but was also versed in Chinese literature. He 
was thus well-equipped for his researches into ancient 
classics, and became the pioneer of Japanese philology as 
well as the founder of Many 5 learning. 

Sixty years after Keichu’s death, Kamo Mabuchi (1697- 
1769), a great scholar of Japanese classics, carried on further 
studies in the Manyoshii. Without confining himself to 


exegetical work, he investigated the dates of compilation 
of all the books of the Manyoshu and formulated theories 
regarding their original order, the results of which are 
embodied in the book entitled the Manyoko. Moreover, 
endowed with an extraordinary capacity for understanding 
and appreciation, he extolled the true spirit of the Many5 
and demonstrated his devotion by writing poems in the 
Many 5 style, so that many eminent scholars and poets, 
some of whom are mentioned below, appeared from among 
his pupils. Considerable as was his academic contribution, 
his influence upon the generation of Manyo scholars who 
followed him was no less. 

Tachibana Chikage (1734-1808) of Yedo, a disciple of 
Mabuchi, brought out the Manyoshu Vyakuge, a concise and 
convenient commentary, in 1812, which proved most 
successful in spreading Many 5 knowledge. In contrast 
to this popular book, a monumental work in 141 volumes, 
embodying most elaborate commentaries and studies, 
known as the Manyoshu Kogi, was compiled by a scholar in 
the remote province of Tosa in southern Japan, Kamochi 
Masazumi (1791-1858), and it is still valued as an authorita- 
tive work of reference. A fine edition of the book was 
published under imperial patronage in the year 1891, 
which has since been followed by smaller editions. It was 
while the work on the Kogi was in progress, that Kimura 
Masakoto (1827-1913), who became a great Manyo biblio- 
grapher, and an indefatigable collector and commentator of 
various texts, was born in eastern Japan. He conducted 
special researches in the field of Manyd script and phonol- 
ogy, and has left a critical commentary, which, though not 
complete, was the most exhaustive in existence at the time. 
Of this book the parts dealing with bibliography and 
methodology are still valuable, while many of the author’s 
views regarding textual interpretation compel attention and 
respect, representing as they do profound and conscientious 

The ground-work for Manyo textual criticism was 


completed by Dr. Nobutsuna Sasaki and his collaborators 
after many years’ labour. The Kohon Manyoshii , a variorum 
edition in 24 volumes (iovols. in 2nd edition), published 
in 1924, is based on the standard edition of 1643 mentioned 
above, and takes note of all the variant readings found in 
20 different sources, including such rare manuscripts as 
the ‘ Katsura MS.’ and others already described. It also 
contains facsimile reproductions from old manuscripts and 
editions. Though it may yet have to be enlarged or revised 
in future, this book is final for the present, and anticipates 
the compilation of a definitive edition of the Manyoshii. 

During the four decades from the beginning of the 20th 
century, when the first volume of Kimura’s commentary was 
issued, more manuscripts have been discovered, and those 
already known have been reproduced. Old commentaries 
have been reprinted and new ones, large and small, have 
been written. Biographies, geographies and natural history 
books concerning the Manyoshii, indexes and concordances 
of various kinds, monographs and dissertations, giving 
original theories or the results of independent studies, books 
and essays, some critical, some popular, some cultural- 
historical, — thousands of publications have come from the 
press. Details of these are to be found in the Manyoshii 
Kenkyii Nempo (Year’s Work in Manyo Studies) which has 
been issued regularly since 1930. It only remains to add 
that important contributions have been made in recent years 
by several members of our Committee to this Manyo 

The Manyoshii, which has given later scholars a store- 
house of historical materials regarding Japanese poetry and 
culture, has in more recent times served for poets as an 
undefiled well of thought and language. It is true that 
superficial followers of the Manyo style began to appear 
early in the mediaeval age, and they grew more numerous 
in the. 12th century, but they were mere imitators, and their 
number continued to multiply throughout the subsequent 
ages. The name of Minamoto Sanetomo (d. 1219), how- 


ever, deserves mention, since this ill-starred Shogun at 
Kamakura was a poet, young and sensitive, who in some of 
his poems showed a fine grasp of the Many 6 spirit and style. 
In the modern age, despite the active interest aroused in 
Manyo studies, scholars did not necessarily write their 
poems in the Manyo style. We have already discovered in 
Kamo Mabuchi an early propounder of Manyoism in the 
1 8th century. His pupils, Tokugawa Munetake (d. 1771) of 
Yedo and Katori Nahiko (d. 1782), were both excellent 
neo-Manyo poets. More poets of the same school appeared 
in the 19th century in northern and western Japan, of 
whom Ryokan the monk (d. 1831), Hiraga Motoyoshi 
(d. 1865) and Tachibana Akemi (d. 1868) may be mentioned. 
As for those of the Meiji era and after, there were — to 
confine ourselves to those poets who are dead — first of all 
Shiki Masaoka (d. 1902), who is remembered for his brilliant 
achievements as a reformer of tanka and haiku ; Sachio Ito 
(d. 1913), Shiki’s pupil, and Akahiko Shimaki (d. 1926), 
Sachio’s pupil, who are also famous for their poems in the 
Manyo style. This trio of master-and-disciples wrote not 
only excellent poems but also useful books for popularizing 
the appreciation and the spread of the Manyd style ; and 
future historians of Japanese poetry are not likely to over- 
look the contributions they made, in concert with other 
master-singers of their time, to the unprecedented vogue of 
tanka in Japan to-day. 


European acquaintance with the Manyoshu began with 
the 19th century. It was in 1834 that Klaproth, a noted 
Orientalist, translated into French one of the envoys to 
Yakamochi’s choka (No. 471) concerning the discovery of 
a gold mine in 749. In the middle of the 19th century 
a specimen of some printed edition found its way into 
Holland, for the Manyoshu is listed in Siebold’s catalogue of 
books imported from Japan. Translations, though of but 


a few poems in each case, began to appear from 1870 
onward, after intercourse was firmly established between 
Japan and Europe. 

The first of these was attempted by a French scholar, 
Leon de Rosny (1837-19x4), who published his Anthologie 
Japonaise in 1871, which contained 9 Many 5 poems. In the 
following year, 1872, an Austrian Orientalist, August 
Pfizmaier (1808-87) published in the Proceedings of the 
Imperial Academy of Vienna translations of more than 200 
poems — a half of Book III and a great part of Book IV. But 
all these early translations are, as would be expected, ex- 
tremely inaccurate. The first adequate work in this field 
appeared in 1 8 80 in The Classical Poetry of the Japanese which 
was written by Basil Hall Chamberlain (1850-1935), then 
Professor of the Tokyo Imperial University and a foremost 
authority on Japanese classics. The book contains a few 
score of the more important poems from the Manyoshu. 
Since then, with the growing appreciation of the Anthology, 
good translations have been published one after another. 
Karl Florenz (1865-1939), formerly Professor of the Ham- 
burg University and also Professor of the Tokyo Imperial 
University for many years, included 30 poems from the 
Manyoshu in his Dichtergriisse aus dem jernen Os ten , published 
in 1894. He also wrote in 1904 a history of Japanese 
literature, giving therein a brief exposition of the Manyoshu 
together with a few sample translations, as G. Aston (1841- 
1911) had done previously in 1899 for the English reading 

The Primitive and Mediaeval Japanese Texts, brought out 
in 1906 by F. V. Dickins (1838-1915), contains metrical 
translations of practically all the choka and a scholarly and 
comprehensive introduction to the Many 5 age and poetry. 
Michel Revon’s Anthologie de la Titterature Japonaise des 
Origines au 20 s Si'ecle, published in 1910, has also a good 
many pieces, including 5 choka. The little book by Arthur 
Waley, Japanese Poetry (1919), gives literal translations of 
some 90 poems, mostly tanka, with a view * to facilitate the 


study of the Japanese text/ The German translation of all 
Hitomaro’s poems and a study of the poet made in 1927 
by Alfred Lorenzen, one of the pupils of Professor Florenz, 
should be mentioned as a notable contribution, while the 
work of Dr. Georges Bonneau, who has been staying in 
Japan, and devoting his time to the translation of the 
KokinshU and Japanese folk-songs, and who in the meantime 
has published a few translations from the Manyoshii, de- 
serves notice. Dr. Bonneau claims that French is the 
European tongue best suited for translating Japanese poetry 
into because of certain intrinsic similarities between the two 
languages. By far the most colossal enterprise ever attemp- 
ted in this field is being undertaken by Dr. J. L. Pierson, Jr., 
a Dutch scholar well versed in the Japanese language, who 
has embarked upon a complete translation of the Manyoshii 
with copious annotations ‘ from the point of view of the 
linguist,’ of which the fifth volume, covering Book V of the 
original, has recently been published. 

As regards the labours of Japanese scholars in this field, 
it may be recalled that in 1897 Tomitsu Okazaki submitted 
to the University of Leipzig a doctoral dissertation, which 
contained an exposition of the Manyoshii and translations of 
its poems. Okazaki also gives translations of some 
Many 5 poems in his Geschichte der japanischen Nationalli- 
teratur , which was published in the following year. Among 
the contemporary writers of English, Professors Tetsuzo 
Okada and Asatard Miyamori may be mentioned, the former 
being the author of Three Hundred Manyo Poems, published 
in 1935, and the latter of Masterpieces of Japanese Poetry 
Ancient and Modern (1936) in two volumes, of which fully 
one-third of the first is devoted to the Manyoshii. 



The present translation is based largely upon the popular 
printed edition of the 20th year of Kan-ei (1643), while older 
editions and ancient manuscripts have also been consulted. 

Of the total number of poems, 4,516 in all according to the 
Kokka Taikan (Conspectus of National Poetry), 1,000 have 
been selected. These have been re-arranged according to 
periods, and are further classified into those of individual poets, 
those forming special groups, and those whose authorship is 
unknown. Poets whose years extend over two periods are plac- 
ed under one or other of the two for the sake of convenience. 

The translated poems are numbered according to the order in 
which they are given, a cboka with its envoys or a special group 
of poems being marked with the numbers of the first and last 
poems, placed together at the beginning, as for instance, 4-5, 
or 12-5. The original numbering in the Kokka Taikan for each 
individual poem is given on the right side in square brackets, 
Roman numerals indicating the number of the book, Arabic the 
number of the poem. 

Titles and Prefatory Notes have often been abbreviated ; and 
Original Notes have been abridged or transferred to foot-notes, 
where also the more important alternative readings and inter- 
pretations are to be found. 

Titles and Original Notes, etc., are omitted from the Romaji 
text, in which the original four lines are printed as one line in 
order to economize space. 

The reading given in the Romaji text is mainly that of Modern 
Japanese, as it is impossible to ascertain exactly the pronunciation 
of the Manyo age, but in the case of obsolete or archaic words an 
attempt has been made at restoring an older pronunciation. Some 
inconsistency is unavoidable owing to the disagreement between 
the theoretical pronunciation suggested by scholars and the 
traditional manner of reading followed by poets. 

In the Romaji transcription the Hepburn system has been fol- 
lowed, in which the consonants are pronounced as in English 
and the vowels as in Italian. The final E is always pronounced, 


two vowels coming together are pronounced separately, and 
G is always hard, even before I or Y. To guard against error 
and confusion in connection with the final E some Japanese 
names or words are marked with the acute accent (sake, Prince 
Yuge, etc.). 

In writing personal names, the conjunctive particle, no, so fre- 
quently introduced in Japanese between the surname and the 
given name, is omitted ; thus, Kakinomoto Hitomaro instead of 
Kakinomoto no Hitomaro. Place-names are occasionally translated, 
as, for instance, c Mirror Mountain 5 for Kagami Yama. 

In the case of animals, plants, clothes, etc., it is often difficult 
to find exact counterparts in English. Sometimes, the original 
Japanese names (. susukt ), or approximate translations ( c elm-tree * 
for isuki), are given ; sometimes new names have been invented 
through literal translation (‘ morning face ’ for asagao ), or by way 
of description (‘night-thrush’ for me). The names of offices 
and ranks are usually given in terms of the corresponding offices 
and ranks of to-day (Prime Minister for Naidatjtn) ; or translated 
( c Minister of the Left ’ for Sadaijin) ; or in the original (Taishok- 
kan). In all cases dates, unless otherwise mentioned, refer to 
the Christian era, but A. D. is omitted. 

The names of months are sometimes translated. It should be 
borne in mind that as the lunar calendar was in use, ‘ the first 
month’ or c January’ in the translation is about a month behind 
in season, corresponding more closely to February of the present 
calendar. e Pillow- words 5 are translated or suggested as far as 
possible, but many have been omitted because of the uncertain- 
ty of their original meanings. 

The Biographical Notes are given according to the order in 
which the poets are arranged m the translation. Only the more 
important offices which they held are mentioned, their court 
ranks being omitted. 



Emperor Yuryaku 

1 Y our basket, with your pretty basket, [i : i] 

Your trowel, with your little trowel, 

Maiden, picking herbs on this hill-side, 

I would ask you : Where is your home ? 

Will you not tell me your name ? 

Over the spacious Land of Yamato 
It is I who reign so wide and far, 

It is I who rule so wide and far. 

I myself, as your lord, will tell you 
Of my home, and my name. 

Emperor Jomei 

.2 Climbing Kagu-yama 1 and looking upon [i : z] 

the land. 

qountless are the mountains in Yamato, 

But perfect is the heavenly hill of Kagu ; 

When I climb it and survey my realm. 

Over the wide plain the smoke-wreaths rise and rise, 
Over the wide lake 2 the gulls are on the wing ; 

A beautiful land it is, the Land of Yamato ! 

} ^he stag of the Ogura Mountain [vm : 1511] 

That cries when evening comes. 

Cries not to-night — 

Is it that he sleeps ? 

1 The hill stands in Yamato Plain. According to legend, it descended from 

2 i. e. the lake of Haniyasu at the northern base of Kagu-yama. Though there 
remain only traces of it now, the lake was apparently very large. 


Empress Kogyoku 

4~j Presented to the Emperor Jomi by a mes- [i : 3—4] 
senger, Hashibito Oyu , on the occasion 
of his hunting on the plain of Uchr. 1 

j hear the twang of the mid-string 2 3 4 
Of his royal birchwood? bow, 

Which my Sovereign, ruling in peace, 

Loves to handle at break of day, 

And fondly leans against with dusk. 

Now he must be out for his morning hunt, 

Now he must be out for his evening chase ; 

I hear the twang of the mid-string 
Of his loved birchwood bow ! 


With horses drawn abreast 
On the open waste of Uchi, 

This morning he must be trampling 
That grassy land 1 

pROM the age of the gods [iv: 485-7] 

Men have been begotten and begetting ; 

They overflow this land of ours. 

I see them go hither and thither 
Like flights of teal — 

But not you whom I love. 

So I yearn each day till the day is over. 

And each night till the dawn breaks ; 

1 In Uchi District, Yamato Province. 

2 An alternative reading of the text is ‘ nagaha^ii ’ (long notches) 

3 A^usa, a kind of birch, chiefly used for making bows in ancient times. 

4 Composed presumably during the absence of her husband, the Empcioi 
Jomei. The author’s name given in the text is Okamoto-no -mtya y which may mean 
either the Emperor Jomei or the Empress Kogyoku. However, judging from 
their character, the poems are gen ei ally regarded as being by the Empress 


Sleeplessly I pass this long, long night ! 


Though men go in noisy multitudes 
Like flights of teal over the mountain edge, 1 
To me — oh what loneliness, 

Since you are absent whom I love. 

By the Toko Mountain in Omi 2 * 4 5 
There flows the Isaya,3 River of Doubt. 

I doubt whether now-a-davs 


You, too, still think of me ? 

Emperor Tenji 

The Three Hills ) [i : 1 3-5] 

J^jount Kagu strove with Mount Miminashi 
For the love of Mount Unebi. 

Such is love since the age of the gods ; 

As it was thus in the early days. 

So people strive for spouses even now. 


When Mount Kagu and Mount Miminashi wrangled, 
A god 6 came over and saw it 

1 The first two lines may be construed to read . 
e Though in noisy multitudes 
Flights of teal go over the mountain edge/ 

z Now Shiga Prefecture, in which Lake Biwa is situated 

1 The first part of the poem is a rhetorical introduction, the word Isaya being 
employed in a double sense, viz. as the name of a river and also as an exclamation 
of doubt. However, the use of this and other place-names points to the probabili- 
ty that the Emperor was then travelling in the province of Omi 

4 Composed by the Emperor while he was still Crown Prince during the reign 
of the Empress Saimei. 

5 In Yamato Plain. The poem is based on an old legend. 

6 The God of Abo. 


Here — on this plain of Inami l 1 

On the rich banner-like clouds 
That rim the waste of waters 
The evening sun is glowing, 
And promises to-night 
The moon in beauty ! 2 

Empress Iwa-no-hime 

1 2- j Longing for the Emperor Nintoku. [n : 85— 8J 

§ince you, my Lord, were gone. 

Many long, long days have passed. 

Should I now come to meet you 
And seek you beyond the mountains, 

Or still await you — await you ever ? 

Rather would I lay me down 
On a steep hill’s side. 

And, with a rock for pillow, die. 

Than live thus, my Lord, 

With longing so deep for you. 

Yes, I will live on 
And wait for you, 

Even till falls 

On my long black waving hair 
The hoar frost of age. 

1 In Inami District, Harima Province. Legend has it that at the quarrel of the 
Three Hills, the God of Abo, intending to compose the dispute, left Izumo Pro- 
vince and came as far as the plain, where he settled, on hearing of the end of the 

2 This poem does not seem to be an envoy, but as it is so given in an older 
book it is retained here. — Original Note 


How shall my yearning ever cease — 
Fade somewhere away, 

As does the mist of morning 
Shimmering across the autumn field 
Over the ripening grain ? 

Empress Yamato-hime 

1 6 Presented to the Emperor Tenji on the [n : 147] 

occasion of His Majesty s illness. 

j turn and gaze far 

Towards the heavenly plains. 

Lo, blest is my Sovereign Lord — 

His long life overspans 
The vast blue firmament . 1 

1 7 [After the death of the Emperor .] [11:148] 

'J'hough my eyes could see your spirit soar 2 
Above the hills of green-bannered Kohata, 

No more may I meet you face to face. 

18 qthers may cease to remember, [n : 149] 

But I cannot forget you — 

Your beauteous phantom shape 
Ever haunts my sight ! 

1 The poem recalls the ancient practice of seeking omens in the skies. The latter 
half of the original poem literally means : His life is long and fills full the sky (that 
is, is endless as is the sky). 

2 It was believed that the spirit of the dead would rise from the earth and fly to 
heaven. The Emperor’s tomb was situated at Kohata (near Kyoto). The phrase 
aohata no, here lendered ‘green-bannered/ is a pillow- word for Kohata. But it 
may be construed as an ordinary phrase referring to the green banners that were 
actually used on the occasion of a state funeral. 


*9 On the occasion of the temporary enshrine - [n : x 5 3J 

ment of the 'Emperor Tenji. 

qn the vast lake 1 of Omi 

You boatmen that come rowing 
From the far waters. 

And you boatmen that come rowing 
Close by the shore, 

Ply not too hard your oars in the far waters. 

Ply not too hard your oars by the shore, 

Lest you should startle into flight 
The birds beloved of my dear husband ! 

Prince Shotoku 

20 On seeing a man dead on Mount Tatsuta [hi : 41 5 ] 
during his trip to the Well ofTakahara . 

jjad he been at home, he would have slept 
Upon his wife’s dear arm; 

Here he lies dead, unhappy man. 

On his journey, grass for pillow. 2 

Prince Arima 

21-2^ lamenting his plight, and binding [n : 141-2] 
pine branches. 

lwashiro 4 I bind? 

The branches of a shore pine. 

1 1 e. Lake Biwa 1 Pillow-word for * journey.’ 

} Prince Anma was being taken to the hot spiings of Muro in the province of 
Kn, where the court was temporarily in residence. The prince, who was to be 
punished for his rebellious conduct, was put to death during the journey before 
reaching his destination. 

4 Located near the sea on the route to the hot springs. 

J Binding pine branches was practised as a sort of charm 


If fortune favours me, 

I may come back 
And see the knot again. 

Now that I journey, grass for pillow. 
They serve rice on the shii 1 leaves, 
Rice they would put in a bowl. 

Were I at home ! 

Prince Ikusa 

2 3~ 4 Seeing the mountains ivhen the Emperor Jomei [1 : 5-6] 
sojourned in Aja District , Sanuki Province . 1 

Ji^ot knowing that the long spring day — 

The misty day — is spent. 

Like the ‘ night-thrush ’3 I grieve within me, 

As sorely my heart aches. 

Then across the hills where our Sovereign sojourns, 
Luckily the breezes blow 

And turn back my sleeves 4 with morn and eve, 

As I stay alone ; 

But, being on a journey, grass for pillow. 

Brave man as I deem me, 

I know not how to cast off 
My heavy sorrows ; 

And like the salt-fires the fisher-girls 
Burn on the shore of Ami, 

I burn with the fire of longing 

* 1. c. Castanopsis cuspidate , an evergreen tree with thick oblong leaves. 

z According to the Original Note, the Emperor visited Sanuki presumably on 
the occasion of his journey to the hot springs in Iyo in the 12th month of the r ith 
year of his reign (639). 

* Nue > identified with tora-tsugumi , a kind of thrush which sings at night or in 
cloudy weather in a mournful tone. Its back is yellowish brown. 

4 * Turn back one’s sleeves ’ was an auspicious happening for a traveller, antici- 
pating a safe journey home. (See Introduction p. xli.) 


In my heart. 


Fitful gusts of wind are blowing 
Across the mountain-range, 

And night after night I lie alone, 
Yearning for my love at home. 

Princess Nukada 

2j yy'HiLE at Nigitazu we await the moon [i : 8] 

To put our ships to sea, 

With the moon the tide has risen ; 

Now let us embark l 1 

26 When the Emperor Tenji commanded Fuji war a [1:16] 

Kamatari , Prime Minister , to judge between 
the luxuriance of the blossoms on the spring 
hills and the glory of the tinted leaves on 
the autumn hills , Princess Nukada 
decided the question with this poem. 

yyHEN, loosened from the winter’s bonds. 

The spring appears, 

The birds that were silent 
Come out and sing, 

The flowers that were prisoned 
Come out and bloom ; 

But the hills are so rank with trees 
We cannot seek the flowers. 

And the flowers are so tangled with weeds 

1 This poem, according to the Original Note, is attributed to the Empress 
Saunei, who composed the poem in Iyo, when her imperial ships set sail west- 


We cannot take them in our hands. 

But when on the autumn hill-side 
We see the foliage, 

We prize the yellow leaves, 

Taking them in our hands. 

We sigh over the green ones, 
Leaving them on the branches ; 
And that is my only regret — 

For me, the autumn hills ! 

27-8 On the occasion oj her journey to Omi. 1 [1 : 17-8] 

o that sweet mountain of Miwa 1 2 — 

I would go lingering over its sight, 

Many times looking back from far upon it 
Till it is hidden beyond the hills? of Nara 
And beyond many turnings of the road ; 

Then should the clouds be heartless 
And conceal the mountain from me ? 


Must they veil Mount Miwa so ? 

Even clouds might have compassion ; 

Should ye, O clouds, conceal it from me ? 

27 Yearning for the Emperor Tenji. [ iv :488] 

■yyHiLE, waiting for you, 

My heart is filled with longing. 

The autumn wind blows — 

1 Composed on viewing Mount Miwa when the Emperor Tenp removed his 
court to Omi, m spring, in the 3rd month of the 6th year of his reign (667). — From 
the Original Note. 

- A shapely hill in Shiki District, looking over Yamato Plain from the east. 

J A low range of hills to the north of the city, through which runs the highway 
to the province of Yamashiro. 


As if it were you — 

Swaying the bamboo blinds of my door. 

30 Departing from the imperial tomb at [n : 1 5 5 j 

Yamashina. x 

rending the hallowed tomb 

Of His Majesty our Sovereign Lord, 

No more can they remain 
In the Mirror Mountain of Yamashina 
To weep aloud night-long and the long day 
through — 

The lords and ladies of the Great Palace 
Must now depart and scatter 1 

Princess Kagami 

31 jjven a breeze may fail me [iv : 489] 

When I desire it. 

Little I should grieve. 

If only, sure of its coming, 

I could await even a breeze. 2 * 

1 The disttict where the Mirror Mountain is situated, the site of the tomb ot 
the Emperor Tenji It is now a part of Higashiyama Ward of Kyoto. 

1 The poem is evidently intended to match No 29. The word tomosbt in the text, 
here rendered * fail/ can be taken to mean 4 envy,’ in which case the first two lines 

may be translated . 

* How I envy you 
Who wait even for a breeze 1 * 


Fujiwara Kamatari 

i-2 On the occasion of his marriage to [n : 95] 

Yasumiko, a palace attendant. 

O h ’ Yasumiko I have won ! 

Mine is she whom all men, 

They say, have sought in vain. 

Yasumiko I have won! 

* * * 

}}~4 Poems composed on the occasion of the [ix : 1665-6] 
Sovereign’s visit to Ki Province. 

j gather shells and pebbles 
For my darling at home ; 

O bear me those jewels from the open sea. 

Ye white surges on the distant foam. 

In clothes wet as they are with morning fog. 

Since none is by to dry them. 

All alone over the mountain road 
Will my husband press his way ! 

3J-6 Two poems 1 on the occasion of placing [n : 1 5 1-2] 

the remains of the Emperor in the 
Mortuary Palace. 

J-Jad we foreknown 

That thus it would be. 

We would have roped off the mooring-place 
Where lay the great imperial barge. 

— By Princess Nukada. 

1 These poems are based on the pleasant reminiscences of the imperial excur- 
sion on Lake Biwa shortly before the death of the Emperor. 


Perhaps, Cape Karasaki of Shiga 
Is waiting and longing 
For the great imperial barge 
Of our Sovereign Lord who ruled in peace. 

— By To fieri Kine. 

A Lady of the Court 

37 On the occasion of the death of the [u : 1 50] 

Emperor Tenji. 

j^ortal creature as I am. 

Whom the gods suffer not on high, 

Wide sundered. 

Each morning I lament my Lord ; 

Far divided, 

I long and languish after my Lord. 

Oh, were he a jewel 

That I might put about my arm and cherish ! 

Oh, were he a garment 

That I might wear and not put off ! 

The Lord whom I love so, 

I saw but last night — in dream. 



Emperor Temmu 

)S qn the peak of Mimiga of fair Yoshinu 1 [r : 2.5] 
The snow is falling constantly, 

The rain is falling ceaselessly; 

Constantly as falls the snow, 

Ceaselessly as beats the rain, 

Ever thinking I have come, 

Missing not one turning 
Of that mountain-path ! 

Emperor Temmu and Lady Fujiwara 


Has fallen here at my place. 

But at your tumble-down old village of Ohara, 

If ever, later it will fall . — By the 'Emperor. 

40 jt was I who did command [rr : 104] 

The Dragon God of these hills 
To send down the snow, 

Whereof a few fragments, perchance, 

Were sprinkled over your home . — Bp the Lady. 

Empress Jito 

41 gPRiNG has passed away [1 : *8] 

And summer is come ; 

* Yoshinu, i. e. Yoshmo, is the mountainous district occupying the southern 
half of Yamato Province, 

Look where white clothes are spread in the sun 
On the heavenly hill of Kagu ! 

42 After the death of the Emperor Temmu. [n : 159] 

qh, the autumn foliage 
Of the hill of Kamioka l 1 
My good Lord and Sovereign 
Would see it in the evening 
And ask of it in the morning. 

On that very hill from afar 
I gaze, wondering 
If he sees it to-day. 

Or asks of it to-morrow. 

Sadness I feel at eve, 

And heart-rending grief at morn — 

The sleeves of my coarse-cloth robe 
Are never for a moment dry. 

43-4 Two poems said to have been composed [xx : i6o_i] 
by the Empress after the death of 
the Emperor Temmu. 

gven a flaming fire can be snatched, 

Wrapt and put in a bag — 

Do they not say so ? 

But they say not that they know 
How I may meet my Lord again ! 

Above the north mountain-range 
That rims the blue firmament 
The stars pass on, 

The moon passes on — 

1 1. e. the so-called Thunder Hill in the village of Asuka near Nara. See No. 1 18- 


Empress Jito and Old Lady Shihi 

49 ‘ more, 5 1 say to her, [111:236] 

Yet Shihi insists on telling me her tales ; 

Lately I have not heard them. 

And I miss them now ! — By the Empress. 

46 ‘ more,’ I say to you, [111:237] 

Yet you urge, c Tell me, tell me.’ 

So I continue ; then you say, 

‘ It is Shihi who insists.’ — By Shihi. 

Prince Otsu 

47 Composed in tears when he died by im- [nr : 416] 

perial order on the bank of Iware Bond. 

'J'o-day, taking my last sight of the mallards 
Crying on the pond of Iware, 

Must I vanish into the clouds ! 

Prince Otsu and Lady Ishikawa 

48 -^yAiTiNG for you, [n : 107] 

In the dripping dew of the hill 
I stood, — weary and wet 

With the dripping dew of the hill. — By the Prince. 

49 \youLD I had been, beloved, [n : 108] 

The dripping dew of the hill, 

That wetted you 

While for me you waited. — By the Lady. 

1 9 

Prince Yuge 

jo On the occasion of his visit to Yoshinu. [hi : 242 ] 

■^jnlike the cloud that dwells on Mount Mifund 1 
Far above the rapids, 

I cannot hope to live 
Unchanging for ever ! 

Prince Shiki 

ji Composed after the Empress Jito had removed [1:51] 

from the Palace of Asuka to that of Eujiwara , 2 3 4 

'J'he gentle winds at Asuka 

That fluttered the ladies’ sleeves? — 

Now that the court is far removed, 

Those breezes blow in vain. 

J2 Composed when the Emperor Momma visited [1 : 64] 

the Palace of Naniwa 4 in the third year of 
Keiun (706). 

'J'his evening so cold and chill 

That the mallards’ wings are white with frost 
As they skim the reedy shore. 

How I think of Yamato !j 

1 Said to be the mountain to the south of Miyataki (Palace Rapids), a division 
of Naka)o Village on the River Yoshino. 

2 The removal of the court to Fujiwara took place in the 12th month of the 8th 
year of Shucho (694). 

3 Vneme, young women serving at court, chiefly at the imperial table. They were 
selected from among the daughters of influential families or of higher officials in the 

4 The Palace of Naniwa was in what is now the city of Osaka. 

3 The province in which Nara, the capital, was situated. 


33 A song of joy. 1 [vm : 1418] 

^bove the cascade 2 tumbling down the rocks 

The bracken sprouts and burgeons on the hill 

Ah, the happy spring is come ! 

Princess Oku 

J4~J Upon the departure of Prince Otsu for [11:105-6] 
the capital after his secret visit to 
the Shrine of Ise. 

'j’o speed my brother 
Parting for Yamato, 

In the deep of night I stood 
Till wet with the dew of dawn. 

The lonely autumn mountains 
Are hard to pass over 
Even when two go together — 

How does my brother cross them all alone ! 

j6-j On her arrival at the capital after the [11:163-4] 
death of Prince Otsu. 

^youLD that I had stayed 
In the land of Ise 
Of the Divine Wind. 

Why have I come 
Now that he is dead ! 

Now that he is no more — 

1 It is said that the poem alludes to the personal fortune of the Prince. But it 
may be regarded simply as an extempore composition on the occasion of an outing. 

2 Tarumi, translated as 4 the cascade/ is believed by some scholars to be the name 
of a place in the province of Harima. 


My dear brother — 

Whom I so longed to see. 
Why have I come, 

Despite the tired horses ! 

fS-p Lamenting Prince Otsu on the occasion of [11:165-6] 
the removal of his remains to the tomb 
in the Lutagami Mountain. 

j?ROM to-morrow ever 
Shall I regard as brother 
The twin-peaked mountain of Futagami — 

I, daughter of man ! 

I would break off a branch 
Of the flowering staggerbush 1 
Growing on the rocky shore ; 

But no one says he lives 
To whom I would show it ! 

Princess Tajima 

60 Composed when Prince Ho’gumi was des- [11:115] 
patched by imperial command to a moun- 
tain temple of Shiga in Omi. 

j^ather than stay behind to languish, 

I will come and overtake you — 

Tie at each turn of your road 
A guide-knot, my lord ! 

1 Ashibi (Pieris japonica ), an evergreen wild shrub, whose tiny nodding white 
flowers open in clusters in early spring. 


6 1 Composed when her clandestine relations [11:116] 
with Prince Ho-^umi during her residence in 

the palace of Prince Takechi became known. 

■gECAUSE of the slanderous tongues, 

The busy mouths abroad, 

Now I cross the morning river 
I have never crossed in my life before. 

Prince Omi and an Anonymous Person 

62 Composed in sympathy for Prince Omi when [1 : 23] 

he was exiled to the isle of Irago 1 in the 
province of Ise. 

js the Prince of Omi a fisherman ? 

Alas ! he gathers the seaweed 
At the isle of Irago. 

6j Peply by the Prince, grieving at his lot. [1 : 24] 

qlinging to this transient life 
I live on the seaweed, 

Which I, drenched with the waves, 

Gather at the isle of Irago. 

Prince Yamakuma 

64-6 An elegy on the death of Prince Iwata. [nr ‘ 4 2 3 ~ 5 ] 

ALONG the path of I ware 

Each morning he would pass, 

« In Mikawa Province. But it -was often regarded as belonging to Isf because 
of its proximity to that province. 


Thinking how to make garlands 
Of flags and orange 1 flowers 
In the fifth month when the cuckoo calls, 
Or how to deck the hair with yellow leaves 
In the ninth month of autumn showers. 
Well believing the love would last. 

Long as a creeping vine. 

Endless for a myriad ages. 

Alas ! from to-morrow on 
Must we regard that prince 
As belonging to another world ! 


The jewels she wore on her arms, 

That maiden of secluded Hatsuse, 

I fear they are unstrung 
And in confusion lie ! 

In the coldness of the river-breeze, 

Grieving he plodded through Hatsuse ; 2 
O that we could meet 
One like that prince ! 

Prince Niu 

67-9 An elegy on the death of Prince Iwata. [ni : 420-2] 

prince, graceful as the pliant bamboo. 

My lord, with beauteous ruddy face, 

Was enshrined as a god 

In the hills of secluded Hatsuse : 

So a messenger has told me. 

Is this a rumour that I hear ? 

1 Tachibani, a kind of citrus bearing small fruit 

1 The River Hatsuse runs through the village of that name. 


Is it a mockery that I am told ? 

My greatest sorrow under heaven, 

My wildest grief in this world, 

Is that I failed to travel, 

With my staff or without it, 

Far as the clouds of heaven wander, 

Far as the ends of heaven and earth, 

To consult the evening oracle , 1 
To consult the oracle of stones ; 

Whereupon to build a shrine at my home, 

With a wine-jar 2 at my pillow, 

Stringing many a bamboo-ring , 2 

With bands of mulberry-cloths hanging on my arms. 

And in my hand a seven-jointed sedge 

From the Sasara Field of Heaven, 

To purify myself and pray 
On the Heavenly River’s shore. 

Ah that I must leave him lying 
Among the rocks of that lofty hill ! 


It is nothing but a trick 
And a mere mockery. 

That he, my prince, is laid 
Among the rocks of that lofty hill ! 

Unlike the growth of the sugij the ‘ pass ’-trees. 

On Furu’s hill at Isonokami,5 
He is no such prince 
As will pass from my mind ! 

* A form of divination from words spoken by passers-by in the evening 

2 The wine-jar and bamboo-rings were used at religious services. 

3 Woven of yii y the fibre of the paper mulberry. 

4 i. e. Cryptomena japonic a, an evergreen needle-leaf forest tree allied to the 
cypresses, native to Japan. Its name being homophonous with the verb sugu, which 
means 4 to pass/ it is often used as an introductory word to the verb. 

5 In Yamato Province In the town of Tambaichi there is the Isonokami Shrine. 

2 5 

Princess Tamochi 

70-2 At the burial of Prince Kauchi in the [in : 4 1 7-9] 
Mirror Mountain 1 in Tojo. 

^yAS it pleasing to my prince’s soul ? 

This Mirror Mountain in Toyo 
He chose for his eternal palace. 

In the Mirror Mountain in Toyo, 

With its rock-doors shut, 

Has he hidden himself ? 

However long I wait, he never returns. 

0 for strength to break the rock doors ! 

Weak woman that I am, 

1 know not what to do ! 

Wife of Tagima Maro 2 3 

73 'YynERE is my husband trudging on his [r : 43] 
journey ? 

Will he to-day force his road 
Over the mountains of Nabaris 
Hidden like the deep-sea weed ? 

1 Kagami-yama in Tagawa District in Buzen. Buzen, one half of the land of 
Toyo, now forms part of Fukuoka and Oita Prefectures. 

2 Her husband was travelling in Is£ Province. 

3 The present town of Nabari and its neighbourhood in Mie Prefecture. 


Kakinomoto Hitomaro 

74-6 On passing the ruined capital of Omi 7 [1:29-31] 

giNCE the eta of that sage Sovereign 1 2 3 4 > 

At the palace of Kashiharas 
Under the hill of Unebi, 

All the Sovereigns born to the Throne, 

Reign after reign, ruled the under-heaven, 
Remaining in Yamato ; 

Then the Emperor, a god. 

Forsaking the ancient land, 

Crossed the hills of Nara, 

And, though I know not what he meant, 

Held court at Otsu of Sasanamh 
In the land of Omi, 

Remote place as it was. 

But now, though I am told his royal palace towered 

And they say here rose its lofty halls, 

Only the spring weeds grow luxuriantly 
And the spring sun is dimmed with mists. 

As I see these ruins of the mighty palace 
My heart is heavy with sorrows ! 


Although it lies unchanged, 

The cape of Karasaki 
Of Shiga in Sasanami, 

It waits and waits in vain 
For the courtiers’ barges. 

1 The Emperor Tenji removed his court to Otsu in Omi m 667. The city was laid 
waste by the War of Jinshin in 672. In the following year a new capital was establish- 
ed again in Yamato. 

2 l. e. the Emperor Jimmu, the first Emperor. 

3 At the south-eastern foot of Unebi. 

4 A district comprising Shiga and Otsu. 

2 7 

Though the vast waters stand still 
At Shiga in Sasanami, 

Could they ever meet again 
The people of the former days ? 

77- On an imperial visit 1 to the pleasure-palace [i : 36-7] 

of Yoshinu. 

'J'hough, in the Land where rules our Sovereign, 
The provinces are many, 

She loves, in Yoshinu, 2 the field of Akitsu, 

Encircled by clear streams and towering mountains, 
Where cherry-flowers fall, 

And there she has reared herself 
A mighty-pillared palace. 

Here the courtiers row their barges 
Side by side across the morning waters, 

And race upon the evening stream. 

Endless as this river flows, 

Lofty as these mountains, 

Will it stand for aye, 

And never tire my eyes, 

This palace by the stream ! 


Endless as the smooth rocks lie 
In the rapids of Yoshinu, 

That never tire my eyes, 

Will I come and gaze upon the palace. 

1 The Original Note says that, according to the Nihonsboki , the Empress Jito 
visited the Palace of Yoshinu several times during her reign. But it is not clear on 
which occasion these poems were composed. 

2 Yoshinu was at one time a province. 



yp-So Qua great Sovereign, a goddess, 

Of her sacred will 
Has reared a towering palace 
On Yoshinu’s shore, 

Encircled by its rapids ; 

And, climbing, she surveys the land. 

The overlapping mountains, 

Rising like green walls, 

Offer the blossoms in spring, 

And with autumn, show their tinted leaves, 

As godly tributes to the Throne. 

The god of the Yu River , 1 to provide the royal table, 
Holds the cormorant-fishing 
In its upper shallows, 

And sinks the fishing-nets 2 
In the lower stream. 

Thus the mountains and the river 
Serve our Sovereign, one in will ; 

It is truly the reign of a divinity. 


The mountains and the waters 
Serve our Sovereign, one in will ; 

And she, a goddess, is out on her pleasure-barge 
Upon the foaming rapids. 

1 The name of part of the river Yoshino. 

* Strictly speaking, fishing-nets in the form of a winno wing-fan. They were 
sunk in the water. 


8 1-2 Composed bj Hitomaro, who remained in the [r : 40, 42] 
capital 1 when the Empress Jito visited the 
province of Ise, 2 3 4 5 in spring , , in the third 
month of the sixth j ear of Shucho (692). 

'J'he court ladies may board a boat 
On the bay of Ago ;3 
Will the tide swell up 
To the hems of their elegant skirts ?4 

In the boat that sails about the isle of Irago 
When the tides clash and brawl, 

Will the court ladies venture forth ? 

Ah, those raging waters round the isle ! 

8 }-j On the occasion of the night-sojourn of Prince [1 : 45-9] 
Karm on the plain of Aki . 6 7 

qur prince, offspring of the Bright One on high. 
Of his godlike will, 

Leaves the Imperial City; 

Then, along the wild path through the cypresses. 
And brushing the thicket in the rocks, 

Crosses the hills of secluded Hatsuse 
With morning ; 

And, as evening comes, 

He bends the waving susitkn and bamboo 
On the snow-falling plain of Aki, 

1 Then situated at Asuka in Yamato Province. 

2 From Ise the Empress went to visit Shima Province, according to the Nihonshoki. 

3 In Shima. 

4 i. e. mo , a part of the lady’s full diess. It hung from the waist and covered only 
the back part. (See Introduction p. xlviii.) 

5 Son of the Crown Prince Kusakabe who was a son of the Emperor Temmu. He 
later ascended the throne as Empeior Mommu. 

6 In Uda District in Yamato. 

7 A perennial grass, the ears of which look like the tail of an animal , hence, its 
other name obana (tail flower). See No. 646. 

3 ° 

And stays the night long. 

With grass for his pillow. 

Remembering the days gone by. 


The travellers taking shelter 
On the plain of Aki, 

Can they sleep at their ease, 

Remembering the days gone by ? 

Though this is but a desolate plain 
Where people mow the grass. 

They journeyed all the way 

To remember him, gone like the yellow leaf. 

On the eastern plain 

The purple dawn is glowing, 

While looking back I see 
The moon declining to the west. 

That Prince of Hinamishi 1 
Held here his royal hunt. 

With horses bridle to bridle; 

Again that time has come. 

88-90 On leaving his wife as he set out [ir : 13 1-3] 

from Iwami 2 for the capital. 

^long the coast of Tsunu3 
On the sea of Iwami 
One may find no sheltering bay. 

One may find no sequestered lagoon. 

O well if there be no bay ! 

1 An honorific title of the Crown Prince Kusakabe. He died in the 4th month 
of the 3rd year of the Empress Jito’s reign. 

1 A province in western Honshu, facing the Japan Sea 
J Tsunotsu of the present day. 


0 well if there be no lagoon ! 

Upon Watazu’s 1 rocky strand, 

Where I travel by the whale-haunted sea. 

The wind blows in the morning. 

And the waves wash at eve 

The sleek sea-tangle and the ocean weed. 

All limpid green. 

Like the sea-tangle, swaying in the wave 
Hither and thither, my wife would cling to me, 
As she lay by my side. 

Now I have left her, and journey on my way, 

1 look back a myriad times 
At each turn of the road. 

Farther and farther my home falls behind, 

Steeper and steeper the mountains I have crossed. 
My wife must be languishing 
Like drooping summer grass. 

I would see where she dwells — 

Bend down, O mountains ! 


From between the trees that grow 
On Takatsunu’s mountain-side 
In the land of Iwami 
I waved my sleeve to her — 

Did she see me, my dear wife ? 

The leaves of bamboo grass 
Fill all the hill-side 
With loud rustling sounds ; 

But I think only of my love, 

Having left her behind. 

1 Presumably the vicinity of the present-day Watatsu Village, Naka District. 

3 2 

[II : 135-7] 

9 1-3 JN the sea of Iwami, 

By the cape of Kara,* 

There amid the stones under sea 
Grows the deep-sea fniru 7 - weed ; 

There along the rocky strand 
Grows the sleek sea-tangle. 

Like the swaying sea-tangle, 

Unresisting would she lie beside me— 

My wife whom I love with a love 
Deep as the miru - growing ocean. 

But few are the nights 
We two have lain together. 

Away I have come, parting from her 
Even as the creeping vines do part. 

My heart aches within me ; 

I turn back to gaze — 

But because of the yellow leaves 
Of Watari Hill, 

Flying and fluttering in the air, 

I cannot see plainly 
My wife waving her sleeve to me. 

Now as the moon, sailing through the cloud rift 
Above the mountain of Yakami ,3 
Disappears, leaving me full of regret. 

So vanishes my love out of sight; 

Now sinks at last the sun. 

Coursing down the western sky. 

I thought myself a strong man. 

But the sleeves of my garment 
Are wetted through with tears. 

1 A headland of Takuno, Nima District, jutting out towards an island called 

2 A seaweed, edible when young. 

3 Unknown, though sometimes it is identified with Mount Takazen. 



My black steed 
Galloping fast. 

Away have I come. 

Leaving under distant skies 
The dwelling-place of my love. 

Oh, yellow leaves 
Falling on the autumn hill. 

Cease a while 

To fly and flutter in the air 

That I may see my love’s dwelling-place ! 

94-6 At the time of the temporary enshrinement [11:167-9] 
of the Crown Prince Hinamishi - 1 

A T the beginning of heaven and earth 

The eight hundred, the thousand myriads of 

Assembled in high council 
On the shining beach of the Heavenly River, 
Consigned the government of the Heavens 
Unto the Goddess Hirume, the Heaven-Illumining 

And the government for all time, 

As long as heaven and earth endured, 

Of the Rice-abounding Land of Reed Plains 2 
Unto her divine offspring, 

Who, parting the eightfold clouds of the sky, 

Made his godly descent upon the earth. 

Our noble Prince, 3 child of the Bright One above, 

1 See note to No. 87 
* An ancient name for Japan. 

5 Sometimes taken to mean the Emperor Temmu, in which case the ensuing 
lines have to be construed differently. 


Regarding this— the land over which 
The gracious Sovereign reigns as a god 

From the Kyomi Palace, of Asuka, stout-pillared 
Has ascended the Plain of Heaven ^ 5 

Opening wide the gate of stone. 

Alas, our mighty lord and prince, 

On whom the folk everywhere in the land leaned 

Trustful as one riding a great ship, : 

And to whom they looked up as eagerly 

As to heaven for rain, hoping 

That if he came to rule the under-heaven 

He would bring to his reign 

A glory of the spring flowers 

And such perfection as of the full moon ! 

Ah, how was he minded that he chose 
To plant stout pillars 
And build him a palace high 
On Mayumi’s 1 2 alien hill ! 

There we wait on him each mo rni ng. 

But no word he speaks — 

So have passed days on days. 

Wherefore now the servitors of the Prince 
Must go, but know not where. 


The stately palace of our Prince 
To whom we looked up 
As we look up to high heaven, 
Alas, must fall into ruin ! 

Though the ruddy sun shines, 
The fair moon, that sails 

1 Built by the Emperor Temmu as an imperial residence, and maintained as 
such till the 8 th year of the Empress Jito’s reign. 

2 Located in Sakari Village, Takaichi District, Yamato Province. The tomb of 
the prince, built on the hill, is still extant. 


The darkness of night, 

Is hidden for ever — alas ! 

97 •j'HE birds of the Island Palace , 1 [n: 170] 

Kept in the lake of Crescent Gem , 2 3 4 5 
Will not dive under water, 

Craving the sight of men . 3 

98-9 Presented 4 to Princess Hatsusebei [11 : 194-5] 

and Prince Osakabed 

j^ainty water-weeds, growing up-stream 
In the river of the bird-flying 6 7 Asukap 
Drift down-stream, gracefully swaying. 

Like the water-weeds the two would bend 

Each toward the other, the princess and her consort. 

But now no longer can she sleep, 

With his 8 fine smooth body clinging 
Close to hers like a guardian sword. 

Desolate must be her couch at night. 

Unable to assuage her grief, 

But in the hope of finding him by chance, 

She journeys to the wide plain of Ochinu, 

There, her skirt drenched with morning dew 
And her coat soaked with the fog of evening, 

1 Shitna-tio-miya, so called, referring to the islet in the lake of the palace garden 
Shimanosho in Takaichi Village, Takaichi District, Yamato Province, is regarded 
as the site of the ancient palace, 

2 Probably so named because of its shape. 

3 This poem is attributed to Hitomaro in a certain book. 

4 These poems were presented, according to a certain book, to Princess Hatsusebe 
on the occasion of the burial of Prince Kawashima — Original Note. 

5 Both were children of the Emperor Temmu ; they had the same mother 

6 A pillow-word for Asuka. 

7 Traversed the metropolitan area of those days, now Takaichi District. 

8 Prince Kawashima, if it may be assumed that the Original Note is correct. 


She passes the night — a wayfarer with grass for 
pillow — 

Because of him whom she nevermore will meet ! 

Her lord and husband with whom she had slept, 
The sleeves of their robes overlapping, 

Has passed away to the plain of Ochinu. 

How can she ever meet him again ! 

100-2 On the occasion of the temporary enshrine- [n : 196-8] 

merit of Princess Asuka .' 1 

^cross the river of the bird-flying Asuka 

Stepping-stones are laid in the upper shallows, 
And a plank bridge over the lower shallows. 

The water-frond waving along the stones. 

Though dead, will reappear. 

The river-tresses swaying by the bridge 
Wither, but they sprout again. 

How is it, O Princess, that you have 
Forgotten the morning bower 
And forsaken the evening bower 
Of him, your good lord and husband — 

You who did stand handsome like a water-frond, 
And who would lie with him. 

Entwined like tender river-tresses ? 

No more can he greet you. 

You make your eternal abode 
At the Palace of Kinohe 2 whither oft in your life- 

1 Daughter of the Emperor Tenji. Died in the 4th month of the 4th year of the 
Emperor Mommu’s reign. 

2 A place in Hirose District, Yamato Province (now included in Kita-Kazuraki 


He and you made holiday together, 

Bedecked with flowers in spring. 

Or with golden leaves in autumn-tide, 

Walking hand in hand, your eyes 

Fondly fixed upon your lord as upon a mirror. 

Admiring him ever like the glorious moon. 

So it may well be that grieving beyond measure, 
And moaning like a bird unmated, 

He seeks your grave each morn. 

I see him go, drooping like summer grass, 
Wander here and there like the evening-star, 
And waver as a ship wavers in the sea. 

No heart have I to comfort him, 

Nor know I what to do. 

Only your name and your deathless fame, 

Let me remember to the end of time ; 

Let the Asuka River, your namesake, 

Bear your memory for ages, 

O Princess adored ! 


Even the flowing water 
Of the Asuka River — 

If a weir were built, 

Would it not stand still ? 

O Asuka, River of To-morrow, 

As if I thought that I should see 
My Princess on the morrow, 

Her name always lives in my mind. 1 * * 

1 The poem is intended to convey regret over the impossibility of preventing 

the passing of the Princess. There is a play on the word asu which forms part of the 

name of the River, and at the same time means ‘ to-morrow/ or ‘ on the morrow . 5 


1 0 3 / Following the temporary enshrinement [11:199—201] 

of Prince Takecht. 1 

^wesome beyond speech, 

O dread theme for my profane tongue ! 

That illustrious Sovereign, our mighty Lord, 

Who reared his imperial palace 
On the Makami plain 2 3 4 of Asuka, 

Now keeps his divine state, 

Sepulchred in stone. 

He it was who descended to dwell 
At the pavilion of Wazami Fields 
In yonder province of the realm, 

Across the pass of high-forested Fuwa,4 
There to rule the under-heaven — 

To wield the sceptre over his wide domain ; 

Who summoned his Eastland host; 

And ordered our prince, Imperial son as he was, 

To pacify the furious men 

And subjugate all the unruly lands. 

Forthwith our prince buckled on a sword, 

And in his august hand 
Grasped a bow to lead the army. 

The drums marshalling men in battle array 
Sounded like the rumbling thunder, 

The war-horns blew, as tigers roar, 

Confronting an enemy, 

1 Son of the Emperor Temmu He was appointed Commander-In-Chief of the 
Imperial Army in the famous War of Jinshm (672). Under the Empress Jito he was 
made Prune Minister and became the Crown Prince. He died in 696. Princess 
Asuka was also temporarily enshrined at Kinohe (cf. Nos. 100-2). Of course, the 
sanctuary of the Prince was not built on the same spot. His tomb still exists on a 
hill called Mitachi-oka 

2 Part of Asuka, where the court of the Emperor Temmu is said to have been 

3 Not definitely known, although it is sometimes identified with the Sekigahara 
of to-day. 

4 Fuwa Mountain is in Fuwa District, Mino Province. 


Till all men were shaken with terror. 

The banners, hoisted aloft, swayed 
As sway in wind the flames 1 that bum 
On every moorland far and near 
When spring comes after winter’s prisonment. 
Frightful to hear was the bow-strings’ clang. 

Like a whirlwind sweeping 
Through a winter forest of snow. 

And like snow-flakes tempest-driven 
The arrows fell thick and fast. 

The foemen confronting our prince 
Fought, prepared to a man to perish. 

If perish they must, like dew or frost ; 

And vying with one another like birds upon the 

They flew to the front of battle — 

When lo, from Watarai’s holy shrine 2 3 
There rose the God’s Wind confounding them. 

By hiding the sun’s eye with clouds 
And shrouding the world in utter darkness. 

Thus was turmoil quelled. 

And peace established once again 
In this Rice-abounding Land, 

Our glorious prince then administered 
The affairs of government under heaven. 

And his rule, men hoped, would endure 
For ten thousand ages and prosper 
Like the fadeless jw3-flower. 

Alas, our dear Prince Imperial 1 

His resplendent palace was transformed 

Into a sanctuary for a god. 

And his servitors clad in white hempen clothes 

1 The simile refers probably to the use of red banners. 

x i. e. the Great Shrine of Ise, Watarai being the name of the place where the 
shrine stands 

3 Fibre of the paper mulberry, used for making cloth. 


Daily fell prostrate like boars 
In the palace grounds of Haniyasu , 1 
And at sunset wandered, bending low 
Like quails and gazing toward the palace. 

They would serve their prince, 

But serve him now they could no more ; 

Grieving they moaned like spring birds, 

But before their sorrow ended 
And their sighing ceased, 

The prince was borne over the Kudara Plain 2 3 4 
For sacred burial in the tomb of Kinohe, 

Where, a god enshrined high. 

He makes his eternal abode. 

Even so, there remains the palace of Kagu-yama,3 
Built by our prince to stand for ages — 

Can I think it ever will pass away ? 

Let me look up to it as up to heaven 
In remembrance of him — over-awed as I am l 


Because of our lord who has gone 
To rule the Heavens above 
In what endless longing we live. 

Scarce heeding the days and months that pass ! 

Like the water of the hidden pooB 
On the bank of the Haniyasu Lake 
They know not whither to go — 

Sore perplexed are they, the servants of the prince ! 

i It would seem that the palace of the ptince was situated near the Haniyasu Lake. 

1 In Kita-Kazuraki District, Yamato. It is a plain lying between Kinohe and 
Asuka District, 

3 The palace stood probably on this hill of Kagu. 

4 A pool confined within a bank — say, of stone. 


[n : 207-9] 

After the death of his wife. 

giNCE in Karu 1 lived my wife, 

I wished to be with her to my heart’s content ; 
But I could not visit her constantly 
Because of the many watching eyes — 

Men would know of our troth. 

Had I sought her too often. 

So our love remained secret like a rock-pent pool ; 

I cherished her in my heart, 

Looking to after-time when we should be together. 
And lived secure in my trust 
As one riding a great ship. 

Suddenly there came a messenger 
Who told me she was dead — 

Was gone like a yellow leaf of autumn. 

Dead as the day dies with the setting sun, 

Lost as the bright moon is lost behind the cloud, 

Alas, she is no more, whose soul 

Was bent to mine like the bending seaweed ! 

When the word was brought to me 
I knew not what to do nor what to say ; 

But restless at the mere news. 

And hoping to heal my grief 
Even a thousandth part, 

I journeyed to Karu and searched the market-place 
Where my wife was wont to go ! 

There I stood and listened, 

But no voice of her I heard, 

Though the birds sang in the Unebi Mountain ; 2 
None passed by, who even looked like my wife. 

I could only call her name and wave my sleeve. 

1 At that time an extensive district in Yamato, where there was a well- 
known market-place. The name survives in Okaru, in Shirakashi Village, Takaichi 

2 Rises to the north-west of Karu, 



In the autumn mountains 
The yellow leaves are so thick. 

Alas, how shall I seek my love 
Who has wandered away? — 

I know not the mountain track. 

I see the messenger come 
As the yellow leaves are falling. 

Oh, well I remember 

How on such a day we used to meet — 

My wife and I ! 

1 09-1 1 jn the days when my wife lived, [11:210-2] 

We went out to the embankment near by — 

We two, hand in hand — 

To view the elm-trees 1 standing there 
With their outspreading branches 
Thick with spring leaves. Abundant as their 

Was my love. On her leaned my soul. 

But who evades mortality? — 

One morning she was gone, flown like an early bird. 
Clad in a heavenly scarf of white. 

To the wide fields where the shimmering kagerd 2 rises 
She went and vanished like the setting sun. 

The little babe — the keepsake 
My wife has left me — 

Cries and clamours. 

I have nothing to give ; I pick up the child 
And clasp it in my arms. 

1 Tsuki y a kind of elm, whose yellow leaves are particularly beautiful in autumn. 

2 Kagero, the quivering appearance of the air rising from the hot surface of the 


In her chamber, where our two pillows lie, 

Where we two used to sleep together. 

Days I spend alone, broken-hearted; 

Nights I pass, sighing till dawn. 

Though I grieve, there is no help; 

Vainly I long to see her. 

Men tell me that my wife is 
In the mountains of Hagai 1 — 

Thither I go. 

Toiling along the stony path; 

But it avails me not, 

For of my wife, as she lived in this world, 

I find not the faintest shadow. 


To-night the autumn moon shines — 

The moon that shone a year ago. 

But my wife and I who watched it then together 
Are divided by ever- widening wastes of time. 

When leaving my love behind 
In the Hikite mountains 2 — 

Leaving her there in her grave, 

I walk down the mountain path, 

I feel not like one living. 

1 1 2-4 On the death of cm unemei from [11:2x7-9] 

Tsu, Kibt Province . 

jjeauty was hers that glowed like autumn moun- 

1 Unidentified ; but presumably it was a hill near Kasuga, 

2 Also an unidentified range of hills in the vicinity of the Hagai above. 

3 An interne (see note to No. 51) was known by the name of the place and the 
province from which she came. Tsu of Kibi Province was situated in Tsu 
District of that time — now Tsukubo District, Okayama Prefecture. Since she had 
a husband, the lady was evidently a former ttnemL 


And grace as of the swaying bamboo stem. 

How was it that she died — she who should have 

A life long as the coil of taku 1 rope. 

Though the dew falls at morn 
To perish at dusk. 

Though the mists that rise at eve 
Vanish with the daybreak. 

On learning her fate I grieve — 

I who saw her but casually. 

But her husband, tender as young grass, 

Who with her soft white arm for pillow 
Lay at her side close like a guardian sword — 

How lonely must he lie — he in his widowed bed I 
What anguish must fill his love-lorn heart. 
Yearning for her who all too soon has gone — 

Like morning dew — like mists of evening ! 


How sorrowful to see 
The road across the river-shallows 
By which departed the lady 
Of Shigatsu of Sasanami ! 2 3 

When we met, I only took — 

And how I regret it now ! — 

A vague careless glance 
At the lady of Otsu.3 

1 See note 3 on p. 40. 

2 Situated in the vicinity of the present city of Otsu, Shiga Prefecture. Here she 
presumably lived with her husband. 

3 Presumably another name for Shigatsu. 


itj -7 Seeing a dead bodj lying among the [n : 220-2] 
stones on the island of S amine 1 
m the province of Sanuki. 

Q Sanuki of beautiful seaweed 
On which I never tire to look ! 

So fair is the province 
Because of its origin, 

And so hallowed the land 

For its divinity , 2 3 

With the very face of a god 

Enduring full and perfect 

With heaven and earth, with sun and moon. 

I, travelling from place to place, 

Embarked at Naka’ss haven 
And thence sailed on. 

When with the tide the wind arose. 

Blowing from the dwelling-place of clouds. 

I saw the billows racing on the sea. 

And white surges beat upon the shore. 

In fear of the whale-haunted sea 
We rowed, straining the oars, 

And sought, of all the islands thereabout, 

Samine, the island of renown. 

And on its rugged coast 
We built a hut for shelter. 

There I found you, poor man ! — 

Outstretched on the beach. 

On this rough bed of stones. 

Amid the busy voices of the waves. 

1 Now known as Sami and situated a shbrt distance off the coast of Utatsu, 
Nakatado District, Sanuki Province: the island still has a fairly large population. 

2 In Japanese mythology a province was sometimes regarded as a deity, and its 
face as the face of a god. 

3 Said to be the present town of Nakatsu, to the north-cast of which lies the island 
of Sami. In that case, the poet was sailing the Inland Sea fi om west to east. 


If I but knew where was your home, 

I would go and tell ; 

If your wife but knew. 

She would come to tend you. 

She, knowing not even the way hither. 
Must wait, must ever wait, 

Restlessly hoping for your return — 

Your dear wife — alas ! 


Had your wife been with you, 

She would have gathered food for you — 
Starworts on Sami’s hill-side 1 — 

But now is not their season past ? 

On the rugged beach 

Where the waves come surging in from sea 
You sleep, O luckless man, 

Your head among the stones ! 

xi 8 Composed ivhen the Empress 2 3 4 chmbed the [in : 235] 
Thunder Hill. 3 

J^o, our great Sovereign, a goddess. 

Tarries on the Thunder 
In the clouds of heaven H 

1 i e Samine Island. 

2 The Empress was the Empress Jito. 

3 In Yamato Province 

4 This poem is based on the idea that the Sovereigns are the offspring of Amaterasu 
Omikami, and that their proper sphere is heaven. Here the Thunder Hill is regarded 
as the actual embodiment of Thunder. 


I ip—20 

At a royal hunt held by Prince [m : 239-40] 
Naga 1 at Lake Kariji . 2 3 

qur noble Prince, child of the Bright One on high, 
Holds a royal hunt, horses bridle to bridle, 

On the field of Kariji, thick with tender reeds, 
There the boars and deer crouch and adore him, 
And the quails run bending low about him. 

Like the boars and stags we fall and adore him, 
Like the quails we run bending low about him, 
Tendering our loyal service ; 

And when we look up to him 
As we look up to the sunny sky, 

His freshness ever increases 
Like the grass in spring — 

Oh, our mighty lord ! 


Our mighty lord, 

Having caught the sky-traversing moon 
In his net, 

Makes it his silken canopy b 

121-j Poems of travel. [111:250-6] 

Passing the shore of Minume^ where they gather 
The beautiful seaweed, 

My boat has approached 

Cape Nujimai of drooping summer grass . 6 

1 Son of the Empeior Temmu. 

2 In Yamato. 

3 The poem must have been composed on the way home from hunting, when the 
full moon seemed to be following the Prince, as though it were his canopy. 

4 Seashore to the east of the present city of Kobe. 

5 On the north-west of Awaji Island. 

6 4 5 Of drooping summer grass ’ is a pillow-word for Nujima (now Nojima). 


On the seashore at the cape of Nujima in Awaji, 

I let the salt-breeze flutter 

The riband my wife has bound 1 for me. 

Would they by chance take me 
For a fisherman 

Angling for bass in Fujie Bay 2 * 4 5 — 

Me, a lonely voyager ? 

While I linger, passing Inabi Plain,? 

The isle of Kako,4 dear to my heart, 

Appears in sight. 

The day my boat enters 
The noble straits of Akashi, J 
I shall sail away 
And see my home no more. 

As I come a long way under distant skies. 

Ever pining for home, — 

Now through the straits of Akashi 
The land of Yamato looms in sight. 

The sea must be calm on Kehi Bay , 6 
For I see fishermen’s boats 
Crowding out 
Like so many cut reeds. 

1 In olden days the wife used to tie the riband of her husband’s clothes on his 
departure for a journey. 

1 In Harima Province, west of Akashi. 

* Situated between Akashi and the River Kako. 

4 Supposed to have been the sand-bar at the mouth of the River Kako. 

5 Akashi is in Harima, and the straits lie between Akashi and Awaji Island. 

6 Kehi was formerly supposed to be in the province of Echiaen, but, in relation to 
the preceding poems, the opinion has gained ground that it must have been in 
the northern part of Awaji. The name survives in Kei-no (Kei Plain) in Matsuho 



[iii : 264] 

By the River Uji 1 on his way to the 
capital from the province of Omi. 

'j’HE waves lingering about the fish-weir stakes 
In the Uji, the river of eighty clans of warriors 2 * 4 — 
Whither they are drifting away 
Who knows? 

129 Q plovers flying over the evening [in : 266] 


On the lake of Omi, 

When you cry, my heart grows heavy, 

With memories of by-gone days.? 

190-1 During the voyage down to TsukushiA [ni : 305-4] 

gEYOND the waves rearing a thousandfold, 

Far away upon the sea of fair-named Inami,? 

Is hidden, ah, the land of Yamato ! 6 7 

When I behold the straits between the islands. 

The passage for travellers 

To our Sovereign’s distant courts 

They remind me of the mighty age of the gods. 8 

1 Rises in Lake Biwa and pours into Osaka Bay. Its lower course is called the 

2 ‘ The river of eighty clans of warriors ’ is an introductory verse to the Uji. 

5 See Nos. 74-6. 

4 The province of Tsukushi was in the northern part of Kyushu, where the Da- 
zaifu was situated. These two poems were made, perhaps, during the voyage 
thither on some official business, but the date is unknown. 

5 On the edge of the coast between Akashi and the River Kako. 

6 The capital then was situated in Yamato, where the poet had his home. 

7 The second and the third lines are construed by some scholars to read 

‘The distant portals for travellers 
To our Sovereign’s court, 5 

8 An allusion to the gods, Izanagi and Izanami, who created the islands of Japan. 

132 At the cremation of the Maiden of [iri : 428] 

Hijikata on the hills of Hatsuse. 

pHE cloud drifting over the brows 
Of the hills of secluded Hatsuse — 

Can it, alas, be she ? 

133 pHOUGH my thoughts of her [iv : 496] 

Grow a hundredfold in my heart 
Like the leaves of the crinum 1 
On the sea-coast of Kumanu, 2 
I do not meet her face to face. 

134 j)iD men living long ago [iv : 497] 

Pass also sleepless nights like me, 

Longing for their beloved ? 

13 j lamenting his own fate as he was about [n : 223] 
to die in the land of Iwami. 

^ll unaware, it may be. 

That I lie in Kamo-yama, 

Pillowed on a rock, 

She is waiting now — my wife — 

Waiting for my return. 

Yosami, Wife of Hitomaro 

1 36 On parting from Hitomaro. [11:140] 

pHOUGH you say, ‘ Do not grieve ! ’ 

I know not, alas, 

1 A tall bulbous plant with strap-shaped leaves found in southern Japan. 
s Situated in the province of Kil. 


When we shall meet again ; 
How can I but pine after you ? 

137-8 On the death of Hitomaro. [11 . 224-5] 

in, day out, 

I wait for my husband — 

Alas ! he lies buried, men say, 

In the ravine of the Stone River. 

There can be no meeting 
Face to face with him. 

Arise, O clouds, 

Hover above the Stone River 
That I may watch and remember 1 

From the ‘ Hitomaro Collection ’ 

139 On the sky. [vii : 1068] 

qn the sea of heaven the waves of cloud arise. 
And the moon’s ship is seen sailing 
To hide in a forest of stars. 

140 On clouds. [vii : 1088] 

the mountain torrents roar and roar again, 
Over Yuzuki’s peak 1 
The clouds arise and hover. 

* Rises east of Mount Miwa in the eastern part of Yamato. 

[vxx : 1269] 

141 Composed on the spot. 

^ike the bubbles on the water 

That runs echoing by the hill of Makimuku, 

Frail human thing, am I. 

142 During the journey. [vii : 1271] 

j would quickly reach my loved one’s dwelling 
That stands far away under the clouds ; 

Hasten, my black steed ! 

143 Presented to Prince Oshikabe on viewing [ix : 1682] 

an image of a wizard. 

js it that summer and winter 
Ever come and go in company ? 

He neither puts away his fan, nor his furs, 

This wizard of the mountains ! 

144 By the River Uji. [xx: 1699] 

qpHE inlet of Okura 1 is echoing; 

To the fields of Fushimi 
The wild geese are passing. 

145 Presented to Prince Yuge. [xx : 1701] 

'J’he night hours have advanced. 

It must be the dead of night : 

In the sky where the wild geese call 
I see the moon travelling on. 

1 i. c. Lake Okura (now called Ogura) which is formed by the Uji River, Situated 
to the north of the Uji, where the town of Fushimi now stands 


1 4 * J£AGU-TAMA, [x : 1812] 

The Heavenly Hill afar, 

Is misted over this evening — 

Spring is here ! 

147 qver the branches of the cryptomenas, [x : 1814] 

Planted, perhaps, by men of old, 

There hangs a trailing mist — 

Spring has come ! 

148 •yymLE I wait and long for you, my [x : 2015] 

loved one, 

I hear the boat crossing the River of Heaven — 

The sound of the oars 
Echoing over the waters of night. 

149 hove in autumn. [x : 2240] 

rebate not who I am. 

Say neither this nor that 
Of me who, drenched 
In September’s chilling dew. 

Await my dear love’s coming ! 

1 jo c reaper on the Suminoe fields, [vii : 1275] 

Have you no servants ? ’ 

£ Servants I have ; yet for my love 
I labour on her private ground.’ 

iji 'J'his is the cloth I wove for my lord [vn : 1281] 
With weary hands ; 

When the spring comes round. 

In what colours shall I print it ? 


ij2 'J'he lasses dance and tread the ground [xi : 2352] 
for the new house 1 

And the jewels of their bracelets jingle ; 

That lad who sparkles as the jewels, 

Ask him to come in ! 

ijj Q that she might rather die [xi : 2555] 

Whom I cherish in my heart ! 

Even when she lives. 

None says she will be mine. 

ij4 you start so early this morning, 1x1:2357] 

The dewy grass will wet your leg-ties ; 2 
I, too, out so early, 

Will gladly dip the hem of my skirt. 

ijj giNCE I left the loving hands of my [xi : 2368] 


Never once have I known 
Such helplessness in my heart ! 

i ;6 l et none, born after me, [xi : 2375] 

Ever, ever meet, as I did, 

Such ways of love 1 

iJ7 j have lost a true man’s mettle, [xi : 2376] 

Day to night and night to day 
I waste with thoughts of love. 

1 This refers to the ceremony of purifying the building-site, invoking the gods 
and levelling the ground. 

2 Bands for fastening the hem of the lower garment. 

ij8 pEOPLE throng the sun-lit Palace-road, [xi : 2382] 
Yet, you — and you alone — 

Are my heart’s desire ! 

iJ9 §trong man as I am, [xi : 2386] 

Who force my way even through the rocks. 

In love I rue in misery. 

160 A s ^ to sa 7 t ^ iat ^ ma 7 die [ XI : 2401 1 

Jf I die of love for her, 

That cruel girl now passes 
The front-gate of my house. 

Poems of love referring to various things. 

u 'i H ow named is the god [xi : 2418] 

Whom I would entreat with offerings, 

That I may meet my love, 

If but in dream ? 

162 gHOULD the time come [xi : 2419] 

When the names of heaven and earth perish, 
Then, then alone we should cease to meet ! 

J 0 o that the hill, the stony road, [xi : 2421] 

Were removed from your way hither ; 

Your horse will stumble, 

While I wait for you. 


[xx : 2425] 

164 QYER Kohata, the hill in Yamashina, 

I can get a horse to ride, 

Yet on foot I have come, 

Driven by stress of love for you ! 

itj My life vanishing [xi:243 3 ] 

Like the numbers written on water, 1 
I have appealed to the gods with vows 
That I may meet my love. 

166 tphe great earth itself 

Might be exhausted by digging. 

But of love alone in this world 
Could we never reach the end ! 

167 cleepless with longing for my love. 

Now I see the morning break; 

O the mandarin-ducks 2 flying by — 

Are they the couriers from my girl ? 

168 JJKE the silkworm in the cocoon 

Which her loving mother rears, 

That maid so close secluded in her home — 

O for the means of seeing her ! 

169 A s thejw-cloth is dyed fast and deep [xi : 2496] 

Which ties the forelock of the men 
In the land of Hi,? 

[xi : 2442] 

[xi : 2491] 

[xi : 2495] 

* Quoted from the 'Nirvana Sutra , a Buddhist scripture. 

2 A pair of mandarin-ducks is a symbol of affectionate love. 

3 The south-western portion of Kyushu. It is possible that the native customs 
there may have differed from those of the central provinces. 


So is my heart coloured with love ; 
How can I forget ? 

170 j^ow that I have uttered my name 1 [xi : 2497] 

Clear as the famous call 
Of a Hayahito 2 on his night-watch round, 

Trust me as your wife, my lord ! 

171 j will tread the sharpness of the [xi : 2498] 

double-edged sword 
And die with a good heart, 

If it be for your sake. 

17 2 H ow P^ n ^7 one may see [xn : 285 5] 

The new road now they make ! 

So plainly have I heard 
Everything about you, dear girl. 

*72~ 4 Dialogue poems. [xi : 25 13-4] 

I F the thunder rolls for a while 

And the sky is clouded, bringing rain, 

Then you will stay beside me. 

gvEN when no thunder sounds 

And no rain falls, if you but ask me, 
Then I will stay beside you. 

7 It was the custom in old days for a woman to tell her name to a man, when 
she accepted his proposal of marriage. 

1 Natives of the south of Kyushu. They were called to the Imperial Palace to 
serve as guards, and were noted for their stentorian voices at ceremonies. 


I7J-6 'J'he Rice-abounding Land of Reed [xm : 325 3-4] 

Is a land where things fall out 

As will the gods, without lifted words of men, 1 

Yet must I lift up words : 

£ Be fortunate, and travel safe and sound ! ’ 

If you be free from evils. 

Then shall we meet once more ; 

So I lift up words over and over again 
As the waves roll a hundredfold, 

A thousandfold ! 


The Land of Yamato is a land 
Where the word-soul 2 gives us aid ; 
Be happy, fare you well 1 

Lady Ishikawa 

177 Addressed to Otomo Sukunamaro. [n : 129] 

Qld, old woman that I am, 

How could I have sunk so deep in love, 

Like a helpless child ! 

Lady Ishikawa and Otomo Tanushi 

178 J heard that you were [11 : 126] 

A gallant courtier, 

Yet you refused me shelter and sent me away — 
How boorish of the gallant courtier ! — By Ishikawa. 

1 Kotoage : it was believed that in Japan things happened according to the will of 
the gods and that men therefore needed not offer prayers, 

3 Koiodama : the uttered words were believed to possess spirits of their own and 
the wishes would therefore bring forth what were requested in them. 


Otomo Tanushi was known bj the name of Churo. He 
was very good-looking . , and his manners were courtly beyond 
comparison , wherefore he was admired by all who saw , or 
heard of him. There was a certain young woman, named 
Islnkawa, who, wishing to live with him, was ever lamenting 
her solitude. She desired to write him a note, but there 
was no favourable opportunity to send it. Thereupon, she 
devised a plan. Disguising herself as a humble old woman, 

and carrying a pail with her, she went near his bed-chamber, 
where she squatted and rapped on the door, and said in a 
hoarse voice that she was a poor woman of the neighbourhood 
who had come to begfor fire. Churo in the darkness did not 
discover the fraud. The girl, disappointed at the failure 
of her artifice, took all the fire she wanted, and thereafter 
went away. Next morning, ashamed of her own misbe- 
haviour but indignant at the frustration of her heart’s 
desire, she indited this poem, which she sent him in order to 
mock at him. 

179 ^ gallant courtier, [n : 1 27] 

I am, indeed ; 

A gallant courtiet am I, 

Who refused you shelter and sent you away ! 

— By Otomo Tanushi. 

Otomo Miyuki 

180 Written after the War of Jinshin 1 [xix : 4260] 

was ended. 

qur Sovereign, a god, 

Has made his Imperial City 2 
Out of the stretch of swamps. 

Where chestnut horses sank 
To their bellies. 

* The civil war of 672. 

2 The Emperor Temmu built his capital on the plain of Kiyomihara of Asuka. 


Furu Tamuke 

Leaving the province of Tsukttsht. [ix : 1766] 

^youLD my love were a bracelet ! 

Tying her to my left arm, 

I would start on my journey ! 

Naga Okimaro 

182 Composed in obedience to the Sovereign’s [in : 238] 


JJARk ! even here, into the chambers of the Palace, 1 
Come the voices of the fishermen. 

Who are arranging the seiners 
To drag the net. 

1 ^ H ow sorel y the rain besets me ! [in : 265] 

Neither at the cape of Miwa, nor by the ferry 
of Sanu 2 

Is there a cottage in sight. 

1 The Palace is supposed to have been that of Naniwa in the province of Settsu. 
The Shoku-mbongi mentions that the Emperor Mommu visited the Palace of 
Naniwa in the ist month of the 3rd year of his reign. Also in the Manyosbu , Book 
I, it is written that the Empress Jito, as ex-Empress, visited Naniwa. It is most 
likely that the Emperor Mommu in his visit in the 3rd year of his reign was 
accompanied by the Empress Jito, then ex-Empress, and that the poem was compos- 
ed on the occasion. To those who had lived only in Yamato, which commanded 
no sea-view, and had then come to the Palace by the seashore, the doings of the 
fishermen must have been curious and interesting. 

2 Miwa and Sanu were both in the province of Kii, now included in the town 
of Shingu. 


[XVI : 3824] 

184 goiL water, my lads. 

In the kettle with a spout ! 

We will dash it on the fox. 

Coming from the Ichihi Ford 
Over the log-bridge of cypress 

Once there was a large feasting party. In the middle of 
the night the company heard the barking of a fox. They 
invited Okimaro to make a poem with reference to some 
utensil used at the banquet , the barking fox, and a bridge 
over a river, whereupon he instantly composed this poem. 

Takechi Furuhito 

i8j-6 Poems of sorrow at the old capital of Omi. [1 : 32-3] 

I a man of the days gone by. 

That, when I see, in Sasanami, 

The ruined Imperial City, 

My heart grows heavy ? 

Desolate is the shrine of the god 1 
Of the land of Sasanami, 

And I am bowed down with grief 
To see the capital in ruin ! 

Takechi Kurohito 

Poems of travel. 

187 t^hen on my travels I pine for home, [m : 270] 
I see a vermilion ship 2 sailing 

T ‘ The shrine of the god’ is often construed as ‘the spirit of the god/ 

2 Ships in government employ were painted red. The poet, an official, felt 
homesick at the sight of a red-painted ship. 


Far out on the waters. 

188 QRANEs fly calling towards Sakurada 1 [in : 271] 

Fields ; 

The tide, it seems, has ebbed from Ayuchi Lagoon ; 
Look where the cranes fly calling. 

189 ps we row round the jutting beaches, [m : 273] 

Cranes call in flocks at every inlet 2 3 4 5 
Of the many-harboured lake of Omi. 

190 qur. boat harbour at the port of [in : 274I 

Hira ;3 

Row not far from shore, — 

It is night and late ! 

191 ^7 here shall I seek shelter, [111:275] 

If, in Takashima,4 on the plain of Kachinu, 
This day is spent ? 

192 In the old capital of Omi. "> [111:305] 

go I refused to see them : 

Yet you show me over the ruins 
Of the Imperial City of Sasanami, 

Saddening me in vain ! 

1 In the province of Owari, facing Ayuchi Beach, which is near Atsuta in Aichi 

2 An inlet or a river-mouth, which naturally gave moorings. 

3 Situated on the west side of the lake. 

4 A district on the west side of Lake Biwa. 

5 See Hitomaro’s poems Nos. 74 - 6 . 


Okisome Azumabito 

193-4 On the death of Prince Yuge. [n : 204-5] 

qur lord and prince, ruling in peace. 

Child of the Bright One above, 

God as he is, has taken 

His divine seat in the Heavenly Palace 

Far above. We, awe-stricken, 

Lie prostrate and weep 

Day after day, and night after night. 

And to our weeping there is no end. 


Our lord and prince. 

Because he is a god. 

Has gone to dwell unseen 

In the five-hundredfold clouds of heaven. 

Osakab£ Otomaro 

19 j Composed during the visit of the Emperor [1 : 71] 
Mommu 1 to Naniwa. 

■^yHEN I lie sleepless, longing for Yamato, 

Must you be so heartless, O cranes. 

Crying around the end of the sand-bar ? 

1 The Emperor Mommu visited the Palace of Naniwa twice, in the 3rd year 
(699) after his accession and in the 3rd year of Keiun (706). It is not clear on 
which occasion this poem was composed. 


Mikata Shami 

196-7 'J'read not the snow [xix : 4227-8] 

Around the palace; 

It is not a fall 
We often see; 

Only on the mountains 
We have such snow. 

Away, away, away — 

Tread not the snow. 


Our lord will view it later 
Where it lies ; 

Tread not the snow 
Around the palace. 

The above verses were sung by Mikata Shami , in com- 
pliance with the order oj Fujiwara Fusasaki , Minister of 
the L,eft by posthumous appointment. 

Mikata Shami and his Wife 

Composed during an illness of Mikata shortly after 
his marriage to a daughter of Sono Ikuha. 

198 |f tied, it would slip off; [ II:I2 3] 

And untied, it was too long, — 

Ah, that hair of yours ! — 

Is it all disarranged 

Now while I see you not ? — By Mikata. 

199 1 D o it up ! 5 [ n : 1 2 4 ] 

‘ It is now so long 1 ’ 

So say they all. 

6 5 

But as you saw it, I will keep 

This hair of mine, dishevelled though it be. 

— By bis wife. 

200 jn the city square [11:125] 

Men come and go, treading 
On the orange-tree shadows; 

My thoughts turn a thousand ways 
When I see you not, beloved . — By Mikata. 

Wife of Go Dan-ochi 

201 Composed during her husband’s journey [iv : 500] 

to Ise. 

gREAKiNG and spreading for a bed 

The shore reeds of Ise of the Divine Wind, 
Does he, my husband, sleep a traveller’s sleep — 

On that lonely rugged sea-coast ? 

Lady Fuki 

202 Looking at the rocks of the hill-range of Yoko- [1:22] 
yam a of Hat a when Princess Toochi went 
to worship at the Ise Shrine . l 

pivE hundred rocks by the river 
Allow no weedy growth, 

May our princess so flourish, 

Youthful for ever ! 

i The Nihomhoh records that, in spring, in the 2nd month of the 4th year of 
the Emperor Temmu’s rgign (676), Princess Toochi and Princess Ahe went to 
worship at the Ise Shrine — Original Note. 


On the occasion of the progress 1 to the province of 
Mikaiva of the ex- Empress Jito in the 
second year of Daiho (702). 

20 p pusHiNG freely through the bush-clovers 2 3 4 5 6 [ 1 : 57] 

Flowering on Hikuma Plain, 

Let your clothes take on their colours 
In remembrance of your travels. 

— By Naga Okimaro. 

20 4 t^yHERE will that boat find harbour [1 : 58] 

Which coasted round the cape of Are ? — 

Ah, that little tana- less boat !? — By Takecbi Kurohito. 

20 j pjow distinct is Matokata ,4 the Target Bay, [1 : 6 1 ] 

That tells of the warrior shooting, 

Standing up, arrow in hand b 

— By an attendant maiden Toneri. 


206 Composed by one of the workmen engaged in [r : 50] 
the building of the Palace of Fufiwarak 

Qur great Sovereign who rules in peace, 

Offspring of the Bright One on high, 

1 She started on her journey on the 10th of the 10th month and returned to the 
capital on the 25 th. 

2 Originally hart (alder, Alnus japomca), but it is believed that it was probably 
mis-wntten for hagi (bush-clover, JLespede^a). 

3 A boat of some sort of a very simple structure. 

4 Believed to have been in Take District, Ise. 

5 The second and third lines are an introductory verse to Matokata. 

6 The Palace of Fujiwara was the seat of the court since the time of the Empress 
Jito. Its site now forms part of Kamokimi Village, in Takaichi District, Yamato. 


Wills, as a goddess, to rule her dominion 
And to decree her towering Palace 
On the plain of Fujiwara. 

Then the gods of heaven and earth, 

Gracious to serve, 

Float the cypress timbers 
From Mount Tanakami 1 of Omi 
Down the stream of Uji ; 

We people throng into the river — 

Splashing in the water like so many mallards, 
Never thinking of our homes, 

And forgetful of ourselves — 

To gather and turn those timbers 

Into the river of Dumi ; 2 3 * which reminds us 

That the mystic tortoise, as it is told, 

Will appear, in celebration of the new era, 

With an auspicious figure on its shell. 

Presaging the eternal happiness of our Land, 
From the pass of Kose;? which reminds us also 
That alien powers will come that way, 

To swear fealty to the Palace that we build. 

And there the logs are roped into rafts 
Which we vie in poling 
Against Izumi’s stream ; 

Looking on these labours well we know, 

All is done by her divinity ! 

It is recorded in the * Nibonshoki 5 that the Empress 
paid a visit to the site of the Palace of Fujiwara, in autumn, 
in the eighth month of the seventh year of Shucho (693), and 
she again visited the Palace, in spring, in the first month of 
the eighth year. Then, in winter, on the sixth day of the 
twelfth month of the same year she removed there. 

1 In Kurknoto District, Omi Province. 

2 i. e. River Kizu: it runs through Soraku District, Yamashiro Province. 

3 In Minami-Kazuraki District, Yamato, reached by the road over to Ku 



2 07 - 8 

On the well at the Palace of Fujiwara. [i : 5 2-5] 

qur great Sovereign who rules in peace. 

Offspring of the Bright One on high. 

Has begun to build her Palace 

On the plain of Fujii; 1 

And standing on the dyke of Lake Haniyasu 

She looks around her: 

The green hill of Kagu of Yamato 
Stands at the eastern gate, 

A luxuriant spring-time hill; 

Unebi, with its fragrant slopes, 

Rises at the western gate, 

Ever fresh and flourishing; 

Miminashi, the green sedgy mount, 

Rears at the northern gate 
Its form divine; 

And the mountains of Yoshinu, of lovely name, 
Soar into the sky. 

Far from the southern gate. 

At this towering Palace, 

The shelter from the sun, 

The shelter from the sky, 

The waters will be everlasting. 

These clear waters of the sacred well ! 


The bevies of maidens who will be born 
And come in succession into service 
At the mightly Palace of Fujiwara, 

How I envy their happy lot ! 

* Fujii-ga-hara (Plain of Wistaria Well) may have been an earlier name for Fuji- 
wara (Wistaria Plain). 


Poems of lamentation by the palace-guards 
of the Crown Prince . 1 

2°$ ^las, the Garden Palace of my prince, [n : 171] 
Child of the Bright One above. 

Who was to rule the land 
Through ten thousand ages ! 

210 j have waited on my lord, [n : 176] 

Wishing the days to endure 
With heaven and earth — 

That hope is now broken ! 

2u qn the hill slope of Sada 2 [n : 177] 

Bright in the morning sun, 

We gather and weep; 

Our tears fall endlessly. 

212 qn the desolate stony shore [n : 181] 

Of the garden-lake, where once he walked, 
There grow — alas ! weeds, 

That grew not there before. 

2iy j am at my post [n : 184] 

At the Cascade Gates on the east-side. 

Never — yesterday nor to-day — 

Does my prince bid me come in. 

1 The Manyoshu contains a group of 23 such poems. The regulation number of 
palace-guards for the Crown Prince was 600. 

1 The name of the hill where the prince was buried. 

5 At the eastern gate of the palace there was an outlet for the water of the 
garden-lake, which flowed forth like a cascade. 

7 ° 

[ii : 185 ] 

214 'J'hat path through the azaleas 

Blooming thick on the rocky margin 
Of the meandering stream — 

Shall I ever see it again ? 

21 / thousand times a day 

I used to enter by the east gate. 

How hard it is now to pass through 
That wide gate of the Palace ! 

216 'J'he morning sky was overcast, 

Hiding the sun. 

1 went down to the Palace garden, 

And how I wept where once he walked ! 

217 jn the Garden Palace, 

Bright in the morning sun, 

There is no human sound, 

Nought but gloom that bows me down. 

21 5 Composed during the Sovereign’s stay [ : 

at the Palace of Yoshinu. 

'j'HE tumbling water breaks upon the rocks 
And rushes to its pool — 

There, in the water stilled 
I see a shining moon. 

217-20 ^yiTH reverence I compose these [xni : 
words — 

Amid this busy crowd, 

Among the many princes, 

7 i 

[11 : 186] 

11 : 188] 

[11 : 189] 

: 1714] 

3324 - 5 ] 

Overflowing the Imperial City 
Of Fujiwara, 

I trusted to our noble prince, 

Awe-stricken as I was. 

Gazing up toward the Palace 
As to heaven. 

Where I had served for many a year. 

Hoping he would come to manhood 
And flourish like the full-orbed moon. 

He looked upon the land 
When spring came round, 

Climbing the brow of Uetsuki 
Along the pine-wood path ; 

In autumn, in the showery month, 

He loved the blooming bush-clovers. 

Heavy with dew, 

Waving about the drip-stones 
In the palace-court; 

And in the morning of snowy winter 
He took his strong birchwood bow 
To fondle in his hands. 

I never tired of seeing him 
Like a shining mirror 
For all the long spring day. 

And I wished that this would last for ages, 
Trusting in my noble prince 
As a sailor in his ship. 

When, lo ! I looked up to the Palace; 

Was it a trick ? Were my eyes deluded ? — 

I saw it draped in snow-white cloth, 

And the servitors of the sun-lit Palace 
All in hempen mourning dressed. 

While I, as one wandering in a clouded night, 
Doubted : Was I dreaming or awake ? 


The bearers climbed the path of Kinohe 
Overlooking Iware, 

And there entombed my prince 
With holy rites. 

I knew not whither 
I might betake myself. 

My grieving naught availed. 

No hope came to my heart. 

I will ever lift up my tearful eyes 

Towards that dumb pine towering in the sky, 

Which in passing 

His august sleeve once brushed. 

Remembering my prince, 

Month after month, 

Bending my head in awe. 


The white cloud hovering 
Above the hill of Iware — 

Is that, alas, my prince ? 

221-2 ^he steeds the prince of Minu [xm : 3327-8] 


In his western stables. 

The steeds our noble prince keeps 
In his eastern stables — 

Though they are fed with grass in plenty. 

Though they are given fresh-drawn water, 

Why do these grey steeds neigh and whinny so ? 


His grey steeds neighing so — 

What says their cry ? 

It is strange to me ! 


The Old Bamboo-Cutter. 


[xvi: 3791-3] 

Once upon a time there lived an old man. He was called 
‘ Old Bamboo-Cutter ’ (Take tori no Oji). In the last month 
of spring he went up a hill to view the country-side. 
Suddenly he discovered nine girls who were cooking soup , 
and who were all possessed of an unrivalled beauty and charm. 
One of the damsels called to the old man , laughed and said : 
‘ Uncle, come blow up the fire under the kettle l ’ ‘ Very well, 
very well ,’ he replied. Hobbling slowly, he reached the spot 
where the girls were, and seated himself among them. After 
a while, all the girls, with smiles on their faces, began to 
question one another , saying, c Who called this old man ? ’ 
Thereupon the Bamboo-Cutter apologised and said, * Most 
unexpectedly I have met you fairy maidens. My mind is 
perplexed beyond endurance. Let me redeem with a poem the 
offence of having intruded myself upon your company l ’ So 
saying, he made the following poem and envoys. 

■yyHEN I was a new-born babe 

My mother carried me in her arms ; 

When an infant stilt tied with a band 
To the back of my nurse, I wore 
A sleeveless gown with lining sewed in ; 

When a boy with hair trimmed at the neck 
I was clad in a dappled robe with sleeves. 

At the age of you dear maidens 

My hair was black as the bowels of a mud-snail . 1 

I would comb it down to the shoulders, 

Or have it bound up in knots 
Or sometimes let it hang loose like a boy. 

I had a vest of thin silk with large woven figures 
Of purple matching well with its reddish tint. 
And a robe of a fabric dyed with the hagf-B ower 
Of Tbzato Onu in Suminoe, 

1 Mwa, a small shell-fish found in a pond or river. 


To which was attached a cord of Koma 1 2 brocade — 
These I wore one over the other. 

There was the cloth of tabe z tissue 
And the hand-woven cloth of sun-dried hemp. 
Made with rare skill by girl hemp-spinners 
And by girls who were treasured like precious 
robes ; 

When I put these on together like a double skirt. 
Many a country lass from her lowly cottage 
Would come, asking me to marry her. 

The double-patterned stockings from a far country, 
And the shoes fashioned by the men of Asuka, 
Shunning the damp of the rainy season, — 

I would put them on and stand under the eaves ; 
Then maidens who had heard of me somewhere. 
Would come to me, bidding me not to walk away. 

I would arrange my silken girdle of azure 
In the manner of a Kara girdle like a pendant sash, 
And so bedeck my waist slim as a wasp 
Flying above the tiled roof of the Sea God’s Tem- 

Then would I hang up clear mirrors side by side. 
And turn back to them again and again 
To see my face therein. 

When in spring I sauntered forth afield, 

The pheasants of the moor, delighting in me. 

Came flying and crowing merrily. 

When I went to the hills in autumn 
The enamoured clouds of heaven hovered low above 

When I started for home, all along the way 
The gay ladies of the palace and the court gallants 
Would all look back on me in admiration, 

1 Same as e Kara * below, i. e. Korea. 

2 Same as taku , paper mulberry, from the inner bark of which cloth was made. 
See note to No. 103. 


And ask one another, saying, c Who is he ? ’ 

So did I do and live in days gone by. 

Though to-day you dear damsels may wonder 
Who I am and say : ‘ We don’t know the man,’ 
I was once the talk of the town — 

Thus did I do and live in days gone by. 

Did not the wise man of ancient times 
Bring back, to set an example for after ages. 
The cart in which the old man was sent away P 1 


Can it be that grey hair 
Will never grow on you maidens 
If you live long, unless death 
Spares you from seeing it ? 

When grey hair has grown 
On you, may it not be then 
That you too will be mocked 
By young folk as I am now ? 

Replies by the maidens . 

'j'HE dear old man’s verse [xvi : 3794] 

Has stunned us, 

We fairy maidens nine — 

Are we humbled by his word ? 

1 The last three lines allude to the old Chinese story of a man by the name of 
Yuan Ku. When he was fifteen years old his parents, in spite of his tearful protests, 
took his aged grandfather to the mountains in a cart, and there abandoned him. 
The boy went and brought back the cart. Being questioned by his father why he 
had done so, Yuan Ku replied : * You may not be able to make a cart by yourself 

when you are old/ The father, much ashamed of his misdeed, brought back the 
old parent and took good care of him thereafter. 

[xvi : 3795] 

shame I will bear, 

My shame I will ignore ; 

And before he speaks another word. 
To his counsel mutely will I yield. 

gHALL I be false to friends [xvi : 3797] 

To whose hearts mine is bound 
In life and death ? 

To his counsel I also will yield. 

29-50 pROM Mount Kamunabi 1 of [xin: 3268-9] 

Mimoro 1 

Clouds overshadow the sky, 

Bringing heavy rain ; 

The rain is swept in spray 
And the storm gathers. 

Has he reached home, 

He who went back 

Across the great-mouthed Wolf’s Moor , 2 * 
Deep in thoughts of me ? 


Troubled with thoughts of him, 

Who had gone from me, 

I, too, could not sleep 
The whole night through. 

1 In Asuka District in Yamato. Both Mimoro and Kamunabi mean the grove 

or forest as an abode of the gods. 

- Orig. the Moor of Makami ; Makami means 4 wolf/ 



Empress Gemmyd and Princess Minabe 

231 Composed by the Empress in the first [1 : 76] 

year of Wado (708). 

j^isten to the sounds of the warriors’ elbow-guards ; 1 

Our captain must be ranging the shields 
To drill the troops . 2 

232 R eply by the 'Princess. [1 ; 77] 

gE not concerned, O my Sovereign ; 

Am I not here, 

I, whom the ancestral gods endowed with life, 

Next of kin to yourself? 

Empress Gensh5 

233 On the occasion of her visit to Yamamura. [xx : 4293 ] 

The Empress said to those attending upon her , ‘ Princes 
and noblemen , make poems to match this one of mine ! ’ She 
then recited the following : 

'J'his is the mountain souvenir 
That a wizard of the mountain 
Gave me as I went 
To Yama, the mountain village. 

1 Made of leather and worn on the left arm, to prevent the bow-string from 
springing back and hurting the elbow. The string struck the elbow-guard with a 
loud sound. 

* This poem probably alludes to the expeditionary force that was sent against 
the Ainus in northern Japan. 


Emperor ShSmu 

234-3 On giving sake to the Inspector s-General . x [vi : 973-4] 

■y^HEN you are thus gone 

To the far courts of my realm, 

I shall rest tranquil. 

And wait with folded arms. 

To requite your loyal service, 

I, your emperor. 

With my sovereign hand 

Stroke you tenderly and caress you. 

This wine we will drink again together 

On the day of your return — this bounteous wine. 


You go the way of men of valour; 

Go not with light minds. 

You valiant men ! 

236 On granting to Prince Ka^uraki the surname [vi : 1009] 
of Tachibana, in winter , in the eleventh 
month of the eighth year of 
Tempyo (736). 

'J’Hine is a happy name : 

‘ Tachibana ’ 1 2 — abundant in fruit, 

In bloom and in foliage; 

A tree of evergreen leaves that thrives 
Though the hoar-frost falls on its branches. 

Prince Ka^uraki petitioned the Throne to be allowed to 
renounce his status as a member of the imperial family and 

1 The Inspectors-General were Fujiwara Umakai sent to Saikaido, Fujiwara Fusa- 
mae sent to Tokaido and Tosandd, and Tajihi Agatamori sent to San-indo 

2 L e. the orange-tree. 


to take the rank of subject by assuming the surname of Ta- 
chibana. The Emperor , consenting , , gave in his honour a 
banquet , on which occasion the above poem was composed by 
His Majesty. 

Empress Koken 

2 37 ~ ft M poem and envoy granted to Eujiwara [xix : 4264-5] 
Kiyokawa , l ambassador to China, to- 
gether with food and drink, by her mes- 
senger, Koma Fukushin, of the 
Lower Fourth Lank Senior, whom 
she sent down to Naniwa. 

'J’he spacious Land of Yamato 
Is a land guarded by the gods; 

You go upon the waters 
As upon the land ; 

You sit in the ship 
As on the floor at home. 

In your four ships, 2 prow by prow. 

You travel in safety, 

Return in haste. 

Then make your reports ; 

On that day we will take this wine — 

This bounteous wine. 


That your four ships may soon come back 
I pray to the gods, 

Tying white hemp 
To my skirt.’ 

1 Despatched m the 4th year of Tempy 5 ~Shoho (752). 

2 The entire embassy was carried in a fleet of four ships. 

s A woman’s skirt (Jap. mo) was believed in ancient times to have magic power. 


Emperor Junnin 

2}9 At the palace banquet 1 2 3 4 5 on the eighteenth day [xx : 4486] 
of the eleventh month of the first year of 
Tempyo-Ho/i 1 (yyy). 

giNCE thy reign is to endure 
With the sun and the moon 
That illumine heaven and earth, 

What could ever trouble our hearts ? 

Empress Komyo 

240 To the Emperor Shomu. [vm : 1658] 

jjow gladdening would be this falling snow, 

Could I but watch with you, my husband 1 

241 A poem which the Empress Dowager of [xix : 4240] 

Fujiwarai composed at the supplication 
ceremony 4 at the Kasuga Shrine ,5 and 
gave to Fujiwara Kiyokawa, 
ambassador to China. 

|N the great ship, full-oared, 

I speed this child of mine 6 to the Land of Kara; 
Bless him, O gods ! 

1 The annual feast of Tcyo-no-akari given by the Emperor to princes and officials 
on the day following the Harvest Festival (Ntiname-sai ). 

2 The Emperor was then still Crown Prince. The poem probably alludes to the 
rebellion of Tachibana Naramaro and his followers, which occurred during the 
year, but which was quickly subdued. 

3 i. e. the Empress Komyo. 

4 At this perhaps they prayed for the safety of the embassy. 

5 The shrine is in the present city of Nara, 

6 1 . e. Fujiwara Kiyokawa, nephew of rhe Empress Dowager. 


Prince Toneri and a Maiden 

2 4 2 ‘§hame it is,’ I say and sigh, [n : 117] 

‘ For a strong man to love unloved ! ’ 

Yet so do I love — wretched that I am. 

— By the Prince. 

2 4i jsjow I know — [11:118] 

For a strong man 
Loveth and sigheth — 

Why my hair-cord is wet . — By the Maiden. 

Prince Hozumi 

244 that rascal love [xvi : 3816] 

I have put away at home, 

Locked in a coffer — 

Here he comes, pouncing on me ! 

The above was a favourite poem of Prince Hozumi, who 
used always to recite it at banquets when the merry-making 
was at its height. 

Princess Ki 

24 j J7VEN the wild-ducks skimming [nr : 390] 

By the shore of the pond of Karu 1 
Do not sleep alone 
On the dainty water-weeds ! 

1 The pond of Karu was dug in the nth year of the reign of the Emperor Ojm 

(280). The name still remains in Takaichi District, Yamato. 


Prince Yuhara 

246 At Yoshinu. [in : 575] 

qn the pool of the River of Natsumi 1 
That flows through Yoshinu 
The wild-ducks are crying, — 

In the shade of the mountains. 

24J At a banquet. [hi : 377] 

j^iKE the white cloud on the green hill, 

Although I see him every day, 

Our host is ever new to me ! 

248 Addressed to a young woman. [iv = 632] 

■^yHAT can I do with you — 

You who so resemble 
The laurel 2 in the moon 
That I see with my eyes 
But cannot touch with my hands? 

249 On the moon. [vi : 985] 

Q Moon God seated high in heaven, 

Offerings I will gratefully bring — 

Make this night last as long, I pray, 

As five hundred nights in one ! 

1 The River Yoshino was called the Natsumi at Natsumi, to the east of Miyataki 

2 The legend of a laurel growing in the moon was of Chinese origin. 



[vi : 989] 

On striking at the wine. 

W ITH the bounteous wine the doughty warrior 

Striking 1 at it with the point of tempered steel, 
Drunk am I now — I ! 

2ji On crickets. [vm : 1552] 

'j’HE evening moon shines — 

Here in the garden white with dew 
The crickets sing, alas ! 

Burthening my weary heart. 

Prince Yuhara and an Anonymous Person 

2)2 gy the light of the Moon God [iv : 670] 

Come to me, dear heart ! 

No mountain walls divide us — 

The way is not long. — By the Prince. 


2)3 r j’HOUGH clear and bright [iv : 671] 

The Moon God lights the way, 

So blind am I with love, 

I feel I cannot reach you. 

1 Presumably the drinker, in order to drive away evil spirits, made a gesture to 
strike the vessel filled with wine with his sword. 


Prince Aki 

2J4 On an imperial visit 1 to the province [hi : 306 ] 

of Ise. 

YyouLD that they were flowers, 

The white surges far upon the sea of Ise — 

I would wrap and bring them home 
As a souvenir for my beloved wife. 

zjf -6 qh, my dear love far away ! 2 [iv : 5 34—5] 

Because you are not here, 

And the way is distant, 

Restless is my heart with longing ; 

My grieving heart knows no respite. 

Oh, were I the cloud that sails the sky ! 

Oh, were I a high-flying bird ! 

To-morrow I would go and speak to you. 

Then you, my love, untroubled for my sake, 

And for your sake I myself untroubled, 

We would live together even now 
A happy pair as ever. 


No longer do I sleep 

With your dainty arm for pillow. 

Meantime a year has passed away — 

To think of it, alas ! — 

Without my seeing you. 

1 The visit is said to have taken place in the 2nd year of Yoro (718), m the reign 
of the' Empress Gensho. 

2 According to the Original Note, Prince Aki married, against court regulations, 
an uneme (see note to No. 5 1) from Yagami, Inaba Province, for which he was 
punished and the lady sent back to her native province. 


Prince Ichihara 

2 J 7 pEERLESS are the gems [rn .’412] 

That I wear on my locks ; 

Such are you to me, 

And my heart moves at your will. 

Composed at a banquet , wishing his [vr : 98 8 J 

father , Prince Aki , a long life. 

'J’HE flowering herbs of spring 
Fade all too soon. 

Be like a rock, 

Changeless ever, 

O noble father mine ! 

2 J 9 On the occasion of men ascending the hill of [vi : 1042] 
Ikuji to drink under a pine-tree. 

o solitary pine, how many 

Generations of man have you known ? 

Is it because of your great age 

That the passing winds sing in so clear a tone ? 

Prince Nagaya 

260 Composed when the Emperor Mommu visited [1:75] 
the Pleasure-Palace of Yoshinu. 

'j’HE morning air is cold on Mount Ujima, 1 
Now that I travel far from my beloved 
Who would offer me clothing. 

1 Said to be the mountain north of the town of Kamiichi in Yoshmo District 
It was on the route from the Palace of Fujiwara to that of Yoshino. 


Prince Funado 

261 At a banquet in the residence of Isonokami [xix : 4284] 
Yakatsugu , on the fourth of the first month 
of the fifth year of Tempyo-Shoho (/jj). 

the coming of the New Year 
All our trusted friends are gathered together : 
My heart is light with gladness ! 

Prince Kadob6 

262 I 'iemng the trees in the streets at the [m : j/o] 

Ea stern Market. 1 2 3 4 

j have not met her for so long 

That the street-trees at the Eastern" Market 
Let droop their branches low — 

Well may I languish for love of her ! 

26} Thinking of the capital, while he stayed in [1x1:371] 

I^urno 1 as Governor. 

qh, plovers on the river-shore. 

On the water flowing into the sea of Ou,s 
When you cry 7 , dearly I remember 
Saho,4 the stream of my native town. 

1 In those days there were two markets in the capital called respectively the 
Eastern and the Western. 

2 A province, now parWof Shimane Prefecture. 

3 A district in Izumo. 

4 A river flowing through Nara, the capital. 


Prince Atsumi 

2< >4 j^irrored in the waters of the [vnr : 1435] 

Kamunabi River, 1 
Where the song-frogs call, 

Do they bloom now — those flowers of the yellow 
rose? 2 3 4 

Prince Odai 

26 j j saw this house [xvi : 3820] 

Standing on the river-bank 
Where shone the setting sun. 

I came hither, powerless indeed 
To resist the charm of its shape. 

Prince Odai was in the habit of reciting the above poem 
whenever he took up his kotoi at banquets. 

Prince Takamiya 

266 On sundry objects. [xvi : 3856] 

crow4 that feeds on the rice 
Of the Brahmin’s 5 field 
Is, with eyelids swollen. 

Perched on a lance-head streamer. 

1 Sometimes called the Asuka River, or the Tatsuta River. It is m Yamato Pro- 
vince, and famous for the song-frogs (Mod. Jap. kajika) and the yellow rose on its 

1 Yamabuki ( Kerria japomca ), a shrub, with yellow flowers which open in spring. 

3 A kind of lute. 

4 Some scholars believe that the crow was simply a figure shown on the streamer. 
J A priest representing himself to be a Brahmin prelate arrived in Japan from 

India in the Nara Period. 

Princess Takata 

267 To Prince Imah. 

'J’his world is so full 

Of men with slanderous tongues. 
May we not meet in the life to come- 
If we may not now, my dearest ? 

268 y^LL over the meadow, 

Where the yellow roses bloom, 
Multitudes of violets have opened 
With this spring rain. 

Princess Hirokawa 

26 $ 'j'HE sheaves of my love-thoughts 
Would fill seven carts — 

Carts huge and heavy- wheeled. 
Such a burden I bear 
Of my own choice. 

270 j thought there could be 

No more love left anywhere. 
Whence then is come this love, 
That has caught me now 
And holds me in its grasp ? 

[!v : 541] 

[vxi : 1444] 

[iv : 694] 

[iv : 695] 

Tajihi Kunihito 

271-2 Climbing Mount Tsukuba . 1 [111:382-3] 

'j’HOUGH many are the lofty mountains 

In the cock-crowing 2 * 4 Eastland of Azuma, 

Fame has told of Mount Tsukuba, 

Since the age of the gods, 

As the noble mountain throning god and goddess. 
The beautiful mountain with two peaks, 

For men to climb to overlook the land. 

So, if I do not climb it now — 

Though winter’s close 

Is not the time for climbing — 

I shall miss it greatly; 

So, labouring up the thawing paths, 

I have reached the summit. 


jmpatient of its sight from afar, 

I have climbed Mount Tsukuba, 

Labouring up the thawing paths ! 

Tajihi Kasamaro 

273-4 On bis journey to Tsukushi.i [iv : 509-10] 

gy the sea-shore of Mitsu,4 that reminds one 
Of the mirror standing on a girl’s comb-case, 

I linger, longing for my wife, and sleep alone. 

My scarlet sash untied. 

1 Situated 70 miles to the north-east of Tokyo, in Ibaraki Prefecture. 

2 A pillow- word for Azuma, the Eastland. 

i Composed probably during his journey to the Dazaifu on an official errand. 

4 i. e. Naniwazu, the original name of the present port of Osaka. 


I can but weep aloud like the crane crying 
In the morning mist at the twilight hour of dawn. 
Seeking to relieve me of my sorrow, 

If only by a thousandth part, 

I go out to gaze toward my home, 

Which is — alas 1 — lost in the white clouds, 

That trail across the green mountain of Kazuraki. 1 

I journey on to the far-off land — 

Passing Awaji Island now lying before. 

And leaving behind me the island of Awashima. 2 * 4 5 
I hear the shouts of sailors in the morning calm, 
And in the calm of evening the plash of oars. 
Labouring over the waves, 

Circling about amid the rocks, 

And past the beach of Inabizuma,3 
I wander on like a bird 

Till Ie-no-shima,4 the ‘ Home Island,’ comes into 

Where thick and swaying on the stony shore 
Grows the weed men call ‘ Speak-not *J — 

Ah, why have I come away from my wife 
Without a word of farewell ? 


Would that my wife and I, 

Unfastening our girdles for each other 
And with our snow-white sleeves overlapping, 

Had reckoned the day of my return 
Before I came away upon my journey ! 

i A mountain rising between the provinces of Yamato and Settsu 

1 Unidentified. Probably an islet adjacent to Awaji. 

? Presumably a small island at the mouth of the Kako River 

4 In the Harima Channel. It is now pronounced * Ejima.’ 

5 Orig. nanortso , now known as hondawara (Sargassum). The word may be trans- 
lated literally as * Speak-not ’ 


Tajihi Yanushi 

27/ j^er husband is gone towards Naniwa ; [vni : 1442] 
Pity it is to see a young wife, 

Left gathering spring herbs ! 

Tajihi — 

276-j An old threnody [xv : 3625-6] 

"J’HE mallards call with evening from the reeds 
And float with dawn midway on the water ; 
They sleep with their mates, it is said, 

With white wings overlapping and tails a-sweep 
Lest the frost should fall upon them. 

As the stream that flows never returns. 

And as the wind that blows is never seen, 

My wife, of this world, has left me. 

Gone I know not whither ! 

So here, on the sleeves of these clothes 
She used to have me wear, 

I sleep now all alone ! 


Cranes call flying to the reedy shore ; 

How desolate I remain 
As I sleep alone ! 

This poem was composed in grief at the death of his 



Tajihi Takanushi 

At the farewell banquet in honour of Otomo Komaro, 
vice-ambassador to China, in the residence of Otomo Kojihi, 
m the third month intercalary of the fourth year ofTempyo- 
Shoho (yj2). 

278 jo you, brave warrior, starting for the [xix : 4262] 
Land of Kara, 

That you may fulfil your duties, 

And come home safely, 

1 offer you a cup of wine. 

Ishikawa Kimiko 

279 jhe fisher-maids at Shika, 1 * * 4 [hi : 278] 

So scanty is their leisure-time. 

Gathering sea-weed, burning salt, 

They seldom take the little combs 
Out of their toilet-cases. 

Taguchi Masuhito 

Composed at Cape Kiyomi in the province of Surugap on 
the way to his new post , when he was appointed Governor of 
the province of KamitsukenuJ 

280 resting my eyes on the bay of Miho [ni : 296] 
On the boundless calm of the sea. 

Near Cape Kiyomi of Iohara,4 

1 In the province of Chikuzen in Kyushu. 

z Part of Shizuoka Prefecture at present. 

* It was in the ist year of Wado (70S), m the reign of the Empress Gensho 
Kamitsukenu, later called Kozuke, is now Gumma Prefecture. 

4 A district m Suruga. 


I am free from all my cares ! 

28 1 ^he whole day’s light is not enough [hi : 297] 

To view the Bay of Tago, 1 2 
Which at night I saw, hasting 
At our awful Sovereign’s word. 

Ono Oyu 

282 'J'he Imperial City of fairest Nara [111 : 328] 

Glows now at the height of beauty, 

Like brilliant flowers in bloom ! 

Kasa Kanamura 

28} Composed on Mount Shiotsu . z [in : 364] 

hjthis is the arrow which I, a warrior, shot, 

Lifting up the bow-end : 

Let it remind those who find it 
To talk of me for ever. 

284 A s I pass over Mount Shiotsu, [in : 365] 

My horse stumbles ;J 
Perhaps my dear ones at home 
May be thinking of me. 

1 The name Tago-no-ura is now used to denote to the bay east of the River 
Fuji, but formerly it was also applied to the bay westward as far as the town of 

2 In the northern part of Omi Province, 

5 The ancients believed that the thoughts of those left at home were made 
manifest to their dear ones on their journeys. 


287-7 Composed at the request of a young lady for [iv : 543—5] 
sending to a member of the Emperor’s retinue 
on a journey to Ki, in winter , in the tenth 
month of the first year of Jinki (724) 7 

You, dear husband, who have gone forth 
With the many men of eighty clans 
Accompanying the Emperor on his journey — 

You who went by the highway of Karu, 

Admiring the view of the Unebi Mountain, 

And now having entered the province of Ki 
Are crossing, perhaps, the mountain of Matsuchi 2 — 

You may find your journey a pleasant thing. 

As you watch the autumn leaves fly and scatter, 

Yet never a tender thought give to me. 

Though this may be an empty fear, 

I cannot stay at peace at all. 

A thousand times over I wish 
To follow you on your track. 

And yet, young and helpless girl that I am, 

I should not know what answer to give. 

If a road-guard should challenge me — 

So here I stand, faltering. 


Rather than remain behind 
To pine after you, 

I would we were the Imo-Se Mountains of Ki — 
The ‘ Man and Wife ’ for ever. 

If I go seeking after you. 

Following your footmarks, 

Will the guard of the pass 
In Ki bid me halt ? 

1 The 1 st year of the Emperor Shomu’s reign. 

* A mountain in Kii lying just over the border from Yarnato and to the north of 
the Ki River. 


288-90 On winning the love of a maiden during the [iv : 546-8] 
Emperor's visit to the Detached Palace at 
Mika-no-hara , l * 3 in spring, in the third 
month of the second year of Jinki (729) . 

A sojourner in Mika’s plains, 

I saw you on the road, 

A stranger to me like a cloud of heaven : 

The words I could not speak to you, 

Quite choked my heart. 

Yet we two, by the mercy of the gods, 

Are now wedded in love and trust, 

Lying upon each other’s sleeve. 

Ah, to-night ! Would it were as long 
As a hundred autumn nights together ! 


I have leaned, body and soul, 

Towards you, beloved, 

From the moment I saw you — 

A stranger like a cloud of heaven. 

Unable to bear the thought 
That to-night will quickly pass, 

Oh, how I pray that it might be 
Long as a hundred autumn nights ! 

291-9 On the occasion of the Sovereign' s z journey to [vi : 907-9] 
Yosbinu, in summer, in the fifth month 
of the seventh year of Yoro (727). 

QN the mountain of Mifune 

That hangs over the cascading waters* 

1 In Yamato. A village of the same name is still in existence. 

* The Empress Gensho. 

3 The Yoshino River. 


There grow the toga 1 - trees in luxuriance, 

Spreading out their verdant branches — 

O the Akitsu Palace of Yoshinu ! 

Where in endless succession — 

So spells the name of those trees — 

Will endure as now for ten thousand ages 
The court of our Sovereigns ! 

Is it so sublime because of the god presiding ? 

Is it so alluring to look upon 

Because of the pristine excellence of the province ? 

Well was here established the Pleasure-Palace 

From the age of the gods 

Amid these clear streams and immaculate hills. 


Oh, would I could thus feast my eyes 
Year after year on the beautiful scene — 

The clean dale of Yoshinu 

With its cascades breaking into white spray ! 

How I gaze, unwearied, upon the dale 
Where the river, because of the towering hills. 
Flowing, falls in cascades 
White as the flowers of mulberry-cloth ! 

294-6 On the occasion of the Sovereign’s 2 visit to [vi : 920-2] 
the Detached Valace at Yoshinu, in 
summer, in the fifth month of the 
second year of Jmki (72 j). 

Tj o ! the unsullied stream of the Yoshinu, 
Thundering through the mountains, 

Rushes down in cascades. 

1 A kind of fir-tree ( Tsuga Sttboldi) The name was often used as an introductory’ 
word to 4 successively/ 

2 The Emperor Shomu. 


In the upper reach the plovers cry incessantly, 

In the lower reach the song-frogs call to their mates, 
While here and there the palace lords and ladies 
Gaily throng the banks ; 

Enchanted am I beyond words 
Whenever I watch the scene. 

May it ever be thus — continuous 

As the fair creeping vine — for ten thousand ages ! 

So in awe I pray to the gods of heaven and earth. 


Shall I ever weary of gazing 
Even for ten thousand ages 
Upon these imperial palace grounds 
On the bank of the Yoshinu rapids ? 

Would that the lives of my fellow-men, 

And mine as well, were everlasting 

As the rocks that bed 

The rapids of the Yoshinu River ! 

297-9 On the occasion of the Sovereign s 1 visit [vi : 928-30] 
to the Palace of Naniwa in the tenth 
month [of the same year]. 

^hough the land of wave-bright Naniwa, 
Regarded by all men as a ruined place 
No better than an old reed-fence. 

Was left all forgotten and unfriended — 

Now that our Sovereign is pleased to dwell 
Here at the Palace of Nagara, 

Pillared stout and high, 

Thence to rule his wide domain, 

And the courtiers of eighty clans 

1 The Emperor Shomu. 


Have built their cottages on Ajifu Field, 
This place has become an Imperial City, 
If but for the time of their sojourn. 


Desolate like a moorland 
Though this place has been, 

When here our Sovereign dwells, 

Lo ! it blooms forth in the splendour 
Of an Imperial City. 

The fisher-maids 

In their little tana- less 1 boats 

Are rowing out to sea — 

Lying in my wayfarer’s bed, 

I hear the sound of the oars. 

)oo-z On the occasion of the Sovereign’ s journey to [vi : 935-7] 
Itiami District , Harima Province, in autumn, 
on the fifteenth of the ninth month of the 
third year of finki (726). 

qn Matsuho’s shore of Awaji Island, 

Seen yonder from Funase of Nakisumi, 

There are fisher-maids, I am told, 

Who cut the dainty seaweed in the morning calm, 
And in the evening calm burn salt-fires. 

But I, knowing not how to reach them. 

And deprived of my manly courage. 

Am maid-like distraught with sorrow. 

And wander about yearning for the far beach — 
Helpless without boat and oar ! 


O that I had boat and oar 

1 Sec note to No. 204. 


That I might visit those fisher-maids 
Cutting the dainty seaweed ! — 

I would go, however high the waves might be. 

Could I ever weary of watching. 

Walking back and forth interminably, 

The white waves that ceaselessly break 
On Funase’s beach of Nakisumi ? 

30 3- j Addressed to an envoy departing for [vm : 145 3—5] 
China, in spring, in the third month 
intercalary of the fijthyear of 
Tempyo (733). 

you who are constantly on my mind. 

And dear to me as the breath of life — 

You depart in obedience to the imperial command, 
From the cape of Mitsu in Naniwa Bay, 

Where in the evening the cranes call to their mates. 
You will board a great ship, full-oared. 

And sail away past many an island 
On the ocean of high white waves. 

Then, I, who remain, will see you go, 

Making offerings and prayers to the gods. 

Come back soon, O friend ! 


Beyond the waves in the clouds 
Is lost a small island — 

Even so, when you are gone. 

Oh, the choking grief ! 

Would I could be 
The shaft of your ship’s oar 
Rather than thus remain 
Disconsolate even unto death ! 


Isonokami (Otomaro 1 ) and Kasa Kanamura 

306 jn the great ship, full-oared, [in : 368] 

I sail along the coast, 

Obedient to our Sovereign’s word. 

— By Isonokami 

3°7 brave liegeman like you [in : 369] 

Should do his service 
As our mighty Sovereign wills. 

— By Kasa Kanamura. 

From the ‘ Kasa Kanamura Collection ’ 

308-10 On the occasion of the death of Prince Shiki , [n : 230-2] 
in autumn , in the ninth month of the 
first year of Reiki 2 (7/ j ) . 

't'he warriors go forth 

With birchwood bows in their hands 
And hunting arrows under their arms — 

On the hill slope of Takamado ;3 
There flamed up fires 
That seemed like moorland fires 
Burning in the spring. 

I wondered and asked 
A wayfarer upon the road. 

Lo, he wept ; his tears fell like rain, 

Drenching the hempen cloak. 

He stops to say : 

1 According to the Original Note Isonokami might he Isonokami Otomaro, as 
the latter was appointed Governor of Echizen. But concerning his appointment 
nothing is found in the historical records. 

2 The era of Reiki began with the 9th month of the year. 

s The preceding three lines are introductory to f Takamado * which may be 
taken ro mean e high target.’ 


‘ Oh, what a woeful question you ask ! 
To hear it is to weep ; 

To answer is to break the heart. 

They are the torch-fires 

Of the funeral train 

Of our dear imperial prince — 

Child of the gods — 

That all so brightly shine !’ 


Can it be that the bush-clovers 
Of Takamado blow — 

Blow in vain and fade 
Upon the autumn plain 
Where none comes now to see ? 

That road through the brake 
On Mikasa’s hill-side 1 — 

How desolate it is. 

And overgrown with weed. 

So soon ! 

311-2 Upon the departure of an official for his [ix : 1785-6] 
new post in the land of Kosbi , 2 in 
autumn, in the eighth month of the 
fifth year of Jinki (728). 

giNCE I came by chance into this life 
Where it is rare to be born a man, 

I have trusted you through life and death. 

But now, obedient to our mighty Sovereign’s word, 
— As is our human lot — 

To govern the land far-off as the skies, 

You set out early as the morning bird, 

T Forms part of the Kasuga Hill at the foot of which, it seems, the palace of the 
Prince stood. 

2 i. e. the provinces of Echi2en, Etchu and Echigo, all facing the Japan Sea. 

With all your followers like a flock of fowl. 
And I remaining shall miss you deeply. 
Seeing not your face for many a day ! 


The day you cross the mountains in Koshi, 
Where the snow is falling, 

O think of one who remains behind. 

Lady Kasa 

313 To Otomo Yakamochi. [in : 396] 

j?ar off as the reed-plain of Manu 1 
Lies in ‘ Road’s End,’ 2 
Yet in vision, they say. 

It comes near. 

To Otomo Yakamochi. 

314 jn the loneliness of my heart [iv : 594] 

I feel as if I should perish 
Like the pale dew-drop 
Upon the grass of my garden 
In the gathering shades of twilight. 

31 j gVEN the sands uncounted of a long [iv : 596] 


That takes eight hundred days to travel — 

Could they at all outnumber 
My thoughts of love, 

O guardian of the isle on the sea ? 

1 There still remains a place so called in Soma District, Fukushima Prefecture. 

* i. e. Michinoku , an old name for the north-eastern region of Japan. 


p6 QH how steadily I love you — [iv : 600] 

You who awe me 
Like the thunderous waves 
That lash the sea-coast of Ise ! 

31 j j^jiORE sad thoughts crowd into my [iv : 602] 


When evening comes ; for then 
Appears your phantom shape — 

Speaking as I have known you speak. 

318 jf it were death to love, [iv : 603] 

I should have died — 

And died again 

One thousand times over. 

319 j dreamed I was holding [iv : 604] 

A double-edged sword close to my body — 

What does it foretell ? It tells 
That I shall meet you soon. 

320 jf the gods of heaven and earth [iv : 605] 

Were bereft of reason, 

I might die 
Without seeing you 
Whom I love so well. 

321 'J’he bells are tolling, [ Iv : 607] 

Bidding all to rest. 

But you being for ever on my mind, 

I cannot sleep. 


3 22 'po love you who love me not [iv : 608J 

Is like going to a great temple 
To bow in adoration 
Behind the back of the famished devil. 1 

Takahashi — 

323-3 An elegy on the death of his wife. [in : 481-3] 

'J’ILL my black hair be white, 

We shall be together, I and my darling. 
Sleeping, our sleeves overlapped. 

She nestling by my side, 

Bound in never-ending love, 

Through this new age of our Sovereign ; 

So I vowed, but my word proved false. 

My hopes were vain. 

She has gone from me and our loved home, 
Leaving a crying child. 

And faded like a morning mist, 

Vanished among the Sagataka Hills 2 
Of Yamashiro. 

I know not w T hat to say, nor what to do. 

But out of the room we slept in 
I come at mom, thinking of my wife. 

With evening I go back and grieve. 

When my precious child cries. 

Helpless man as I am — 

I bear him on my back or in my arms ; 

And ceaselessly I weep, as sings the morning bird, 

1 It was believed by old commentators, though without sufficient evidence, that 
the images of a demon were kept in Buddhist temples merely as a warning to show 
what state of existence a man might be transmuted into in after-life through 
disbelief and evil conduct. To worship these images was, of course, absurd and 

2 In Soraku District, Yamashiro 


Longing for her in vain; 

And, though dumb the hills that bind her, 
I gaze upon them as my heart’s resort ! 


Changing is this world of ours ; 

Those hills, cold to my heart, 

I now must gaze upon 
As my heart’s resort ! 

I cannot but weep aloud 

And ceaselessly, as sings the morning bird. 

Since no way remains to me 

To regain my love ! 

Kuramochi Chitose 

326-7 one but hears the rumbling [vi : 913-4] 


So had I only heard of fair Yoshinu — 

And how that name rang in my wistful ears ! 

There on the mountain with trees overgrown 
I stand to gaze below. 

The morning mist rises everywhere 
From the river shallows as day breaks. 

And there the song-frogs chirp in the evening. 

0 what a pity that, being on a journey 
And even obliged to sleep in my clothes, 

1 must alone without you, love, 

Look on this clean and beautiful river-beach ! 


Mount Mifune above the cascades 
Overawes me by its grandeur, 

Yet never for a day, nor for a moment. 

Do I forget you, my love ! 


[VI : 931 - 2 ] 

3 28-9 'J’he beach is beautiful; and there 

The sea-tangles swaying, 

Lapped by a thousand waves 
In the calm of morning. 

And by five hundred "waves 
In the evening calm. 

O Suminoe Beach, 

Where white-crested waves are racing around ! 
Could I weary of watching, not only now, 

But day in, day out, over and over again, 

As those waves break on the shore ? 


Let me go, with my clothes stained 
For remembrance with the yellow clay 
Of Suminoe’s shore, which white-crested waves 
Visit, ceaselessly lapping ! 

Wife of Kuramochi — 

330-2 To a long absent husband. [xvi : 3811-13] 

J am sick body and soul 

Because not even a messenger comes 
To bring me word of you. 

My husband ruddy-cheeked. 

Pray not to the gods, 

Nor call in the diviner 
To burn the tortoise-shell ! 

It is love that torments me : 

The pain pierces me to the bone, 

And grief has broken my heart. 

My life is fast ebbing towards its end. 

Who calls me now ? — 


Is it you, sweet husband of mine. 

Or is it my dear mother ? 

In vain you seek at the cross-roads 
The oracle of evening and of the way 
For the sake of me who must die ! 


Though they ask the diviner, 

And seek oracles at the cross-roads, 

There is no finding 
The means to see you. 

Not that I cared for my life — 

But just because of you. 

Sweet husband of mine. 

Have I wished to live on. 1 

It is said that there was a young woman ( her surname 
was Kuramochi ) , whose husband had deserted her for many 
years . Fining after him , she was taken ilL Growing 
weaker and more wasted every day y she suddenly faced death. 
Thereupon , she sent for her husband ; she then recited the 
above poems with sobs and tears. She died shortly after . 

Kose Sukunamaro 

})} At a feast of court nobles gathered at [vi : 1016J 
his residence , in spring > in the second 
month [of the ninth year of 
Tempyo] (737). 

qver the far ocean plains 

I made hither mv toilsome way — 

I, a fairy maiden — 

To watch the gallant lords make merry. 

1 Gwen in a certain book as an envoy. — Original Note. 


The above poem , which was written on a piece of white 
paper and hung upon the wall , bore a preface reading: 
‘ This is a garland made by a fairy maid of Peng-lai, which 
the vulgar may in no wise behold V 

Fujiwara Hirotsugu and a Young Lady 

Poem sent with cherry-flowers to a young [vm : 1456J 
lady by Fujiwara Hirotsugu. 

gLJGHT not these flowers ! 

Each single petal contains 
A hundred words of mine. 

jjj Reply by the young lady. [vm : 1457] 

Y^ere these flowers broken off, 

Unable to hold in each petal 
A hundred words of yours ? 

Ab6 Okina 

Poem of sorrow addressed to his mother [xix : 4247] 
when he was despatched to China . 1 

JyJY love for you, O mother, 

Is endless like the bounds of heaven 
Where the clouds drift on and on. 

But the day I must leave you 
Now draws near ! 

1 This poem was handed down by Takayasu Tanemori of Etchu, an official of 
the Fourth Rank. — Original Note. 


Ikeda — and Omiwa Okimori 

}}7 Poem of ridicule by Ikeda addressed to [xvi 13840] 
Omiwa Okimori. 

•J’hus say the famished she-devils 
In the temples far and near : 

‘ Grant me Omiwa, the he-devil, 

That I may bear him 
A litter of baby devils ! ’ 

Reply by Omiwa Okimori. [xvi : 3841] 

jf you lack, makers of Buddhas, 

The vermeil clay 
For your idols. 

Go dig the nose-top 

Of my Lord of £ Pond-field * l 1 

Nakatomi Yakamori and a Maiden Sanu Chigami 

Poems exchanged while Yakamori 
lived in exile. 

} 79 Q for a fire from heaven [xv : 372.4] 

To haul, fold and burn up 
The long-stretched road you go ! — 

By the Maiden, on parting. 

34° \yERE it not for the dresses [xv : 3733] 

You gave me as a keepsake. 

How, beloved, could I 

Live the days of my life ? — By Yakamori . 

1 i. e a literal translation of Ikeda. 


[xv: 3748] 

341 ^ strange land is hard to live in, 

men say ; 

Come quickly home. 

Before I die of love for you ! — By the Maiden. 

342 ^yiTHiN the bounds of heaven and [xv : 3750] 


None, none you can find 

Who loves you as I ! — By the Maiden. 

343 'J’hese are the clothes your dainty girl, [xv : 3753] 

Bowed in thought, has sewn — 

A keepsake for the day 

When we shall meet again. — By the Maiden. 

344 J)0 the courtiers even now [xv : 375 8 J 

Delight in nothing 

But teasing and mockery? — By Yakamori. 

343 r pHouGH I try to calm down my soul 1 [xv : 3767] 
By prayers night and morning. 

My heart aches 

With overwhelming love. — By the Maiden. 

346 ‘ ^ lord returning home [xv : 3772] 

Has come,’ said they — 

And I well-nigh swooned, 

Thinking it was you. — By the Maiden. 

1 A religious function observed lest the soul should depart from the body. 

347 pOR the time that you return, fxv : 3774] 

I will guard my life, my lord ; 

O forget me not \—Bj the Maiden. 

34$ gVEN to-day, were I in the City, [xv : 3776] 

I would be standing 
Outside the western royal stables. 

Breathless to see you. — By Yakamori. 

Lady Abe 

349-jo j shall think of nothing more now. [rv : 505-6] 
To you I have yielded, my dear ; 

Upon you my soul leans. 

Think not of things, my beloved ! 

Have you not me — who would go, 

If need be, through fire and flood for you ? 

jji very soul, it seems, [iv : 514] 

Has stolen into every stitch 
Of the robe you wear. 

Lady Heguri 

Sent to Otomo Yakamochi, Governor of Etchu, by 
occasional posts. 

3J2 QAZING at the hand you squeezed [xvn : 5940] 
When we were heart to heart. 

Pledging the love of a myriad years, 

I am overwhelmed with longing. 


[XVII : 3942 ] 

X HE P me bloom, though you 
overlook it 

Among the mass of blossoms, 
Blows now in vain. 

Otomo Tabito 

3 J 4 -J Composed at the imperial command during [m : 315-6] 
the Emperor’s stay at the Detached Palace 
of Yoshinu , in the third month . 1 

o the Palace of Yoshinu, 

Beautiful Yoshinu — 

Noble for its mountains, 

Bright for its rivers ! 

As long as heaven and earth shall last, 

For a myriad ages, 

It will flourish unchanging — 

This Pleasure-Palace ! 


The rivulet of Kisa 2 that I saw long ago — 

When I see it now. 

How much more limpid are its waters ! 

}j 6 qan the prime of youth come back to [in : 3 3 1 ] 

I fear that I may die 

Without seeing the City of Nara once again b 

1 Probably in the first year of Jmki (724) in the reign of the Emperor Shomu. 

1 Runs through the Kisa valley and falls into the Yoshino. 

3 This poem was composed when Tabito was sixty-three or four years old and 
at the time when he was Governor-General of the Dazaifu. In spite of the pes- 
simism expressed in the poem he returned to the capital as Grand Councillor of 
State (730). He died in the 7th month of the following year at the age of sixty- 


i/7 _ G Poems in praise of sake. [hi : 338-50] 

jnstead of wasting thoughts on unavailing things, 
It would seem wiser 
To drink a cup of raw sake. 

How true is his saying. 

That great sage of old who gave sake 
The name of c sage.’ 1 

Even with the seven wise men 2 * of the days of old, 
Sake was, it seems. 

The crown of their desire. 

Far better, it seems, than uttering pompous words 
And looking wise, 

To drink sake and weep drunken tears. 

I know not how to name it, how to define it. 

Ten thousand times precious 
Is sake to me ! 

Ceasing to live this wretched life of man, 

O that I were a sake-jar ; 

Then should I be soaked with sake ! 

Grotesque ! When I look upon a man 
Who drinks no sake, looking wise. 

How like an ape he is ! 

Even a treasure priceless in the world — 

How could it surpass 
A cup of raw sake ? 

1 In ancient China, the Emperor Taitsung of Wei prohibited the use of sake, 
but those who drank it secretly called white sake 4 wise man 9 and pure sake * sage/ 

2 The so-called ‘ seven wise men of the bamboo wood * who lived under the 

Chin dynasty were all good drinkers. 

If there were a gem shining in the darkness of night, 
How could it excel 
Sake that kills all care ? 

Among the countless ways of pleasure 
What refreshes most 
Is weeping drunken tears I 1 

If I could but be happy in this life, 

What should I care if in the next 
I became a bird or a worm ! 2 

All living things die in the end : 

So long as I live here 
I want the cup of pleasure. 

Silence with the airs of wisdom 
Is far worse 

Than weeping drunken tears ! 

Remembering his deceased wife : composed in the fifth 
year of Jinki (728), when he was Governor-General of the 

770 Some weeks after her death. [nr : 43 8 ] 

|^y dear wife loved my arm, 

Her pillow, to sleep on ; 

Now I have none like her. 

To sleep upon it. 

1 The second and third lines are alternatively construed, i. e. 

* And when we are melancholy. 

Better take to weeping drunken tears/ 

2 This poem alludes to the Buddhist idea of the transmigration of the soul. 


[m : 440] 

371 Starting on his journey to the capital. 

W HEN I sleep alone, in the Imperial City, 
In my long forsaken house, 

How much more painful that will be 
Than ever on my journey ! 

Composed during his journey from the Da^aifu to the 
capital , in winter, m the twelfth month of the second year of 
Tempyo (730). 

Passing the shore of Tomo. 1 

372 darling gazed 2 at the juniper [hi : 446 ] 

On the shore of Tomo ; 

It stands, flourishing as ever, 

But she who saw it is dead. 

373 Q juniper, that grasps the rocks of the [m : 448 ] 


With ancient roots. 

If I ask where she is, she who saw you, 

Can you answer me ? 

Passing the cape of Minume. 

374 'J'ogether with my wife I passed [ m : 449l 

This lovely cape Minume ; 

Now on my lonely voyage home 
I see it and I weep. 

1 In Bingo Province. 

2 u e. when they journeyed to the Dazaifu. 

37 J 'YyHEN last I journeyed down, [in : 450] 

We two admired this cape ; 

Now I am filled with sadness, 

Passing it all alone. 

376-8 On reaching his residence. [in : 45 1-5] 

jypr house forsaken by my love, 

And so desolate — 

How much more it pains my heart 
Than did my travels, grass for pillow ! 

This garden which I, together with my darling, 
Laid out and planted, 

Has now grown waste and rife 
With tall and wild-boughed trees ! 

Each time I see this plum-tree, 

Which my darling planted, 

My heart swells with sadness 
And tears fill my eyes. 

379 Addressed to Lord Tajihi Agatamori, an [iv : 5 5 5] 
official of the Da^aifu, on the occasion 
of his departure for Nara. 

'j'His wine I have brewed for you 
And laid aside for your company — 

Must I drink it, O friend, without you, 

And alone on the plain of Yasu S 1 

1 The plain, situated several miles south-east of the Dazaifu, provided perhaps 
a convenient hunting ground for the officials. 

I 20 

[V : 793 j 

3 ^° In reply to condolences he had received 

on his wife’s death. 

_ Calamity after calamity has befallen me, and many sad 
tidings gather around. Overwhelmed by grief, and all alone, I 
shed tears with a breaking heart. Your kind consolations nar- 
rowly hold, back my fast-declining life. My pen cannot express 
what I wish to say. But all ages have had this same regret. 

Now that I am brought to know 
The vanity of human life, 

Sadness bows me down 
Deeper than ever. 

381 In reply 1 2 * * 5 to Ishikawa Taruhito, an official of [vi 1956] 
the Dazaifu. 

Hf’His being a place over which 

Our great Sovereign rules in peace. 

Whether in Yamato, or here in this far province, 

I feel ever the same. 

382 In reply 1 to a young woman named Kojima on [vi : 968] 
the occasion of his departure for 
the capital. 

'J’hat I who thought myself a strong man 
Should now, on Mizuki’s embankment, 3 
Shed tears in bidding you farewell ! 

1 Ishikawa Taruhito sent a poem to Tabito, the Governor-General, asking him, 
if he did not long for his home at Nara. 

2 When Otomo Tabito set forth for the capital, he stopped his horse at Mizuki 
to look back at his residence m the Dazaifu. The young woman, one of those 
who were there to see him off, presented him with a poem expressing her grief at 

separation. Tabito replied with the above, reciprocating her sentiments. — Original 


5 This embankment was constructed for the defence of the Dazaifu. Traces of 
it may still be seen in the neighbourhood of Mizuki Station, on the main railway 
line to Kagoshima. 

1 2 1 

Manzei and Otomo Tabito 

383 Addressed by Man^ei, the monk, to Lord [iv : 575] 

Otomo, Governor-General of the Da- 
%atfu, after his return to the 


J7VEN after my locks, 

Black as the berries of pardanthus, 1 
Have all turned white. 

There comes a time when I must nurse 
Heart-aching love, alas ! 

384 By Otomo Tabito. [rv : 574] 

jjere in the capital I wonder 

Where may be your land of Tsukushi — 

It must lie, alas ! my friend, 

Far beyond the mountains 
Where white clouds hover. 

Otomo Sukunamaro 

384 gHE goes to the sun-bright palace ; [rv ; 5 3 z] 

Yet so dear to me is the maiden, 

It is heart-ache to keep her. 

But despair to let her go. 

1 Nubatama, used as a pillow- word for 4 black,’ are berries of an iridaceous plant 
called hiogi (fielamacanda or Pardanthus cbinemis ). 

\Z 2 

Lady Otomo of Sakanoe 

386-7 Chanted at a religious service to her [hi : 379-80] 
ancestral god. 

o h > our heaven-born god. 

Descended 1 from the heavenly plains — 

With the sakaki branch 2 3 
Fresh from the inmost hill . 

Tied with white paper and mulberry cloth. 

With a wine-jar set in the purified earth. 

With a cord of many bamboo-rings 
Hanging from my neck, 

With my knees bent like the deer’s. 

With my maiden’s scarf flung over me, — 

Thus I entreat thee, our god. 

Yet can I not meet him ? 


With folded mulberry cloth in my hands. 

Thus I entreat thee, our god, 

Yet can I not meet him? 

388-3 An elegy on the death of Rigan 3 a nun , [hi : 460-1] 
in the seventh year of Tempyo (733). 

§he came from distant Shiragi, 

Hearing praises of our Land, 

Though there was no kith nor kin 
With whom to talk her cares away; 

1 It alludes to the legend that her ancestral god descended from heaven together 
with Ninigi-no-Mikoto. 

1 An evergreen broad-leaved tree, found in the mountains of southern Japan, 
and also cultivated in gardens and in the precincts of Shinto shrines ; it is consider- 
ed sacred and used as an offering to the gods. 

3 Rigan, a Korean nun, was naturalized and lived for some years at the house 
of the father of the poetess. When she died, the poetess’s mother was away at the 
hot springs of Arima, so that the lady herself attended to the nun’s hurial services. 

And, with choice of homes in plenty 
In the prosperous Imperial City, 

In the Land where rules our Sovereign, 
Though what she wished I know not. 
Eagerly she sought, like a crying child, 

This alien hill of Saho 

There she built herself a cottage, 

Which she kept for many a year; 

And, while her trusted friends were all away 
On their journey, grass for pillow. 

Since none could elude 
The fate of all that live. 

She crossed Saho’s stream at morning, 

And going to the mountain-side, 

With Kasuga Field 2 behind her. 

Hid herself as in the shades of evening. 

I know no word, I know not what to do, 
But lingering all alone in grief. 

Endlessly I weep upon my sleeves ; 

Do not my tears rise in clouds 
And fall in rain on Mount Arima ?3 


Life one cannot hold fast — 

She left her dwelling 

And hid herself among the clouds. 

390 Reply to Eujtwara Maro. [iv : 527] 

J7VEN if you say, * I come,’ 

At times you will not come. 

Now you say : ‘ I will not come.’ 

Why should I look for your coming — 

1 The hill rises to the north-west of the present Nara, on which stood the res- 
idence of Yasumaro, her father. 

2 An open tract at the foot of Mount Kasuga. 

5 Near the hot springs of Arima, Settsu Province. 


When you say you will not come ! 

} 9 T ~ 2 Love's complaint. [iv : 619-20] 

wave-bright Naniwa 
The sedges grow, firm-rooted — 

Firm were the words you spoke. 

And tender, pledging me your love. 

That it would endure through all the years ; 

And to you I yielded my heart. 

Spotless as a polished mirror. 

Never, from that day, like the sea-weed 
That sways to and fro with the waves. 

Have I faltered in my fidelity. 

But have trusted in you as in a great ship. 

Is it the gods who have divided us ? 

Is it mortal men who intervene ? 

You come no more, who came so often, 

Nor yet arrives a messenger with your letter. 

There is — alas ! — nothing I can do. 

Though I sorrow the black night through 
And all day till the red sun sinks. 

It avails me nothing. Though I pine, 

I know not how to soothe my heart’s pain. 

Truly men call us ‘ weak women.’ 

Crying like an infant. 

And lingering around, I must still wait, 

Wait impatiently for a message from you ! 


If from the beginning 

You had not made me trust you. 

Speaking of long, long years. 

Should I have known now 
Such sorrow as this ? 


[iv : 65 1] 

393 'J'he cold dew of heaven has fallen, 

And so arrives another season. 

Ah ! my children staying far away at home — 

You, too, must long and wait for me l 1 

394 j deliver the jewel 2 [iv : 652] 

To the jewel-keeper. 

Then, oh, my pillow and I ! — 

Let us two sleep together ! 

jpj jqo you desire our love to endure? [iv : 661] 

Then, if only while I see you 
After days of longing and yearning. 

Pray, speak to me 
Sweet words — all you can ! 

396 if a cloud were sailing [iv : 688] 

Across the green mountain-side. 

Do not smile to yourself too frankly. 

Lest others should know of our love ! 

397 Sent from her country estates of Tom: to [iv : 723-4] 
her eldest daughter remaining 
at home. 

J)EAR child, my daughter, who stood 
Sadly musing by the gate 

1 The poem was composed by Lady Otomo of Sakanoe, presumably during her 
sojourn at the Dazaifu, where she had gone to visit her eldei brother, Otomo 
Tabito, the Governor-General, leaving her two daughters at home in Nara. 

2 The jewel alludes to Lady Otomo of Sakanoe’s second daughter, and the jewel- 
keeper to the latter*s husband Otomo Surugamaro. 

J The estate was the hereditary property of the Otomo family, who had a 
villa there. The place was situated to the east of the present town of Sakurai in 
Yamato. The poems were sent in reply to a poem from the daughter. 


Though I was leaving for no foreign land, 

I think of you day and night 
And my body is become lean ; 

My sleeves, too, are tear-soaked with weeping. 
If I must long for you so wretchedly, 

I fear I cannot stay these many months 
Here at this dreary old farm. 


Because you long for me so much — 

Your sad thoughts all confused 

Like the tangles of your morning hair — 

I see you, dear child, in dream. 1 

}99 Given to her nephew, Yakamochi, as he left [vi : 979] 
her house at Saho for his Western Residence. 

'J’he garment is thin 

That my loved one wears — 

O Saho wind, blow not too hard 
Until he reaches his home ! 

400 Reacting with her kinsfolk. [vi : 995] 

'j’HUS let us drink and be merry ! 

Even the grass and the tree thrive in spring 
Only to fade and fall with autumn. 

401 qh, the pain of my love that you [vrn : 1500] 

know not — 

A love like the maiden-lily 

Blooming in the thicket of the summer moor ! 

1 It was popularly believed that a person would appear in the dream of the one 
for whom he yearned. 



Sent to her elder daughter from [xix : 4220-21] 
the capital .' 1 

j cherished you, my darling, 

As the Sea God the pearls 
He treasures in his comb-box. 

But you, led by your lord husband — 

Such is the way of the world — 

And torn from me like a vine. 

Left for distant Koshi; 

Since then, your lovely eyebrows 
Curving like the far-off waves, 

Ever linger in my eyes. 

My heart unsteady as a rocking boat ; 

Under such a longing 
I, now weak with age, 

Come near to breaking. 

Env oy 

If I had foreknown such longing, 

I would have lived with you, 

Gazing on you every hour of the day 
As in a shining mirror. 

Lady Otomo of Sakanoe and an Anonymous 

4°4 fter we, dear friends, have drunk [vra : 1656] 

Setting plum-blossoms afloat in our wine-cups, 

I care not if those on the tree be gone. 

— By the Lady. 

’ Composed in the second year of Tempyo-Shohd (750). 



JHE law allows our feasting ; 1 [vm : 1657] 

Are we to drink the wine this one night only ? 
Do not fall, O blossoms, fall not away ! 

— Anonymous. 

Lady Otomo of Sakanoe and Otomo Yakamochi, 
her Nephew 

406 jf I sent my forlorn love [win : 4081 ] 

On a pack-horse — a stout horse — 

To your land of Koshi, 

Would anyone be tempted, 

I wonder, to cajole it away ? — By the Lady. 

407 §hould a horse-load of love [xvni : 4083] 

Arrive from the Imperial City 
When my love’s daily stock 
Is by no means exhausted, 

I could not carry it, I fear . — By Yakamochi. 

Lady Otomo of Tamura 

408 To her sister , Lady Otomo of Sakanoe’ s [vm : 1622] 

Elder Daughter. 

home the hagi flowers of autumn 
Are abloom in the evening glow — 

Would that this moment 
I could see your radiant form ! 

1 In those days — according to the Original Note — a decree had been issued, 
leading : * There shall be within the confines of the capital no banqueting save 
private feastings of a few individuals, which are permitted/ Hence the first line 
of the above poem. 


Otomo Yakamochi 

Elegies 1 on the death of his mistress , in summer, 
in the sixth month of the eleventh year of 
Tempyo (739). 

joy pROM this time on [in : 462] 

The autumn wind will chill me ; 

How shall I sleep alone 
The long nights through ? 

410 Seeing the fringed pink by the stone-paving [in : 464J 

under the eaves. 

'J’he fringed pink in my garden 
Which my beloved planted 
For her remembrance in autumn-tide, 

Has all come out in bloom. 

4 11 In sorrow at the autumn wind in the [ni : 46 5 ] 

following month. 

^yELL do I know that human life is passing ; 

Yet this autumn 2 wind chills me, 

Reminding me of my lost love. 

412-4 ‘J’he flowers have blossomed in my [in : 466-9] 

Yet do not soothe my sorrow ; 

If only my love were living, 

Side by side could we be 
Like a pair of mallards ; 

1 These poems were probably composed in his 21st year. 

1 According to the lunar calendar autumn begins in the 7th month. 


And I would pick them for her sake ! 
Brief is our lease of life, 

She vanished like a drop of dew ; 
Seeking the mountain-side, 

Like the setting sun she hid herself ; 
Remembrance wrings my heart. 

Past speech the world is vain — 

What can I do ? 


Could she not have chosen another time ? 

To my grief she died, my love, 

Leaving me a babe. 

Had I but known the way she left our world, 
I would have built a barrier 
Between my dying love and death. 

In the garden which my darling loved 
The flowers still bloom; 

And a long time has passed, 

Yet my tears are not dry. 

Still depressed in his sorrow. 

416 gucH a fleeting life though we shared [in : 470] 

We both had trusted that our love 
Would last a thousand years. 

417 qnce I saw it with uncaring eyes ; 
Now that it is her sepulchre, 
How dear it is, this hill of Saho ! 


[hi : 474] 

Elegies 1 on the death of Prince Asaka. z 

418-20 j^y thought and my tongue [m : 475-7] 

Are held with awe — 

Now that the spring has come 
In the Imperial City of Kuni 3 
In great Yamato, 

Which my lord and prince 
Was to rule for a myriad ages, 

The hills are burthened with blossoms. 

And the ayui sport in the river-shallows. 

When thus the city prospers day by day. 

Is it some trick or rumour 

That, followed by his servitors in white. 

He stayed his royal palanquin 
On the mountain of Wazuka? 

And thence rose up to heaven ? 

Alas ! we writhe upon the ground 
And shed endless tears ; 

But all is vain. 


I had not thought that thence 
My prince would rise to heaven ; 

With careless eyes I’d looked 

Upon this wooded mountain of Wazuka. 

The blossoms made all the mountain glow. 
But now are scattered down ; 

Such was he, my noble prince ! 

5 Composed on the 3rd of the 2nd month m the 16th year of Tempyo (744). 

1 Son of the Emperor Shomu. He died at the age of seventeen on the 13th of 
the 1 st month intercalary, in the 16th year of Tempyo (744). 

3 Kuni was the site of the court of the Emperor Shomu from the 12th month 
of the 1 2 th year of Tempyo till the 26 th of the 2nd month in the 16th year of Tempyo. 
The site is located in Mika-no-hara Village, Soraku District, Yamashiro. 

4 A fresh-water £sh ( Vlecoglossus ahivelis ), several inches long, resembling the 
brook trout. 

5 Situated to the east of Kuni. 


4 2I ~l l M Y thought is held with awe — [m : 47 8 - 8 °] 

My lord and prince, leading 
All the captains of eighty clans. 

Would rouse deer in the morning chase, 

And start birds in the evening hunt; 

Then halting his horse by the bit, 

Joyously he would gaze far 
From the hill of Ikuji. 2 

But now on this hill the blossoms 
That filled the leafy trees 
All are scattered away. 

So is it with the world ; 

His servitors who, warrior-hearted. 

Gathered at the prince’s palace, 

Noisy as the flies of May, 

With swords at their waists, 

Birchwood bows in hand, 

And full quivers on their backs, 

Trusting their service would last 
Long as heaven and earth endured, 

For a myriad ages, 

Now go in doleful white ; 

And daily fade their wonted smiles 
And their ways grow less gay ; 

Which rends my heart i 


The path he traced, my dear prince, 

The path to Ikuji where he admired the view, 

Lies wild and desolate ! 

My heart, that bears the fame of Otomo, 

My trust to serve, quiver on back, 

For a myriad ages, 

Where shall I take it now ? 

1 Composed on the 24th of the 3rd month (in 744). 

2 One of the Wazuka Hills. 


[!V : 7 1 5 ] 

424-6 Addressed to a young woman. 

qver the river ferry of Saho, 

Where the sanderlings cry — 

When can I come to you. 

Crossing on horseback 
The crystal-clear shallows ? 

raving seen your smile [iv : 7 1 8 ) 

In a dream by chance, 

I keep now burning in my heart 
Love’s inextinguishable flame. 

jjow I waste and waste away [iv : 719] 

With love forlorn — 

I who have thought myself 
A strong man ! 

427 j^ather than that I should thus pine [iv : 722] 

for you, 

Would I had been transmuted 
Into a tree or a stone, 

Nevermore to feel the pangs of love. 

428 To Lady Otomo of Sakanoe’s [iv : 728 j 

Llder Daughter. 

'^7'ould there were a land 
Uninhabited by man ! 

Thither I’d take my love, 

And happily we twain would live. 



To the same. 

[iv : 74 1 J 

W^hat pain and distress 
A dream tryst brings ! 

I start and wake, 

And grope in vain for you, 
Beyond the reach of my hand. 

45° On the new moon. [vi : 994] 

■yyHEN I look up and gaze 
At the young moon afar 
I remember the painted eyebrows 
Of her whom only once I saw. 

43 1 On the cicadas. 1 [vm : 1479] 

'J'ired of sitting indoors all day long, 

I seek the garden for solace, only to hear 
The shrill chirps of the cicadas. 

43* On the cuckoo . 2 [vm : 1491] 

jn the leafy tree-tops 
Of the summer mountain 
The cuckoo calls — 

Oh, how far off his echoing voice ! 

1 i. e. higurashi , a kind of cicada which chirps in a shrill tone early in the even- 
ing, as though to hasten the nightfall. 

1 i. e. hototogsu ( Cuculus pohocephalus ) : a bird which resembles the English 
cuckoo. It is said to lay its eggs in the nest of the uguisu . (Cf. No. 664) 


■fjj-j Sent with orange-blossoms to Lady [vin : 1 507—9 J 
Otomo oj Sakanoe s Elder Daughter. 

■yyHiLE I waited and wondered, 

The orange-tree that grows in my garden. 
Spreading out a hundred branches, 
bias burst into bloom, as the fifth month 
For garland-making draws near. 

Every morning and every day I go out 
To see the flowers and keep close guard, 

Lest they should fall off 

Before you, whom I love as the breath of life, 

Have seen them once on a night when the moon 
Is clear as a shining mirror. 

But the wicked cuckoo, 

Though I chase him again and again, 

Comes crying m the sad hours of dawn 

And wantonly scatters the blooms on the ground. 

Knowing not what to do, 

I have reached and broken off these with my hand, 
Pray, see them, my lady ! 


These are the orange-blossoms of my garden 
I had intended you to see 
Some time after mid-month 
On a clear moonlight night. 

The cuckoo has scattered 
My orange-blooms on the ground. 

Oh, had he only come 
After you had seen the flowers ! 


4)6 On dew-drops. [vrri : 1572J 

0N the miscanthus 1 of my garden 
White dew-drops lie ; 

Would I could pierce them without breaking 
And make a string of gems ! 

4)7 On the cry of a deer. fvm : 1602] 

§0 loud the deer cries, calling to his mate. 

That the answering echo resounds 
Through the mountains, 

Where I am alone. 

4?8-9 To Lady Otomo of Sakanoe’s [vm : 1629-50] 

Elder Daughter. 

'J’HINKXNG sad thoughts over and over, 

I know not what to say, 

I know not what to do. 

You and I went out hand in hand 
Into the garden in the morning. 

While in the evening we brushed our bed 
And lay together, our white sleeves overlapped. 
Those nights — did they last for ever ? 

Though the copper-pheasant woos his mate. 

They say, from an opposite mountain peak, 

I, man that I am, if separated 

Even for a single day or a single night. 

Must long for you and grieve — ah, why ? 

I dwell on it, and my heart aches. 

So, for healing I go forth 

To Takamado and wander over hill and dale ; 

But there I find only the fair-blooming flowers 

1 l. e sttsuki. See note to No. 85. 


That remind me ever the more of you. 

What can I do to forget this thing called Love ? 


Ah, I cannot forget you — 

In the kao-bana 1 that blooms 
In the fields of Takamado 
I see your phantom face. 

440-1 To a lean man. [xvi: 3853-4] 

jwamaro, I tell you. 

Catch and eat eels 1 
They are good, they say. 

For summer loss of flesh. 

Yet, no matter how lean you are. 

It is better to be alive. 

So drown not yourself in the river 
Trying to catch an eel ! 

There was a man called Yoshida Oyu, otherwise known as 
Iwamaro, who was a son oj Ninkyd. He was extremely lean ; 
and though he ate and drank much, he always had a famish- 
ed look. Otomo Yakamochi composed the above poems to 
deride him. 

442-4 Poems of lamentation composed when he [xvn : 3962-4] 
was afflicted with a sudden illness 
and death threatened him. z 

qbedient to our Sovereign’s orders 
And mustering up a warrior’s heart, 

1 crossed the hills and mountains 

1 Lit. * face-flower,’ not identified ; perhaps ‘ convolvulus/ 

1 Composed at his governor’s mansion on the 21st of the 2nd month of the 19th 
year of Tempyo (747). — Original Note. 

x 3 8 

To these frontiers far-off as the skies 
But before many months have passed 
And before I can yet breathe at leisure, 
— Mortal creature that I am — 

I roll on a bed of illness. 

My pain increasing with the days. 

My loving mother, uneasy as a ship 
Tossed on the waves. 

Must long for me in her heart 
And wait for my return — 

To think of her grieves me. 

And my beloved wife must await me. 
Leaning against the gate at break of day. 
With her sleeves turned back , 2 
At evening she must brush the bed, 

And, with her black hair spread thereon, 
Sigh, c When will he come to me ? ’ 

And my boys and girls all cry 
Here and there about the house. 

But far is the way — no messenger is here 
To take my heart-felt words. 

My soul is well-nigh burning 
With homeward thoughts. 

Though clinging to my life, 

I know not what to do. 

And stricken with grief, I, a man. 

Lie in bed. 


How brief is this lease of life. 

To think my days will end. 

Lost in those falling flowers of spring ! 

Over the rivers and mountains. 

At this farthest reach, 

* i. e. Etchu where he was sent as Governor. 

1 This act was intended as a charm to bring back a person away on a journey. 


And without seeing my beloved, 
Must I thus grieve I 

444-6 Two poems of sorrow which were sent [xvii : 3965-6] 
to his secretary , Otomo Ikenushi. 

Unexpectedly seized with a serious illness , I have been 
suffering pain for some weeks. I petitioned a hundred gods 
and have now obtained some relief. Yet I am still weak and 
emaciated . , and not strong enough to visit you to express my 
thanks. And so I long to see you the more. Now, in the 
morning , the spring flowers give forth their sweet fragrance 
in the garden , and in the evening the spring uguisu warble in 
the forest. In this genial season we should play the koto 
and mak£ merry over said. I am tempted to such pleasure , 
yet I cannot bear even the labour of walking with a staff. 
Confined alone within the curtain- screens, I have composed 
some little verses, which I send herewith for you to laugh at. 
They are as follows : 

pLOWERS of spring must now 
Be blooming in full glory ; 

Would that I had the strength 
To break a spray for my hair. 

Now the uguisu 1 must be warbling 
And scattering the flowers of spring ; 

O when can I, together with you. 

Pick them to adorn our heads ? 

447-40 Also sent to Ikenushi , z [xvii : 3969-72] 

Your all-embracing virtue gave blessings to this poor 

1 Homochlamys cantans , a song-bird, which is often called * Japanese nightingale/ 
The bird, however, sings in the daytime in a cheerful manner. 

1 Yakamochi wrote this to Ikenushi, in answer to the latter’s reply to his first 
letter dated the 29th of the 2nd month. This letter, written in classical Chinese, 
contains four poems at the end. 


creature and your unmeasurable sympathy gave comport to my 
starved heart , in favouring me with your answer ; which I 
value above all compare. As I did not in my younger 
days cultivate the garden of the literary arts, I hare no skill 
in letters. Nor could I find the way through the gates of 
Yamabe and Kakinomoto ; and I cannot use happy words. 
You put it in your letter * to patch brocade with wistaria 
cloth ’ p I have composed verses in response to yours, which is, 
as it were, mingling pearls with pebbles , 1 2 3 And as my 
nature makes me incapable of keeping them to myself, I send 
them to you for you to laugh at. They are as follows : 

qbedient to our Sovereign’s command, 

I, a man, travelled all the way 
To rule distant Koshi ; 

But changing is the world of men, 

I lie on a bed of illness. 

My pain increasing with the days, 

Now thinking of the saddest things. 

Now haunted by cruel thoughts, 

I am troubled with grief, 

I am tortured with fears. 

Yet, as the mountains rise between 
And the way is stretching far, 

I know no means to send a messenger, 

Nor can I speed my heart-felt words, 

And struggle as I may for my life, 

I know not what to do. 

So in my room I bewail. 

And nothing eases my heart. 

Now at the height of spring 
I cannot break the flowering sprays 
With my friends, to deck our heads ; 

I cannot hear the voices of the warblers? 

1 A euphemism signifying that to answer another’s beautiful poems with clumsy 
verses is like patching a piece of brocade with crude cloth woven of wistaria fibre. 

* Practically the same as the above. 

3 l. e. See note above. 

Flitting through the thickets of the spring field ; 
Vainly have I passed the best of the month 
When maidens come and go 
Gathering the herbs of spring, 

With their bright scarlet skirts 
Wet with gentle rain. 

Gladdened by your sympathy, 

Sleepless all the night 

And all the day, I long for you ! 


If I could share but a glimpse with you 
Of those mountain cherry-blossoms, 

Should I thus pine for you ? 

You may listen to the warblers 

Flitting through the thickets of yellow roses ; 

Flow I envy you ! 

With no strength to stir abroad 
And confined within, 

Hardly am I myself 
When I think of you ! 

4 J*-J Love poems . 1 [xvii : 3978-82] 

wife and I are one in heart : 

However long we are side by side, 

She is charming all the more ; 

Though face to face we sit. 

She, my cherished love, 

Is ever fresh as a new flower, 

Never annoying, nor vexing, 

I, obedient to our Sovereign’s word. 

To rule the frontiers far-off as the skies, 

1 Composed in a paroxysm of love for his wife, which seized him on the evening 
of the 20th of the 3rd month (in 747), — Original Note. 


Crossed the mountains and the plains, 

Parting from my wife. 1 

Since then the year has changed, 

The spring flowers have fallen, 

Yet never have I seen her. 

So, forlorn and comfortless, 

I sleep with my sleeves turned back ; 

And I meet her each night in my dream, 
But as I cannot waking see her, 

My longing grows a thousandfold. 

Were I near enough, I would go 
Even for a day’s visit, 

Lying in each other’s arms ; 

But the way is all too far 
And the barrier 1 stands between. 

Though that is so, yet I may hope — 

Would that the months might quickly come 
When the cuckoo cries ! 

And I might seek the Omi road, 

And set sail upon the lake, 4 
Gazing far upon the hills 
Dotted with unohana bloom. 5 
And there in Nara, at my home — 

While, like the c night-thrush,’ she grieves, 
Forlorn in her heart, 

Asking the evening oracle at the gate, 

And in sleep awaiting me — 

I would hasten to my wife again. 

1 Yakamochi set out for his new post in the 7th month of the 18th year of 

2 On the way from Etchu to Nara there was the barrier of Arachi. 

5 Yakamochi went up to the capital with the reports on the state taxes in the 5 th 
month of this year. This phrase presumably refers to his anticipated journey to 

4 1. e. Lake Biwa, which travellers from northern Japan used to cross on their 
way to Nara. 

J i. e. Deufya crenata ; a bush plant, with graceful white flowers that bloom in 

I 43 


Though a year has passed 
I have not seen her, 

And my heart is heavy 
With thoughts of my love 

Vainly I meet her in my dream, 

But, waking, cannot see her face to face. 
My longing but increases. 

Though she is far away 
Beyond the hills I crossed. 

My thoughts reaching out to her. 

Bring her to me in dream. 

Though the spring flowers are gone, 

I have not seen my love ; 

And she must wait for me, 

Counting the days and months. 

4)6-8 In praise of Mount Futa garni . 1 £xvn : 3985—7] 

j^ount Futagami, 2 3 4 round which flow 
The waters of Imizu ,3 
When I come out and gaze upon it 
In the rich and blossomed spring, 

Or in the glorious leaf of autumn — 

How sublime it soars 
Because of its divinity/ 

And how beautiful it stands. 

1 Composed on the spur of the moment on the 30th of the 3rd month (in 747). 
— Original Note. 

2 Situated in Imizu District, in the province of Etchu in Toyama Prefecture, 
to the north-west of the then provincial capital, the present town of Fushiki. 

3 The river of Imizu rises in the province of Hida, south of Etchu, and runs to 
the north through the Etchu plain, skirting Mount Futagami at the north-eastern 

4 A mountain or a peak was believed to be a god. 



With its shapely peaks I 1 

Ceaselessly as the white waves break 
At morning calm, 

And increasing as the flood-tide swells 
At evening lull. 

About the rocky cape of Shibutani , 2 
The godlike skirting ridge, 

All who gaze upon it 

Give admiration to this mountain 

From old times to this day ! 


Continuously as break the waves 
About the rocky cape of Shibutani, 

My thoughts turn to the days of old. 

The time has come now 
When I long to listen 
To the wistful voices of the birds 3 
On Mount Futagami. 

419-60 On the sorrow of separation when his [xvn : 4006-7] 
departure* for the capital drew near. 

Unchanging as the tsuga-txeesy 
That divinely grow. 

Green in bole and branch , 6 
On Mount Futagami, 

You are dear and fresh to me ; 

We meet and talk each morning, 

With evening, hand in hand, 

t Mount Futagami has twin peaks. 

2 The mountain runs up towards the north, thus forming the cape of Shibutani. 

3 Probably cuckoos. 

4 i. e. as revenue-officer. 

J Same as the toga - tree (see note to No. 291). 

‘ The bole and branch of the tsuga-t ree 9 alludes to the descent of Yakamochi 
Ikenushi from the same stock, the Otomo family. 


Walk out to the clear valley 
Oflmizu’s stream, 

And there look on the waters ; 

Then, in the fresh wind from the east, 
The river-mouth is white with waves. 
Water-fowls are noisy on the bar, 
Calling to their mates, 

And the inlet sounds with the oars 
Plied by the fishermen cutting reeds. 
Gladdened by the sight, 

We are at the height of pleasure, 

But, at our Sovereign’s word, 

— Since he rules this land — 

I must depart. 

It is well for you, left behind, 

But I must journey far away. 

Treading the rocky paths 

Over the cloud-wreathed mountains ; 

Many will be the days 

When I shall long for you ; 

To think of it pains my heart. 

O that you were beads. 

Strung on the cuckoo’s call 1 
Then I would wear you on my arm, 
Gazing on you morning and evening ; 
With sorrow' now I leave you ! 


O that you were beads, my friend. 
Which I would string 
With the cuckoo’s call, 

And wear upon my arm ! 


■f6r-j Poems of joy composed when he dreamed [xvn : 401 1 
of his stray hank. 

'J'his is our Sovereign’s distant court ; 

It is a land far away as are the skies, 

Known as snowy Koshi ; 

Lofty are the mountains 
And large the rivers ; 

Wide are the plains 
And rich the grasses. 

At midsummer when the ayu 1 abound. 

The cormorant-fishers 1 labour up, 

Carrying fishing-torches 
Everywhere over the purling shallows. 

When autumn comes with dew and frost, 

Flocks of birds gather in the brakes, 

Then I, together with my noble friends, 

Would bring my arrow-tailed Great Black, 

With his silver-coated bells. 

Choosing him from many hawks. 

I put five hundred birds to flight 
In my morning chase ; 

In the evening hunt, a thousand. 

Never did he miss the bird he followed. 

And in his coming and going 
He was matchless. 

While thus I passed the days. 

Smiling in my heart 

And proud of my peerless hawk, 

That dullard of an old servant of mine 
Went hawking, without my leave, 

Telling but his name. 

When the sky was clouded 
And the rain was falling ! 

Returning he said, coughing as he spoke, 

1 The ayu swim up-stream in shoals early in summer 
1 Cormorants are used in fishing in the river. 


‘ He left Mishima Field behind him 
Soared over Mount Futagami, 

And flew into the clouds.’ 

Unable to reach my hawk, 

I was at a loss what to do ; 

Fire burned within my heart. 

My sighs and longing knew no end ; 

I set watchmen, I spread nets 
On this side and the other of the hill. 

That, with luck, I might regain him. 

At the shrine of the gods 
I offered twill bands and a shining mirror. 

And prayed and prayed, and waited. 

Then, in dream, a girl said to me : 

‘ That beautiful hawk which you miss 
Was benighted flying over the beach at Matsudae, 1 
He crossed Himi’s creek where they fish for sprats, 
And wandered about the isle of Tako ; 

I saw him the day before yesterday 
At Fume where the mallards flock. 

Yesterday I saw him there again. 

In two days at soonest. 

At latest within seven days. 

He will come again to you. 

Put away your sighs.’ — 

Thus she spoke in my dream. 


Perching on my hand that arrow-tailed hawk, 

I have not hawked on Mishima 
For many a day — a month. 

On Futagami I spread nets 
On this side and on that. 

Then a maid told me of that hawk in dream 
That I await impatiently ! 

1 Lies between Cape Shibutani and Huni, west of the town of Fushiki. 


A dullard he was, that old Yamada \ l 
He searched for him that day 
And could not bring him back. 

Heart-sick still, 

I long for him helplessly. 

As suggests the name of the hill of Suga. 2 * 4 * 

In the village of Furue , Imt^ii District , a hawk was caught . 
It was perfect in form and matchless in ferocity . Yamada 
Kimimaro , the hawker , lacked proper care in training it > and 
used it out of season. It soared up and flew away and could 
by no ?neans be brought hack . With nets spread out it was 
watched for , many prayers were made , with offerings , and 
I trusted to chance . A. girl appeared in a dream and said : — 
c Good Sir , do not be distressed , nor let your heart so pine ! 
The stray hawk will be caught before long. 7 I awoke and 
joy revived in me. Therefore in response to the dream I com- 
posed a poem to put away my sorrows. 

466 Gating on the moon while staying in the bay [xvii : 4029J 
of Nagahama during his voyage from 
Swju to Onu. 

gTARTiNG in the morning from the sea of Suzu, 

I have sailed along 
To see, above the bay of Nagahama, 

The shining moon. 

The above is one of the poems which he composed 3 at various 
places on his tour of inspection for the spring distribution of 
seed rice A 

1 1. e. Yamada Kimimaro. 

1 * The hill of Suga ’ is an introductory phrase to * helplessly 1 (= suganaku ). 

^ In the 20th year of Tempyo (748). 

4 The authorities supplied the poor with seed rice, of which the amount borrowed 

plus interest was paid back in kind after harvest. 


On the ninth daj of the fifth month of the first year of Tem- 
pyo-Kampo (749) the officials banqueted together at the res- 
idence of Hata Iwatake , on which occasion the host made 
three garlands of lilies , placed them on a stand one over 
another , and presented them to the guests, each of whom com- 
posed a poem on the garlands. 

467 winsome are the lilies of my [xvm : 4086] 


Seen in the blaze of the burning cressets ! 

468-yi Congratulatory poem and envoys on the [xvm : 4094-7] 
issuance of the Imperial Rescript 1 
regarding the production of 
gold in Michinoku. 2 3 4 

guccEEDiNG to the Celestial Throne 
Of the Imperial Ancestor divine,? 

Who came down from heaven to rule 
The Rice-abounding Land of Reed Plains, 

A long line of Emperors has reigned 
From age to age over these provinces, 

Which with their deep mountains and wide rivers 
Yield countless tribute and inexhaustible treasures. 
However, our great Lord and Sovereign, 

On convoking the people and inaugurating 
His auspicious work ,4 was sorely troubled 
For fear lest there should not be gold enough. 

It was then reported to the Throne 

1 The Emperor Shomu, at the time of building the great bronze statue of Buddha 
Lochana (the Daibutsu of Nara), was temporarily embarrassed because of an insuf- 
ficient supply of gold. In 749 the metal was presented to the court for the first time 
from Michinoku. The Emperor, greatly pleased therewith, issued a rescript in the 
4th month of that year, granting honours and gifts to officials and members of their 
families, and also bounties to the people. 

s An ancient province which roughly covered the present north-eastern pre- 
fectures of the Main Island. Translated * Road’s End ’ml 15. 

3 i. e. Ninigi-no-Mikoto. 

4 The construction of the Great Buddha. 


That gold had been found in the Eastland 1 — 

In the hills of Oda 2 of £ Road’s End ’ — 

Setting the mind of our Sovereign at rest. 

‘ The gods of heaven and earth,’ thought he — 
Himself a god — ‘ have approved 
My enterprise, and the spirits of my ancestors 
Have given aid that such a marvel 
As might have been in the ancient days 
Should be revealed under my reign. 

Auguring prosperity for my realm.’ 

So now he exhorts his vassals of many clans 
To loyalty and devotion, 

Extending at the same time his benevolence 
To the old and to women and children 
Till their hearts’ desires are satisfied. 3 

This overcomes me with awe and joy. 

I ponder more deeply than ever 
How to the Otomo clan belongs a great office 
In which served our far-off divine ancestor 
Who bore the title of Okume-nushi. 

We are the sons of the fathers who sang, 
c At sea be my body water-soaked. 

On land be it with grass overgrown. 

Let me die by the side of my Sovereign ! 

Never will I look back ; ’ 

And who to this day from olden times 
Have kept their warrior’s name for ever clean. 
Verily Otomo and SahekL are the clans 
Pledged to the maxim, as pronounced 
By their ancestors : c Extinguish not, sons. 

The name of your fathers ! Serve your Sovereign ! ’ 

1 i. e. the territory comprising the eastern part of the Main Island. 

2 An ancient district, now part of T6da District, Miyagi Prefecture 

3 Alludes to the grant of gifts and honours. 

4 i. e. Ame-no-Oshihi-no-Mikoto, who led as vanguard the troops of Kumebe 
when Ninigi-no-Mikoto first descended to the earth. 

5 A branch of the Otomo family. The two clans served as hereditary guards of 
the Imperial Palace 

0 let us grip birchwood bows in our hands, 

Wear on our loins double-edged swords, 

And stand guard morning and evening ! 

There are no men but we to defend the imperial 

1 exclaim with a fervent heart 

When I hear His Majesty’s gracious words, 

That overwhelm me with awe. 


I feel within me a warrior’s heart 

When I hear my Sovereign’s gracious words 

That overcome me with awe. 

Set a mark plainly over the grave 
Of Otomo’s far-off divine ancestor 
To make it known to the world ! 

Among the hills of Michinoku in the Eastland 

Gold has bloomed forth — an augury 

That His Imperial Majesty’s reign shall prosper. 

472-6 Wishing for pearls to send to his home [xvm : 4101-5 J 
in the capital. 

qf those abalone pearls 

That Suzu’s fisher-maids dive for. 

Crossing over, I hear. 

To the holy isle of the sea, 

Would I had many — even five hundred ! 

To my dear loving wife, 

Who ever since we parted sleeves, 

Must be sighing after me, 

Counting the weary days and months 
Passing the nights in a half-empty bed. 

And forbearing to comb her morning hair — 

To her I’d pack and send them, 


Saying : ‘ Just to comfort you, darling, 

Make a garland of these pearls, 

Threading them together with orange-blossoms 
And the sweet flag flowers of June, 

When the cuckoo comes to sing ! 5 


How I wish to send home to my love 
A package of those lucent pearls. 

That she might string them together 
With orange-blossoms and sweet flag flowers ! 

0 for the abalone pearls 
They dive for, I hear, 

Crossing over to the holy isle of the sea ! 

1 would pack and send them home. 

O for the lucent pearls 
From the holy isle of the sea. 

That I might send them to my love 
To comfort her heart ! 

How happy should I be. 

Were there a fisher-maid to give me 
Those shining pearls by the hundred. 

Scooping them up in her hands ! 

477-80 Admonition 1 to OwanOkuhi, a shisho 2 [xvni : 4106-9] 
of Ftchu Province. 

Under the Seven Causes 3 permitting Divorce the law says : 

For any one of these causes the husband may divorce his 

1 Composed on the 15th of the 5th month (in 749). — Original Note. 

2 Official of the lowest rank in a provincial office. 

* The Seven Causes were : 1, childlessness ; 2, adultery ; 3, disobedience to the 
husband's parents ; 4, loquacity ; 5, theft ; 6, jealousy ; 7, foul disease. The 
old marriage code permitted the husband to divorce his wife for any one of these 


wife. But he, who in the absence of any of the Seven 
Causes wantonly casts his wife away, shall be liable to 
penal servitude for one year and a half. 

Under the Three Cases 1 prohibiting Divorce it says : 

In these cases the wife may not be divorced even if guilty 
of the offences under the Seven Causes. 

A violation of this provision is punishable by one hundred 
strokes. Only in the case of adultery , or foul disease, may 
she be cast away. 

Under Bigamy the law says : 

A man who, having a wife, marries another woman , shall 
be liable to penal servitude for one year. The woman 
shall after one hundred strokes be separated from him. 

The Imperial Rescript says : 

Righteous husbands and faithful wives shall be accorded 
benevolence and bounties. 

In my humble opinion the things cited above constitute 
the foundation of law and source of morality. Thus, the way 
of a righteous husband lies in constancy of heart. Man 
and wife live under one roof and share a common property. 
Mow can it be allowed that a husband should forget the old 
bond of love and form a neiv one ? I have therefore indited 
the following short poem in order to make you repent of having 
forsaken your old ties. 

giNCE the time of the gods 

Of Onamuchi 2 and Sukunahikona? 

It has been said from age to age : 

‘ To see one’s parents is to revere them, 

To see one’s wife and children is to love them : 
This is the law of the world of man.’ 

1 The Three Cases were : i, when the wife had observed the mourning period of 
three years for her parents-in-law ; a, when the husband had risen to a high rank 
after having married in a humble station ; 3, when the wife had no near relative 
1 The deity who ruled over Izumo, and who offered his land to Ninigi-no- 
Mikoto upon the latter’s descent from heaven. 

* The deity who assisted Onamuchi in governing the land of Izumo. 


And so has it been told unto these days. 

You who are a man of this world — 

Have you not declared — did you not sighing say 
In that full-flowering time of the chisa- trees, 1 
While talking with your dear wife, 

Morning and evening, ’mid smiles and tears : 

£ It will not be thus for ever. 

The gods of heaven and earth helping us, 

Some day we may prosper like spring flowers.’ ? 
,Now that prosperity has come which you longed 
for, 2 

Your wife far away? is waiting 
In sorrow and in solitude. 

Wondering when you will send for her. 

Yet to that Saburu4 girl, who drifts 
With no place to settle in like the foam 
That floats on the swelling stream of the ImizuJ 
When the south wind blows and melts the snow. 
You cling inseparably like tangled twine. 

Paired with her like the grebes. 

You plunge into the depths of folly 
Deep as the gulf of Nago, 6 hopeless man ! 


How deeply your wife must feel. 

Who in the distant city of Nara 
Is waiting — is it not so ? — 

Waiting on tiptoe for your messenger ! 

The townsfolk watch you from behind 
When you go to the Government Hall — 

J A tall tree now called chisha-no-ki {EJjreiia ibjrsiflora ), found principally in 
southern Japan. Its small white flowers appear in July and August. 

2 The line refers to the appointment of Okuhi to the office of sbtsbo . 

3 The wife was living in Nara. 

4 The name of a wandering woman of pleasure. 

3 A river flowing by the provincial capital. 

6 Part of Etchu Bay lying to the east of Fushiki, which was then the capital of the 


What a shameless figure of a man 
Infatuated with the Saburu girl ! 

Pink fades so quickly. 

Better far, beyond comparison. 
Are the long-accustomed clothes 
Dyed in the grey of tsurubami. 1 2 * 4 5 

481 On the arrival of the ivife, who came bj herself [xvm : 41 10] 
without waiting for a messenger 
from her husband. 1 

the house where the Saburu girl 
Worships her lover, 

There has arrived a post-horse without bells,* 
Upsetting the whole town. 

482-3 On the tachibana-treeA [xvxn 1411 1-2] 

jn the glorious age of the Emperor, a god 
Awesome beyond speech, 

Tajimamori went to the Land of Eternity* 

And brought back saplings thence, eight in number, 
Of the tree of c Timeless Fragrant Fruit,’ 6 7 
Which were graciously bequeathed? to the nation. 
Our land is now full of the trees 
Which grow everywhere in profusion, 

1 A kind of oak {Querctts acuUssma). The dye was obtained from the acorns 

2 Composed on the 17th of the 5 th month (in 749). — Original Note. 

5 Government post-horses had bells. The horse without bells indicated that 
the wife came privately on her own account. 

4 Composed on the 23rd of the 5th month intercalary (in 749). — Original Note. 

5 In the reign of the Emperor Suijin (29B.C.-A.D.70) Tajimamori was despatched 
to Tokoyo to obtain tachibana-t rees. Tokoyo is a land inhabited by superhuman 

6 The old name for tachibana, a variety of citrus bearing small fruit. 

7 So described because the tree was imported by imperial order 

Spreading their young shoots in spring. 

In the Satsuki month when the cuckoo sings 
We may pluck the first flowers with the branches. 
To give to young girls as presents, 

Or pick them to carry in our sleeves, 

Or leave them to dry for their perfume. 

The fallen fruits 1 may be strung like beads 
And wound about the arm for endless admiration. 
When autumn approaches with its cold showers. 
The mountain tree-tops turn red and soon go bare. 
But the tachibana fruits glow and gleam upon the 

The more alluring to look upon. 

And when at last the snowy winter arrives, 

Their foliage, though frost-laden, does not wither 
But thrives lustily, green as ever. 

Well has it been called, this tachibana , 

Since the age of the God-Emperor 2 * 4 
‘ The Timeless Fragrant Fruit.’ 


The tachibana I have seen 
In flower and in fruit ; 

Still I would see the tree 
All the seasons round. 

484-6 Looking at the flowers in the garden.! [xvm : 41 13-5] 

giNCE by the imperial order to serve 
At my Sovereign’s distant court 
I came to Koshi, the land of snow. 

For five long years4 I have not laid 

1 The tree sheds a large number of small unripe fruits in May, the Satsuki month. 

2 The Emperor Sui) in. 

J Composed on the 23rd of the 5th month intercalary (in 749). — Original Note. 

4 A poetic exaggeration. Actually three years. 


My head on your dainty arm, 

But have slept in my clothes 
With my girdle about me. 

To console my sad weary heart 
I have sown in the garden the fringed pink 
And transplanted the lilies 1 * 
Plucked from the summer plain. 

Ah, but for the comforting thought they awaken 
Every time I go out to see them in bloom — 

The pink that so resembles you, my dear. 

And the lily which spells * afterwards ’ — 

The thought that afterwards I shall see you again. 
How could I ever live a single day 
In this far provincial town ? 


Every time I see the pink flower 
I remember, dear girl, 

The beauty of your radiant smile. 

But for the hope of seeing you 
‘Afterwards,’ as tells the lily. 

How could I live through this one day to-day? 

Owing to a drought of some severity that had set in begin- 
ning with the sixth day of the fifth month intercalary of the 
first year of Tempyo-Kampo (749), the crops began to show 
signs of wilting. Suddenly , on the first day of the sixth month, 
a rain cloud was sighted. Thereupon the writer composed 
the following poem. 

487-8 gv all the routes under heaven, [xvii : 4122-3] 

And from all places in the imperial domain — 
From the land’s end where horse’s hooves can reach. 

1 The Japanese words meaning * lily ? and 4 afterwards * are both pronounced 

ywri. The word-play in the original verse can be only suggested in translation. 


And the farthest waters where ship’s prow may 
rest — 

Myriads of tributes are rendered, 

And, as the greatest of them all, men have grown 
The rice from ancient times to these. 

Now, because no rain has fallen for days on days. 

The crops planted in the lowland fields 

And those sown in the upland fields 

Begin to wilt and wither away 

More and more with each morning. 

My heart aches at seeing it ; 

And with my eyes turned upwards, 

I long and wait for heaven’s water 
Eagerly like an infant craving milk — 

When lo ! from yonder mountain hollow 
There appears a drift of grey cloud. 

May it spread ever oceanwards, 

Even to the Sea God’s palace. 

Darken all the heavens, and give us rain 1 


May the cloud seen yonder spread. 

Darken the skies, and send down rain 
To our hearts’ satisfaction I 1 

489 Congratulatory poem on a fall of rain. [xvm : 4124] 

'j'HE long-wished-for rain has fallen. 

So then, without our lifting of words 
The rice-crop will flourish. 

1 These two poems were composed on the evening of the ist of the 6th month 
(in 749). — Original Note. 

*J 9 


Seeing the blossoms of the peach and [xix : 41 39-40 J 
damson trees in the garden in spring, 
on the evening of the first day of the 
third month of the second year 
of Tempyo-Shoho (jjo). 

jn the garden of spring 

The peach-blossoms rosily glow, 

And on the flower-lit path beneath 
Lo ! a maiden walking ! 

Are these the blossoms fallen 
From the damsons of my garden ? 

Or patches of the snow 

That fell within my garden-walls ? 

492 Hearing the song of a boatman rowing up the [xix :415c)] 
river, on the second day. 1 

jn my morning bed I listen — 

Afar on Imizu’s stream 2 
Sings a boatman, 

Plying his morning oars. 

49} At a banquet in his mansion , on [xix : 41 5 3] 

the third day. 

r po-DAY, when people in China, 3 it is said, 

Float their rafts4 for pleasure, 

1 Composed m the same month as the above. 

* The mansion of Yakamochi, Governor of Etchu, probably stood on the 
hill near the river of Imizu. 

3 On the 3rd of the 3rd month the Chinese made it a custom to purify 
themselves in the stream, and to make merry, drinking sake and floating the cups 
on the water. The ancient Japanese followed this custom, from which the Dolls’ 
Festival of later days was evolved. 

4 Some scholars interpret this word as * boats ’ 


Make merry, my friends, 

With flower-wreaths upon your brows. 

494~J On bis great white hawk , on [xix : 4154-5] 

the eighth day . 

qver the hills and mountains I came, 

And have lived through many a changing year 
Here in this land of Koshi. 

Believing as I do in my mind, 

That in the realm where rules our Sovereign, 

City and country are the same. 

My heart is heavy with sorrows, 

So seldom do I see my friends 
To talk my cares away. 

And, for solace, when autumn comes. 

Giving rein to my horse I will go 
To the fields of Iwase , 1 
Blooming with bush-clovers, 

Near and far set wild fowl up in flight, 

And let my hawk pursue them, 

Its silver bells 2 tinkling. 

Watching it far in the sky 
My burdened heart will be eased. 

Glad at such a thought, 

I make a place in my bed-chamber, 

And there keep this white and mottled hawk. 


Keeping in my chamber 
My arrow-tailed white hawk, 

I pat and stroke its back — 

O the pleasure of it ! 

1 Situated probably to the east of the city of Takaoka. 

2 Bells, presumably coated with silver*, were tied to hunting hawks. 


[XVII : 3957 - 9 ] 

An elegy on the death of his 
younger brother . T 

'yyHEN, at our Sovereign’s command, 2 
I started on my travels 
To rule the province far-off as the skies, 

My brother followed me across the hills of Nara 
As far as Izumi’s? shining bed ; 

There we stayed our horses, 

And in parting, said I : 

6 In safety I shall go and come back home, 

Be happy, pray to the gods and wait.’ 

Ever since, I have sorely missed him, 

With the road stretching far 

And rivers and mountains between us ; 

While thus eager for a sight of him, 

A courier came — how gladly I received him ! 

I asked ! — With what strange, wild words he an- 
swered me ! 

My dearest brother — of all times of the year, 

In autumn when the waving susuki blooms, 

At his home where blow the bush-clovers,4 
Neither walking in his court at morn. 

Nor treading the ground at eve, 

He passed through the village of his native Saho,s 
And rose into white clouds 6 trailing 
Over the tree-tops of the hill : 

So the courier said. 

* Composed on the 25 th of the 9th month of the 18th year of Tempyo (746) 
—Original Note 

2 u e. his appointment to the Governor of Etchu. 

3 i. e. a river in Yamashiro, the upper reach of the present Kizu 

4 He had a great liking for flowering plants, which he had planted in profusion 
m front of his presence-chamber. — Original Note 

5 The north-eastern part of the capital of Nara, where the Otomo families had 
their mansions. 

6 He was cremated on the hill of Saho. — Original Note 


Although I wished him health. 

He rose into white-trailing clouds, 

How sad I am to hear ! 

Had I known him destined thus, 

I had shown him the breakers on the jutting rocks 
Of the sea of Koshi ! 

499-joi On the uncertainty of life. [xix : 4x60-2] 

giNCE the far beginning of heaven and earth 
It has been said from mouth to mouth 
That life is uncertain ; 

When we look up to the plains of heaven 
The bright moon waxes and wanes ; 

On the tree-tops of the mountains, 

Flowers bloom with spring. 

In autumn, with dew and frost. 

The coloured leaves are scattered in the blast. 

So is it with the life of a man : 

The rosy colour fades from the cheek, 

The black hair turns white. 

The morning smile is nowhere found at eve. 
Looking at our life’s changes, 

Unseen as the passing wind. 

Ceaseless as the flowing water, 

I cannot stop my tears streaming 
Like floods on the rain-beaten ground. 


Even the dumb trees flower in spring. 

And with autumn shed their yellow leaves. 

Because of this world. 

So changeable. 


When I see this changing life, 
Many are my weary days 
And less and less I cling 
To human things ! 

J02-} A wish to make a name as a warrior. 1 [xix : 4164-5] 

I the son my father and mother cherish 
With common love and care ? 

Can it be well that I, a man, 

Live but an idle life ? 

Lifting up the bow-end. 

Shooting arrows a thousand fathoms far, 

Bearing my sword by my side. 

Scaling the many-peaked mountains — 

Betraying not our Sovereign’s trust — 

I ought to win a name 
To echo from age to age ! 


A worthy man should win such fame 
That those who hear it told in after years 
May echo it again. 

/ 04-6* On the cuckoo and the flowers of [xix : 4166-8] 

the seasons. 2 

the seasons change, 

Ever new are the flowers which bloom 
On plants and trees past number. 

And various are the songs of birds. 

When I hear their altered notes 
And see those changes, 

1 Composed to match the poem of Yamanoe Okura (No. 641). — Original Note. 

2 Composed on the 20th, on the spur of the moment, although it was before the 
season of the cuckoo. — Original Note. 


With sighs my heart is bowed ; 

And while I long to hear the cuckoo, 

Then, with the fourth month. 

When all’s in heavy leaf, 

The cuckoo calls ere dawn. 

Is he truly an offspring of the uguisu , r 
As has been said since days of old ? 

Until the time when maidens wreathe their garlands 
With flags and orange-flowers, 

He flies across the eightfold hills 
All the livelong day. 

And we see him darting to and fro against the moon 
Through the night till dawn, 

His voice starting echo after echo, 

How can I ever weary of his song ! 


As the seasons change 

Ever new are the flowers that bloom, 

Whether in our hands or not, 

To our eyes a constant joy. 

Though every year the cuckoo comes and cries. 
Still my heart rejoices at his song, 

For many are the wear y days 
When I see him not. 

joj-S On being asked by his wife 1 2 for a poem [xrx : 4169-70] 
which she could send to her mother 
at the capital. 

Like the orange-flowers that blow 

With the fifth month when the cuckoo calls, 

1 The cuckoo lays its eggs in the nest of the uguisu , and the latter hatches and 
rears them as its own. 

2 Yakamochi’s wife. Lady Otomo of Sakanoe’s Elder Daughter, was probably in 
the province of Etchu with her husband. 


Your voice is sweet to me, O mother. 

But as many are the lonely days 
I have lived in the country distant as the skies. 
Where morning and evening I hear you not, 
And as I look far towards the clouds 
Arising from between the mountains, 

I do not cease from grieving, 

Nor do I cease from thoughts of you. 

So, until I see your loving face 
That I long to look upon. 

Like the pearls the fisher-maids 
Dive for in Nago Bay, 1 
Flourish, my noble mother, 

Like the pines and junipers. 


So long have I not seen you 

Whom I long to see like the white pearls : 

I scarcely feel alive, 

Remaining in this distant land. 

jop Viewing the wistaria at Tako 2 where he landed, [xix : 4199] 
after boating on the lake of Fusel on the 
twelfth day. 

QLEAR is the bottom of the lake, 

That mirrors the wistaria bloom ; 

And there in those sunken pebbles 
I see countless gems. 

5 Probably situated to the east of the provincial office. 

2 Perhaps Tago in Miyata Village. 

3 Situated to the north of Mount Futagami, where, however, we now find nothing 
but fields. 

//<? Gating up at the moon on the shore while [xix : 4206] 
he journeyed home. 

"^jpon this shore which I follow to Shibutani, 

Fully would I enjoy the moonlight ; 

Stay my horse a while. 

/ 1 /_ - Composed 1 after older poems on the tomb [xix : 421 1-2] 

of the Maiden Unai . 2 

hj'old from age to age, 

It is a tale of long ago, 

Wonderful as sad to hear. 

That the young men, Chinu and Unai, 

With their lives at stake 

For the sake of their dear names, 

Met in deadly strife 

For the love of the Maiden Unai. 

Then at the very bloom of her life. 

Beautiful as flowers of spring. 

Bright as the autumn leaf, 

In pity for her lovers’ suits, 

Bidding farewell to her parents. 

And away from home, at the seashore,— 

When life is precious, even for so short a space 
As the joint of the seaweed swaying in the eightfold 

That flood with morn and eve — 

She died,? as vanish dew and frost. 

So, here her tomb was built. 

And for those who hear the story told, 

That they may remember it for ever, 

Her boxwood comb was planted 

1 Composed on the 6th of the 5th month of the 2nd year of Tempyo-Shoho 
(750). — Original Note. 

2 i. e. Takahashi Mushimaro’s poems (Nos. 674-6). 

* She plunged into the sea and was drowned. 


Which struck root and grew. 

Ever, as now, thus sideways leaning I 1 


Her little boxwood comb, the maiden’s memory, 
Grows now as a tree, 

Throwing shoot after shoot, 

Ever sideways leaning. 

jij-j An elegy [xix : 4 2 1 4-6] 

giNCE the beginning of heaven and earth, 

Men of eighty clans have been set in office 
Under our Sovereign’s sway. 

So, obedient to his word, 

I crossed the hills and rivers 
To rule the distant land. 

Though wind and cloud may come and go 
As couriers of my heart, 

Many are the days 

Since I saw you face to face, 

And I long and sigh for you. 

Then a traveller brought me word : — 

That lately you have been sad at heart, 

And you pass your days in grief. 

The world is full of pain and sorrow, 

The blooming flowers fade with time. 

Inconstant is the life of man. 

So your loving mother, at her age, 

In the ripeness of her womanhood. 

Alluring to the eye like a mirror — 

As fades the mist that rises 

And breaks the fresh-formed dew — 

1 Hearing of her death, the young men killed themselves. Their graves were built, 
with that of the maiden in between them. The comb planted on her grave struck 
root and grew into a tree, its branches bending towards the grave of Chinu, whom 
she had loved. 


Drooped, like the swaying seaweed. 

And is gone as goes the stemless stream. 

Was it to deceive me ? 

Was it a trick ? 

But since I have heard it told. 

Though faint as the distant twanging 
Of the nail-flipped bowstring, 

Sadness fills my heart, 

And I cannot check my streaming tears 
Like floods on the rain-beaten ground. 


When I hear, though from far away, 

That you are bowed in grief, 

I can but weep aloud, 

I, your bosom friend. 

You who know so well 
How fleeting is our human life, 

Do not wear out your heart. 

You, a brave warrior ! 

Yakamochi wrote the above verses on the twenty- seventh of 
the fifth month of the second year of Tempyo-Shoho (yjo), 
when his son-in-law , the second son of Fujiwara Toyonari, 
lost his mother. 

/ 1 6—j Composed during his journey 1 to the [xix : 4254-5] 
capital , there intended to be delivered 
as a banquet recitation in compliance 
with the imperial order. 

giNCE our ancestral gods 

Surveyed the Land of Yamato, 

1 In the 7th month of the 3rd year of Tempyo-Shoho (751), Yakamochi was 
appointed Councillor of State, and in the next month, he left Etchu for the capital 


As they rowed the rock-built boat. 

Full-oared on stem and stern, 

Through the clouds of heaven. 

And, alighting, pacified the land, 

All the successors to the Throne 
Have ruled our land reign after reign ; 

Now our great Sovereign, a goddess. 

Our Lady, successor to the Celestial Throne, 
Holds her sway under heaven, 

Loves her courtiers of eighty clans. 

And has established order, blessed her subjects 
Everywhere within her realm. 

So, good omens, one after another. 

Unheard-of since of old, 

Have been reported to the Throne. 

Then the record of her peaceful rule, 

Her arm-folded rule, 

Shall be left for ever. 

As long as last heaven and earth. 

Sun and moon. 

Lo l our Sovereign, who rules in peace. 

Looks at the autumn flowers. 

Delights in each kind, 

And pleasures in her royal feast ; 

How glorious this day ! 


Though many are the flowers in autumn. 

She sees them and delights in each ; 

How glorious this day ! 


; 1 8- 9 Previously composed 1 2 in response to the [xix : 4266-7] 

imperial order. 

j^asting as tell the tsuga^tttts. 

Green on many a mountain, 

And endless as the pine-tree’s roots, 

Our Sovereign, our goddess — 

That she may rule the land for ages 
In the Imperial City of Nara — 

This day holds a royal banquet. 

Out of her godlike will ; 

And courtiers of eighty clans, 

Their locks bedecked with tacbibana. 

Ripened in the garden, 

And their ribands loosened, 

Wish her a life of a thousand years, 

And rejoice and revel in her presence; 

At this I revere her all the more. 


Through a myriad ages 
Of our Sovereign’s sway. 

She will thus take her pleasure 
When comes the New Year in. 

/a 1 0 At a banquets in the residence of Tacbibana fxix : 4272] 
Moroe, Minister of the R igbt, on tbe eighth 
of the eleventh month of the fourth year 
of Tempyo-Shoho ( 7 jf- A 

js it because our mighty Sovereign stays. 

Her glory overflowing heaven and earth. 

That joy lifts up this little village? 

1 In the 4th year of Tempyo-Shoho (752). 

2 See note to No. 291. 

* The banquet was attended by the ex-Emperor (the Emperor Shomu). 

* This poem had not yftt been reported to the Throne — Original Note. 

J21-2 Composed extempore , on the twenty-third [xrx . 4 Z 9 °- 1 ] 
of the second month of the fifth year 
of Tempyo-Shoho (pjf). 

qver the spring field trails the mist. 

And lonely is my heart ; 

Then in this fading light of evening 
A warbler sings. 

Through the little bamboo bush 
Close to my chamber, 

The wind blows faintly rustling 
In this evening dusk. 

Composed on the twenty-fifth day. [xix : 4292] 

jn the tranquil sun of spring 
A lark soars singing ; 

Sad is my burdened heart. 

Thoughtful and alone. 

In the languid rays of the spring sun, a lark is singing. 
This mood of melancholy cannot he removed except by poetry : 
hence I have composed this poem in order to dispel my gloom. 

424-6 Composed 1 at a later date to express his [xx: 4351-3] 

sympathy with a frontier-guard 
leaving home. 

qur Sovereign’s far-off court 

Is Tsukushi, the isle of unknown fires ; 2 

It is the citadel defending 

1 On the 8th of the 2nd month of the 7th year of Tempyo-Shoho (75 5) — Original 

2 The surface of the sea off the coast of the province of Chikugo sometimes 
appears as though illuminated at night — a phenomenon which remains still unex- 
plained. Hence, sbiranuhi (unknown fires) is used as a pillow-word for Tsukushi, of 
which the province forms a part 


Her empire against the foreign enemy. 

Therefore, though all the provinces she rules 
Are full of men without number. 

Those of the Eastland, as fierce fighters 
Who, going forth to battle, never turn back, 

Are for their valour rewarded ; 

To them the imperial word is given. — 

Upon which you go, counting the weary days, 
Away from the sight of your mother, 

Away from your young wife’s embrace. 

From Port Naniwa of wind-blown reeds 
Your stately ship, many-oared, 

With her crew ranged in the morning calm 
And with her oars bent against the evening tide, 
Sails column-wise with others. 

May you, ploughing your way through the waves, 
Arrive safely in good time ; 

And in obedience to the imperial command 
Serve with a manly heart, 

Passing from garrison to garrison 

And when your duty is done, may you return 

In happiness and health ! — 

So she prays, 

Putting the sacred wine-jar at her bedside. 

Pining and waiting for you these long days. 

She will sleep with her sleeves turned back , 1 2 
And her black hair spread out — 

Your sweet young wife ! 


When the soldier-husband went forth 
Carrying a quiver on his shoulder. 

How bitterly she must have wailed — 

1 The frontier-guards posted at one garrison were shifted to another at the end ot 
each season. 

2 A form of magic to insure the safe return of an absent person. 


His wife so loath to part ! 

How sad was the parting 
Of the Eastlander from his wife — 
He brooding on the long years 
Of separation ! 

727-9 Expressing bis humble thoughts. 1 [xx 14360-2] 

qnce in the long-gone age — 

So has it ever been told to this day — 

An Emperor 2 ruled the under-heaven 

From his court in the land of wave-bright Naniwa. 

Here our august Sovereign, 3 a very goddess, 

Of whom I dread to speak, 

Deigns to dwell, now that in early spring 
A thousand flowers have burst into bloom ; 

The mountains are wondrous fair to see 
And clear run the rivers ; 

And all things prospering 

Please the eye and gladden the heart. 

O the imperial palace of Naniwa ! 

Hither from all the provinces of the realm 
The tribute-bearing ships come — 

A noisy throng like a flight of teal — 

Piloted through the canal, 

Bending their oars up-stream 
In the calm of morning, 

Or plying their poles down-stream 
On the evening’s flood-tide. 

Out beyond the beach there are seen 

The fishermen’s boats, dotting the sea-plain 

Amid the white waves breaking one upon another. 

1 Composed on the i 3th of the 2nd month of the 7th year of Tempyo-Shoho (755) 
— Original Note. 

2 The Emperor Nintoku. 

* The Empress Koken 


They are fishing to provide for the august table. 

0 how spacious is the view ! 

How free and open ! 

Well was here established the imperial abode 
From the age of the gods. 


The cherry-trees are in full bloom 
Now, while at the palace by the sea 
Of wave-bright Naniwa 
Reigns our gracious Empress. 

Here in Naniwa of wind-blown reeds 

1 feel I might forget my home 
And pass years upon years, 

Gazing on the spacious sea. 

J 3°~ 21 TN obedience to the imperial [xx : 4398-400] 


Though sad is the parting from my wife, 

I summon up the courage of a man, 

And dressed for journey, take my leave. 

My mother strokes me gently ; 2 
My young wife dings to me, saying : 

‘ I will pray to the gods for your safe-keeping. 

Go unharmed and come back soon ! ’ 

As she speaks, she wipes with her sleeves 
The tears that choke her. 

Hard as it is, I start on my way. 

Pausing and looking back time after time ; 

Ever farther I travel from my home. 

Ever higher the mountains I climb and cross, 

Till at last I arrive at Naniwa of wind-blown reeds. 
Here I stop and wait for good weather, 

1 Composed on the 19th of the 2nd month of the 7th year of Tempy6~Shoh6(75 5). 
— Original Note. 

* Perhaps signified a prayer for the son’s safety. 


To launch the ship upon the evening tide. 
To set the prow seawards, 

And to row out in the calm of morning. 
The spring mists rise round the isles. 

And the cranes cry in a plaintive tone. 
Then I think of my far-off home — 

Sorely do I grieve that with my sobs 
I shake the war-arrows I carry 
Till they rattle in my ears. 


On an evening when the spring mists 
Trail over the wide sea. 

And sad is the voice of the cranes, 

I think of my far-off home. 

Thinking of home, 

Sleepless I sit, 

The cranes call amid the shore reeds, 

Lost in the mists of spring. 

Jjj-7 Parting sorrows of a frontier-guard. [xx : 4408-12] 

the bidding of my great Sovereign 1 
I set out as a defender of the isle. 2 

My mother picking up the hem of her skirt, 
Stroked me with its and caressed me. 

My father said regretfully with tears streaming 
Down his beard white as the taku* rope : 

‘ My fawn, my only son — how sad 
Your parting in the morning, dear child ! 

1 i. e. the Empress Koken. 

1 A frontier-guard, the ‘ isle s being Kyushu. 

3 The skirt of a woman’s garment was believed to possess magic power. Hence, 
the custom that apparently existed of a woman stroking a person with her skirt in 
wishing him a safe journey. Cf. note to No. 23 8. 

* Made from the bark of i. e. paper-mulberry ( Broussonetia papyrifera). 

Because such rope was white, the taku rope became a pillow-word for c white ’ 


I shall miss you when I see you not 

For such long years. Let me talk to you 

If only for to-day.’ He sighed and moaned. 

My wife and children gathering about here and 

Wailed like the birds of spring, 

Their sleeves all wet with weeping. 

They tugged me by the hand to retain me ; 

And loath to part, they followed after me. 

But in dread obedience to the imperial command 
I started out on the road, 

Looking back manv times from the corner of each 

Having left my dear ones far behind, 

My mind knew no rest 

While the pain of longing wrung my heart. 

Mortal creature as I am, 

How could I be sure of my life ? 

Until the time when I reach my post, 

Sailing the fearful sea-path from island to island, 
And after the round of service come back again, 
May all be well with my parents ! 

May my wife in sound health wait for me ! 

Oh, tell my people at home 
That thus to our Gods of Suminoe 1 
I prayed making offerings ; 

And that launching the ship at Port Naniwa, 

Fitting her with many oars and ranging the crew, 

I rowed out at daybreak ! 


Oh, tell my parents 

That I have set sail ; and all is well 

Because, I think, my folks are praying for me ! 

1 Later known as Sumiyoshi, where there is still the shrine of Sumiyoshi, dedicated 
from early times to patron gods of seafarers. 


Though men say that the cloud 
Travelling the sky is a messenger, 

I know no means to send home my presents. 

I have gathered sea-shells 
To take home as presents. 

Though ever higher the waves beat on the shore. 

Though the ship stops at an island haven, 

There is none by whom I may send word home — 
So must I sail on, longing in vain ! 

jjS-40 Admonition to his clansmen. 1 [xx : 4465-7] 

jn the remote age of the gods 
When the Imperial Ancestor , 2 opening heaven’s 

Descended upon the Peak of Takachiho, 

It was the founder of our clan, 

Who, gripping in his hand a wax-trees bow 
And grasping withal arrows for the deer hunt, 
Made advance the brave troops 
Of Okume with quivers on their backs ; 

Forced his way across mountains and rivers, 
Trampling under foot rocks and stones ; 

And who, seeking for a good habitable land. 

Subdued the fierce gods 

And pacified the unruly tribes — 

Sweeping and cleansing thus the country, 

He rendered a loyal service to his lord. 

Thereafter, under the successive reigns 
Of the sovereigns on the Celestial Throne, 

1 Composed on the occasion of the dismissal from office of Otomo Kojihi, 
Governor of Izumo, through false accusations made to the court by Omi Mifune 
(in 756). — Original Note. 

2 i. e. Hikohohoninigi-no-Mikoto. 

? i. e. kas$ (JLhus snccedamd). 

x 7 8 

Descended from that First Emperor 1 
Who, raising the stout-pillared Unebi Palace 
Of Kashihara 2 in the land of Yamato, 

Ruled the under-heaven. 

Our forefathers served the Imperial House 
With all their hearts faithful and true. 

Ours is the ancestral office of the clan, 

So proclaimed and bestowed upon us. 

To be handed down from father to son, 

Generation after generation — 

Those who see will tell of it from mouth to mouth ; 
Those who hear will hold it up as a mirror. 

So cherished and clean is the name of our clan. 
Neglect it never, lest even a false word 
Should destroy this proud name of our fathers. 
You clansmen all, who bear the name of Otomo. 


Beware, you leaders of our clan 
Which bears a most illustrious name 
In this wide land of Yamato ! 

Polish it like a double-edged sword. 

Make it ever bright — the name 

Borne through ages, clean and without spot ! 

J41-2 Desiring to pursue the Way of Buddha 3 [xx : 4468-9] 
while lying in his sick-bed and lament- 
ing the transience of life. 

gRiEF is this mortal life — 

Let me go and seek the Way, 

1 The Emperor Jimmu. 

2 Now usually pronounced Kasbiwara 

? Buddhism teaches that the Way of Buddha cannot be attained save for special 
and excellent causes. The pursuit of the Way in this life will, however, enable one 
to find it in the life to come. 


Contemplating the hills and streams undefiled ! 

O let me seek the Pure Way, 

Striving against the light of the heaven-coursing 

That I may find it again in after-life ! 

J43 Wishing for a long life . 1 2 3 4 [xx : 447°] 

j know well this body of mine 
Is insubstantial as foam ; z 
Even so, how I wish 
For a life of a thousand years ! 

J44 At the farewell banquet in honour of Onu [xx:45i4] 
Tamori, ambassador to Po-haiy and others at 
the residence of the Prime Minister 4 on the 
tenth day of the second month of the second 
year of Tempyo-Hoji (y / 8 ). 

'J'he wind and waves sinking low 
Over the blue plains of the sea, 

Swift will be your ship 
Without hindrance. 

As you go and as you come home. 

1 Composed on the 17th of the 6th month m the 8th yeai of Tempyo-Shoho (756). 
— Original Note* 

2 According to Buddhist philosophy, the human body is but a temporary union 
of the four elements, viz. earth, water, fire and wind. 

3 Then a large independent state in North Manchuria 

4 Fujiwara Nakamaro 


J4J At the banquet on New Year's Day of the [xx:45i6| 
third year of Tempyo-Hoji (yjy). 

J7VEN as the snow falls to-day 

At the commencement of the New Year 
And with the new-born spring. 

Ever thick come, good things ! 

Lady Ki and Otomo Yakamochi 

446-7 jjor your sake, O slave, [vm : 1460-1] 

I plucked with busy hands 
These sedge-buds 1 from the spring meadow. 

Eat them and grow fat ! 

The silk-tree 2 that blooms in daytime 
And sleeps the love-sleep at night. 

Your lady should not see alone — 

Look on this well, my slave ! — By Lady Ki. 

748-9 \yiTH his lady your slave must be [vm : 1462—3] 
in love. 

For however much he devours 
The sedge-buds so graciously given, 

He wastes and wastes. 

The silk-tree, my lady’s precious keepsake — 

Is it not, alas, a tree 

That brings forth only the flower, 

And bears not fruit ? — By Otomo Yakamochi. 

1 The budding ears of the sedge are often eaten. 

2 A mimosa-like tree {Albina Juhbrtssin ) whose leaves fold up in the evening. 
The flowers have long silky reddish stamens. 


Otomo Yakamochi and Otomo Ikenushi 

jjo-z In praise of Mount Tacht. 1 [xvii : 4000 - 2 ] 

jn the land of Koshi 
Famous among the distant regions, 

Many are the mountains 
And countless rivers run. 

But on Mount Tachi of Niikawa 2 * 4 5 
Because of its divinity,? 

Snow lies throughout summer.4 

Unlike the mists that form and lift 

Each morning and evening 

Over the limpid shallows 

Of the engirdling Katakaip 

The mountain will not leave our memory. 

Each year I will come 

And gaze upon this mountain afar, 

Then speak of it to those 
Yet strangers to its beauty, 

Spreading its fame to future years, 

That all who hear but its name 
May long to see it. 


The snows on Mount Tachi 
Refresh me all through summer, 
Thanks to its divinity ! 

1 Composed on the 27th of the 4th month (of the 19th year of Tempyo, 747) 
— Original Note. ‘ Mount Tachi stands in Niikawa District 9 (Original Note), in 
Etchu, i. e. in the south-eastern part of Toyama Prefecture, where it borders on 
Nagano Prefecture Tateyama, as it is now called, has several peaks, the highest 
of which, the Male Peak, is 2,912 metres above sea level. 

2 A district in Etchu. 

* It was believed that the mountain was a deity. 

4 Mount Tachi was covered with snow even in summer, which interested Yaka- 
mochi, who had seen no such mountain in Nara. 

5 It flows at the foot of Tateyama, pouring into the sea east of the town of Uozu. 


Unfailing as the limpid water 
On Katakai’s shallows, 

Will I come and gaze upon the mountain. 

jjj-j Responding to Yakamochi’s poems on [xvn : 4003-5] 
Mount Tachi . 1 

Lofty beyond the mountains, 

Bright in the rising sun, 

Mount Tachi, a god standing, 

As tells its sacred name, 

Soars in majesty to heaven 
Through thousandfold white clouds. 

Crowned with snow it stands 
Through summer and winter, 

Ever since the days of old, 

Rugged with its antique rocks, 

Through ages numberless. 

Mysterious, however I look upon it. 

Steep are its peaks, deep its gorges, 

The rapid waters wash the vales, 

Whereover rise the mists each morning. 

And at evening trail the clouds. 

Then, grave as are the clouds, 

Constant as never are the mists, 

Clear as the sound of the rushing water. 

Will I speak of it for ever. 

Long as runs its river. 

Envoy s 

The snows on Mount Tachi lie 
Unmelted all through summer. 

Thanks, indeed, to its divinity. 

Unfailing as Katakai’s waters 

1 Composed on the 28th of the 4th month (in 747)* 


That fail and rush along. 

Will you who see the mountain 
Come and gaze upon it. 

Otomo Azumabito 

jj6 Composed during the Emperor 7 s sojourn [vi : 1034] 

at Tagi in Mi no Province . 

J-£ere is the water by which — 

So men have told from ancient times — 

The old are made young again : 

This rushing stream deserving well 
The name Tagi, the c Rapids/ 

Lady Otomo of Sakanoe’s Elder Daughter 

JJ7 To Otomo Yakamochi . [ Iv : 73 1 ] 

'yy'HAT do I care if my name 
Be on the tongues 

Of five hundred, or a thousand, men ! 

Only should your name get abroad 
I would regret it and weep. 

Otomo Yotsuna 

JJ&-9 JN the Land where our Sovereign [m : 329-30] 

The Imperial City dwells 
Most dearly in my heart. 


The waving wistarias are in full bloom ; 
Do they not remind you, my lord. 

Of the Imperial City of Nara P 1 

j6o Composed when bidding farewell at the post town [rv : 5 7 1 J 
of A.shiki , Chiku^en, to Cord Otomo, Governor- 
General of the Da^aifu, who was appointed 
Grand Councillor of State and departed 
for the capital. 

gEAUTiFUL is the moon-lit night. 

And clear the voice of the river. 

Here let all of us make merry — 

You who go and we who remain ! 

Otomo Minaka 

161-3 On the suicide of his clerk , Hasetsukabe [in • 443-5] 
Tatsumaro > in the first year of Tempyd 
(729), when he was chief controller of 
the rice-fields z in Settsu. 

J 7 VER since the day he started, 

Telling his mother and father, 

His wife and children. 

That, as he was called a warrior 
Of a far-off land where bend the clouds of heaven, 
He would give himself to service 
In or out of the Imperial Gates, 

Thereby ensuring the ancestral fame, 

Long as vines reach out. 

1 Nara abounded, as it still does, in wistarias. Probably addressed to Otomo 
Tabito, Governor-General of the Dazaifu. 

2 Every man and woman of six years and upwards was allotted a certain tract of 
land every six years. The affairs were transacted in the Home Provinces by officials 
specially appointed for the purpose. 


His loving mother would sit praying 
To the gods of heaven and earth. 

With the wine-jar before her. 

With mulberry cloth in one hand 
And fine silk in the other. 

For his safety and well-being ; 

She waited, standing or sitting. 

Wondering on which day, in which month and year. 
That son, beauteous as the azalea. 

Would come to her again 
Back from the toil of travels. 

As comes a black mallard through the waves. 

But, while obedient to the Sovereign’s word. 

Night and morning he remained in wave-bright 

Until the year had passed 

Without leisure even to dry his sleeves. 

How thought he of his life ? 

He left this dear and precious world 
As vanishes a drop of dew. 

Long enough before his time ! 


Yesterday he lived here. 

But unexpectedly 
He hovers now in clouds 
Above the sea-beach pines. 

Sending no word to his loved wife 
Who waits for his return. 

He has left this world, alas ! 

1 86 

Otomo Momoyo 

764-7 hove poems. [iv 1559-60] 

j have lived my life 
In peace and quiet — 

Ah, that I should encounter 
Now in my declining years 
Love such as this ! 

When I shall have died of love — 

What can avail me then ? 

I crave again to see you 
While I live, dear lady. 

Otomo Miyori 

766 On again meeting a lady. fiv : 650] 

You seem to have lived, my lady. 

In the Land of Eternity. 

You have grown younger 
Than when so many years ago 
I saw you last. 

Yamabe Akahito 

767-8 On a distant view of Mount Fuji. 1 [in : 3 17- 8 ] 

J7VER since heaven and earth were parted , 2 * 
It has towered lofty, noble, divine. 

1 Mount Fuji towers over the provinces of Suruga and Kai. 

2 According to legend, heaven and earth gradually came to be separated out of 



Mount Fuji in Suruga i 1 

When we look up to the plains of heaven, 

The light of the sky-traversing sun is shaded, 

The gleam of the shining moon is not seen. 

White clouds dare not cross it. 

And for ever it snows. 

We shall tell of it from mouth to mouth, 

O the lofty mountain of Fuji ! 


When going forth I look far from the shore of Tago, 
How white and glittering is 
The lofty Peak of Fuji, 

Crowned with snows ! 

769-70 At the hot springs 2 in lyo. [ni : 322-3] 

'J'hough many were the hot springs 
Everywhere in the dominion 
Ruled by the Sovereigns of the imperial line. 

They loved the land of lyo 
For the beauty of its island-hills, 

And standing on the hill of Isaniwa, 

At the base of the steep mountains. 

Meditated poems. 

And mused upon the words. 

Now when I look at the growth of trees 
Above the hot springs. 

The old firs are flourishing, 

Succeeded by their offshoots. 

And the twitter of the birds 
Is not changed. 

1 Pan of Shizuoka Prefecture. 

2 The spa of Dogo of to-day. Visits were paid here, it is said, by the Emperor 
Keiko, the Emperor Chuai, Prince Shotoku, the Emperor Jomei, and the Empress 


This will remain as venerable 
Throughout endless ages, 

This site of imperial visits. 


The gay courtiers set out to sea 
At Nigitazu ; 

But how far away in time, 

Who knows ? 

H 1 ' 2 Climbing the hill of Kami . 1 [hi : 324-5] 

(Continuously, as their name tells, — 

The tsuga-ttees that grow in luxuriance 
With five hundred boughs outbranching. 

On Mount Kamunabi of Mimoro — 

And as endlessly as the creeping vine, 

I would visit these ruins 
Of the Palace of Asuka. 2 
Here the hills is high, the river long ; 

On a spring day the hill is sweetest. 

The stream is limpid of an autumn night, 

The cranes wing the morning clouds in flocks. 

The frogs call in the evening mists ; 

Whenever I gaze upon them 
I am bowed in tears. 

Remembering the days of old. 


Like the mists that ever rise 
Over Asuka’s quiet pools. 

My longing is such 
As will not easily die. 

1 Identified by some as the hill of Ikazuchi (Thunder Hill), and by others as 
Mount Kannabi. 

2 Asuka was the site of the capital established by the Emperor Tcmmu. 

3 The hill is the hill of Kami and the river is the Asuka flowing at its base. 


j/j ~4 Visiting Kasuga Yield. [hi : 372-3] 

qn Mikasa, a peak of Mount Kasuga, 

Clouds hover every morning, 

Kko-birds 1 are for ever crying. 

Like the clouds my heart is wavering ; 

And like the endless calling of the birds, 

I long for love requited ; 

Every moment of the day. 

Every moment of the night. 

Standing or sitting, 

I pine with thoughts of love 
For the girl who will not heed me. 


Like the birds that call and call again, 

On the height of Mikasa, 

I only cease from weeping 
To fall into tears. 

J7f~7 Passing the tomb of the Maiden of [hi : 43 1-3] 
Mama 2 - of Katsushika. 

'J’hough they say her tomb is here. 

The tomb of Tekona at Mama 
Of Katsushika, 

Whom a man of old had courted, 

Building a cottage for her sake. 

There to talk with the maiden, 

Unbinding their sashes of twill — 

Nowhere can I see it ; 

Is it because of the leafy cypresses ? 

Or of the ancient pines 
With roots out-reaching far ? 

1 Not identified. 

1 The present town of Ichikawa, Katsushika District, Shimosa Province. 


Yet the story and her name will never 
Leave my memory. 


I saw it ; I will tell my friends 
The place of Tekona’s tomb 
At Mama of Katsushika. 

She would gather swaying seaweed 
In the inlet of Mama of Katsushika ; 
Well do I imagine that Tekona ! 

j 78-80 On the occasion of the Sovereign’ s' journey to [v 1 : 9 1 7-9] 
the province of Ki, in winter , on the fifth 
day of the tenth month of the first year 
of Jinki (724). 

J7R.OM Saiga’s plain, where we serve 
At the palace everlasting 
Of our august Sovereign reigning in peace. 

The island lies athwart in the sea. 

White waves gambol along its clean shore 
When the wind arises. 

Men gather the dainty seaweed 
When the tide is low — 

So precious since the age of the gods, 

This Tamatsu-shima, Island of Jewels ! 


Shall I not miss the dainty seaweed 

On the rugged island beach 

When it is hidden under the flood-tide ? 

As the tide flows into Waka Bay, 

The cranes, with the lagoons lost in flood. 

Go crying towards the reedy shore. 

i e. the Emperor Shomu. 

j 8 i-j J^ere in a beautiful dell where the [vi : 923-5] 

river runs, 

The Yoshinu Palace, the high abode 
Of our Sovereign reigning in peace, 

Stands engirdled, fold on fold, 

By green mountain walls. 

In spring the flowers bend the boughs ; 

With autumn’s coming the mist rises and floats over 

Ever prosperous like those mountains 
And continuously as this river flows. 

Will the lords and ladies of the court 
Come hither. 


Oh, the voices of the birds 
That sing so noisily in the tree-tops 
Of the Kisa Mountain of Yoshinu, 
Breaking the silence of the vale ! 

Now the jet-black night deepens ; 
And on the beautiful river beach, 
Where grow the hisagi-titts , 1 
The sanderlings cry ceaselessly. 

/<?•/-/ JN the Akitsu Dale of Yoshinu [vi : 926-7] 

Our great Lord and Sovereign, 

Placing game-trackers in the fields, 

And posting bow-men upon the hills, 

Rouses the beasts for the morning hunt, 

Rouses the wild fowl for the evening chase ; 

So he hunts — he and his men 
Riding their horses side by side 
Over the lush dale of spring. 

1 i. c. Mallotus japomcus . 



/ 8 8—y i 


Lo ! His Majesty’s huntsmen 
With hunting arrows under their arms — 
I see them scattering far and wide 
Over fields and over craggy hills. 

qur Sovereign has come to dwell [vi : 933-4] 

At the Palace of wave-bright Naniwa, 

Where he rules his realm 

Eternally as endure the heaven and earth 

And ever long as shine the sun and moon. 

As a daily tribute from Awaji, 

The Land of Imperial Purveyance, 

Nujima’s fisher-folk dive for abalone pearls 
Deep to the bottom of the sea, 

And gather many from amid the ocean rocks, 

And carry them in boats rowed abreast. 

So rendering service to His Majesty — 

What a noble scene to watch ! 


In the calm of morning 
The sound of oars is heard — 

It must be the boats of Nujima’s fisher-folk 
From the Land of Imperial Purveyance. 

'J'he Field of Omi in Inami Plain, [vi : 938-41] 
Where our Sovereign, ruling in peace, 

Has reared high a palace. 

Befitting the god that he is, 

Adjoins Fujii Bay, whose waters 
Are thickly dotted with fishermen’s boats 
Angling for albacore, and whose shore 
Is thronged by men burning salt-fires. 

They may well fish on so fine a bay, 

J 93 

And burn salt-fires on so fine a beach. 

It is well that oft His Majesty 
Is pleased to come hither to view 
This fair beach of white sands. 


The waves being still 

On the far waters, and by the shore. 

Boats are out to fish. 

Swarming over Fujie 1 Bay. 

Now that many are the nights 
I have slept on Inami Plain, 

Pressing down the scanty sedge 
For a bed — how I long for home ! 

From to-morrow I shall travel 
By the road of the tide-dry shore 
Along the Straits of Akashi, 

Smiling in my heart as I near my home. 

J9 2 ~J Passing Karani Island. [vi : 942-5] 

^way from the sight of my dear wife 

I journey, sleeping without even a pillow ; 

And fitting with oars a birch-bark boat, 

I come rowing on, 

Past Nujima off the shore of Awaji. 

From between the isles of Inamizuma 
And Karani I look back homeward 
Only to see the blue mountains. 

But nowhere my house, which is lost 
Beyond thousandfold white clouds. 

Every time my ship skirts round a bay. 

1 Evidently to be identified with the bay in the preceding poem, of which the 
name is written * Fujii’ It is not known which version is correct. 


Every time an island point disappears from view. 
And at each and every turn — 

Ever thinking of home, I have come 
Throughout the long and weary days of travel. 


O that I were a cormorant 
Circling round Karani Island, 

Where men cut dainty seaweed I 

Then should I feel no such longing for home. 

As we come rowing on 
Under the island lee, 

Lo ! there goes a Kumanu ship — 

How I envy it ! — heading for Yamato. 

When the wind began to blow. 

For fear of a high sea 

We made for Tsuta’s narrow cove. 

Now sheltered in the bay, our ship lies waiting. 

J9& Composed during the Emperor’s visit to the |\i : ioo 
Palace of Naniwa in the third month of 
the sixth year ofTempyo (734). 

'J’he men of the court go forth 
To join in the royal hunt. 

While the maidens promenade. 

Trailing their pink skirts, 

Along the clean waterside. 

J97~$ Composed by the imperial command during [vi : 1005-6] 
the Emperor s sojourn at the Palace of 
Yoshinu , in summer , in the sixth month 
of the eighth year of Tempyo (736). 

j-jERE where stands the Palace of Yoshinu, 

Which our great Sovereign ruling in peace 
Is pleased to behold, 

High rise the mountains wreathed in clouds ; 

Swift runs the river, its shallows singing clearly. 

O hallowed peaks, how sublime to watch ! 

0 fair stream, how refreshing to the eyes ! 

Not till these mountains crumble, 

And this river run dry. 

Shall the stately palace ever cease to be. 


Our Sovereigns from the age of the gods 
Have often come to hold court 
Here at the Palace of Yoshinu — 

Because of the beauty of the mountains and river. 

J 99 pORTH to the field of spring [vm : 1424] 

I went to gather violets — 

Enamoured of the field 

1 slept there all night through. 

600 jt snowed yesterday — [vm : 1427] 

And to-day it snows 
On the meadow I have marked 
For gathering spring herbs to-morrow. 


Hanishi Mitoshi 

601 Composed at sea during bis voyage from [iv : 557] 

Tsukusbi to the capital. 

we go fast, rowing the huge ship, 

Should she hit the rocks and overturn — 

Oh, let her overturn ! I shall not mind 
Since it is for my dear wife’s sake. 

Ama-no-Inukai Okamaro 

602 In reply to an Imperial Rescript in the sixth [vr : 996] 
year ojTempyo (734). 

j thy humble subject, 

Live not in vain, having seen 
Both heaven and earth prosper 
In this glorious age of thine. 

Yamanoe Okura 

603 Thinking . , while in China 7 of his [1 : 63I 


Qome, my men, let us hasten to Yamato ! 

The shore pines on Mitsu 1 2 of Otomo3 
Must wait and long for us. 

1 Okura was a member of the embassy to China, which left Japan in the 2nd year 
of Daiho (702) and returned home in the 1st year of Keiun (704). 

2 An old name for the port of Osaka. 

* The general name for what is now Osaka and its vicinity. 


604 heaving a banquet. [hi = 337] 

j Okura, will leave now ; 

* My children may be crying, 

And that mother of theirs, too, 

May be waiting for me ! 

6oj-io An elegy 1 on the death of his wife. 2 [v : 794-9] 

'j'o this land of Tsukushi, 

Our Sovereign’s distant court, 

She followed me, my wife, 

As a crying child its mother. 

But before she gained her breath, 

Ere many months had flown, 

She sickened and lay dead, 

When least I feared. 

Now I know not what to do or say, 

Vainly I seek soothing words 
From trees and stones. 

Had she remained at home, 

Her form would still exist ; 

What means my heartless wife, 

Breaking the vows we made 
Side by side like grebes, 

To wander from her home ? 


When back at home, what shall I do ? 

How desolate I shall find 
Her vacant bower ! 

Poor beloved ! 

‘ Composed on the 21st of the 7th month of the 5th year of Jinki (728) — 
Original Note. 

1 According to some commentators Okura wrote this poem on the death of 
Otomo Tabito^s wife. 


Destined thus, she travelled far to me, 

I cannot tell my grief ! 

How it fills me with regret ! 

Had I foreknown it, I would have shown her 
All in this beautiful land ! 

The bead-tree’s flowers my darling saw 

Will be scattered 

While my tears have not dried. 

Over Mount Onu the fog is rising ; 

Driven by my sighs of grief, 

The fog is rising. 

611-2 A.n expostulation to a straying mind. [v : 800-1] 

I know one who, although he respects his parents , neglects 
his filial duties. He cares for his wife and children no more 
than for cast-off shoes. He calls himself Master Eccentric. 
His mind maj soar higher than the blue sky , jet hts body 
remains clinging to the sordid earth. He seems'anything but 
a sage of spiritual discipline and enlightenment. He is such 
a man, it seems, as seeks refuge in the mountains or in the 
valleys. Hence, for his serious reflection, I have composed a 
poem, referring him to the three great principles 1 and inculcat- 
ing the five virtues . 2 

’J’he sight of our parents 

Inspires our hearts with reverence ; 

When we see our wives and children 

How lovable they are ! 

1 The three principles are . — the relations between sovereign and subject, parent 
and child, husband and wife These constitute the fundamental principles of 

2 The five virtues are — righteousness from the father, affection from the mother, 
kindness from the elder brother, modest} from the younger brother, and filial piety 
from the child 


It is the way of human life ; 

Fettered we are like the lime-caught bird ; 

We know not whither to flee. 

Were you born of rock or tree, 

You who leave these bonds. 

Like a pair of worn-out shoes ? 

Tell me your name. 

When you are in heaven, 

Do as you please. 

While you live on earth, 

Our Sovereign rules. 

Under the sun and moon that shine. 

To the sky’s ends where bend the clouds of heaven, 
To the earth’s bounds whither creeps the toad, 1 2 
All is Iris exalted realm. 

In everything you behave with wilfulness. 

Have I not spoken truly ? 


Far is the way to heaven, 

Obediently go home. 

And attend you to your work ! 

6 4 Thinking of children. [v : 802-3] 

Buddha, from his holy mouth, truly preached, ‘ I love 
mankind as I love Rahulad 1 Again he preached, ‘ No love 
exceeds a par enf s loved Even so great a saint loved his child. 
Should not, then, the common run of men do so all the more ? 

■yyHEN I eat melon, 

I remember my children ; 

When I eat chestnuts, 

1 The toad was believed to retire to some region where no human being ever 
set foot. 

2 Buddha’s son before he renounced the world 


Even more do I recall them. 
Whence did they come to me ? 
Before my eyes they will linger, 
And I cannot sleep in peace. 


What use to me 
Silver, gold and jewels ? 

No treasure can surpass children ! 

6ij-6 An elegy on the impermanence of [v : 804-5] 

human life.' 1 

What threaten us and are difficult for us to master are the 
eight great pains. What are hardly attainable and quickly 
spent are the pleasures of a hundred years . The ancients 
grieved over this, as we do to-day. Hence I have composed a 
poem to drive away the sorrows of my grey-haired age. 

■^yE are helpless before time 
Which ever speeds away. 

And pains of a hundred kinds 
Pursue us one after another. 

Maidens joy in girlish pleasures, 

With ship-borne gems on their wrists, 

And hand in hand with their friends ; 

But the bloom of maidenhood. 

As it cannot be stopped. 

Too swiftly steals away. 

When do their ample tresses 
Black as a mud-snail’s bowels 
Turn white with the frost of age ? 

Whence come those wrinkles 
Which furrow their rosy cheeks ? 

The lusty young men, warrior-like, 

1 Composed in Kama District, on the 21st of the 7th month of the 5 th year of 
Jinki (728). — Original Note. 


Bearing their sword-blades at their waists, 
In their hands the hunting bows, 

And mounting their bay horses. 

With saddles dressed with twill, 

Ride about in triumph ; 

But can their prime of youth 
Favour them for ever ? 

Few are the nights they keep, 

When, sliding back the plank doors, 

They reach their beloved ones 
And sleep, arms intertwined. 

Before, with staffs at their waists, 

They totter along the road. 

Laughed at here, and hated there. 

This is the way of the world ; 

And, cling as I may to life, 

I know no help ! 


Although I wish I were thus. 
Like the rocks that stay for ever, 
In this world of humanity 
I cannot keep old age away. 

617-8 The Bosom-soothing Stones. 1 2 [v: 813-4] 

On the plain of Kofu , in the village of Tukae, Ito District, 
Chikuyen, there are two stones on the hill which overlooks the 
sea. The larger is one shaku z two sun z and six bu z in length, 
one shaku eight sun six bu in circumference, and eighteen kin$ 
five ryoi in weight. The smaller is one shaku one sun in 
length, one shaku eight sun in circumference, and weighs six- 
teen kin ten ryo. Both are egg-shaped. Their beauty is 
beyond words. These are truly what are called gems of * one 

1 The authorship is sometimes ascribed to Otomo Tabito. 

2 Sbaku^foot ; sm—^ shaku \ sun. 

* Kin— 1 J lb. avoirdupois; ryo— kin. 


foot across Placed by the roadside, twenty n l from the stage- 
house at Fukae, every traveller, official or not, dismounts and 
does them reverence. The elders of the village hand down the 
story that, long ago, when the Empress fingu was on her 
expedition to subjugate Shiragi, she kept them one in each 
sleeve, as a charm to postpone child-birth. Therefore all 
travellers do them reverence. 

tongue is awed — 

The Empress, to soothe her bosom 
And subjugate Shiragi, 

Took up two gem-like stones. 

And held them in reverence. 

Then,- on the plain of Kofu by the sea 
In far-secluded Fukae, 

She herself placed the stones 
Before the eyes of the world, 

To leave them honoured by all men 
Throughout all time to be. 

So, when I see these sacred stones 
Still remaining as deities. 

Reverence fills my heart. 


To leave them honoured by all men, 

Long as heaven and earth shall last, 

She placed these sacred stones. 

61$ At the farewell banquet in honour of Otomo Tabito, [v : 880] 
when he was starting for the capital in the twelfth 
month of the second year ofTempyo (730). 

^fter five years passed in the country 
Far away as are the skies, 

I have become a stranger 

To the graceful manners of the City. 

1 Ri—0.41 mile; so that * 20 ri ‘ is about ‘ Smiles.’ 



An elegy representing the feelings of [v : 886-91] 
Otomo Kuni agon. 

Otomo Kumagori was a native of Mashiki District , Hi go 
Province. At the age of eighteen , in the sixth month of the 
third year of Tempyo (731), he started for the capital, having 
been appointed attendant to a governor and an official of the 
Board of Wrestling. But , by Heaven’s mil, he unfortunately 
fell ill during his journey, and died at a stage-house at T aka - 
niwa m Aki Province. On his death-bed he sighed and said, 

‘ Man’s body, being a chance combination of the elements, easily 
perishes, and life does not endure longer than a bubble, so I 
am told. Hence many sages have died, and many wise men 
have not lived long. Then how can such as I, mean and 
humble, elude the grasp of death ? A'ly parents are both alive 
at home. Anxiety will sezfe them, waiting for me so long. 
When their longing has proved vain at last, they will weep 
themselves blind. That is my grief. 0 poor father ! 0 

poor mother ! I grieve not so much for my death as for my 
old parents who will be left in lamentation. If I die to-day, 
in what world can I meet them again ? ’ He then composed 
these six poems. 

'j’o go up to the sun-lit Imperial City, 

I left the loving hands of my mother. 

Travelled through the far and unknown lands, 

And crossed a hundred mountains, 

Ever talking with my friends, 

Ever thinking, as we talked, 

‘ When can we see the City ? ’ 

Then my body sorely pained me. 

So, at the turning of the road, 

I bent and gathered the weeds and brushwood, 
Where I laid myself, 

And as I lay in grief, I thought, 

If I were in my native land, 

My father would take up my hands, 

As would my mother nurse me, if I lay at home. 

Is this the way of all the world ? 


Lying by the roadside like a dog, 

Must I thus end my life ? 


Far from my loving mother’s eyes, 

Unsteady and forlorn. 

Whither shall I bend my steps 
From this world ? 

On the far-stretching, untravelled road 
My heart lost in gloom. 

How shall I guide my steps 
Without something to nourish me ? 

If at home my mother nursed me, 

Holding my hands in hers, 

My heart would be lightened. 

Though I should die. 

Ah ! counting the weary days 
Since I set out on my journey. 

My father and mother must surely wait for me. 
Saying, ' £ To-day, to-day.’ 

Leaving my father and mother 
Whom I shall not see a second time 
In this one life of mine, 

Must I now depart for ever ? 

626-7 .4 dialogue on poverty. [v : 892-3] 

qn the night when the rain beats. 

Driven by the wind, 

On the night when the snow-flakes mingle 
With the sleety rain, 

I feel so helplessly cold. 

I nibble at a lump of salt, 


Sip the hot, oft-diluted dregs of sake ; 

And coughing, snuffling, 

And stroking my scanty beard, 

I say in my pride, 

‘ There’s none worthy, save I ! ’ 

But I shiver still with cold. 

I pull up my hempen bed-clothes, 

Wear what few sleeveless clothes I have, 
But cold and bitter is the night ! 

As for those poorer than myself, 

Their parents must be cold and hungry, 
Their wives and children beg and cry. 
Then, how do you struggle through life ? 

W T ide as they call the heaven and earth, 

For me they have shrunk quite small ; 
Bright though they call the sun and moon, 
They never shine for me. 

Is it the same with all men, 

Or for me alone ? 

By rare chance I was born a man 
And no meaner than my fellows, 

But, wearing unwadded sleeveless clothes 
In tatters, like weeds waving in the sea, 
Hanging from my shoulders, 

And under the sunken roof. 

Within the leaning walls, 

Here I lie on straw 
Spread on bare earth, 

With my parents at my pillow, 

My wife and children at my feet, 

All huddled in grief and tears. 

No fire sends up smoke 
At the cooking-place, 

And in the cauldron 
A spider spins its web. 

With not a grain to cook, 


We moan like the ‘ night-thrush.’ 

Then, c to cut,’ as the saying is, 
e The ends of what is already too short,’ 

The village headman comes, 

With rod in hand, to our sleeping-place, 

Growling for his dues. 

Must it be so hopeless — 

The way of this world ? 


Nothing but pain and shame in this world of men. 
But I cannot fly away. 

Wanting the wings of a bird. 

628-30 A. wish for safety at the departure ofTajihi L v : 894-6] 
Hironari , ambassador to China , in the 
fifth year of Tempyo (733). 

giNCE the age of the gods it has always been said 
That the Land of Yamato is 
A land where Sovereign-Gods hold solemn sway, 

A land where the word-soul brings us weal ; 

Not only has it been so told from mouth to mouth. 
But all of us see and know it now. 

Though many are the worthy men. 

Our Sovereign, like the sun of heaven. 

Out of his godlike love and favour, 

Has chosen you, my lord, 

A scion of a minister’s house. 

Now you go upon your journey 
To China, the distant land. 

Faithful to his dread commands. 

All the gods who rule the shores 
And wide seas far away 
At the prow will pilot you. 

And the gods of heaven and earth 


And the ‘ Great-Land-Spirit ’ of Yamato, 

Will look down from the sky, 

As they soar through heaven. 

When you return, your duties done, 

The gods again, with their hands upon the prow, 
Will speed your journey home. 

Straight as the drawn ink-line, 

From Chika’s cape to Otomo 

Where your ships will harbour at Mitsu’s shore. 

Be safe and well, my lord, 

Quickly come back home ! 


1 will sweep the pine-wood 
At Mitsu of Otomo, 

And stand there waiting for you ; 

Quickly come back home ! 

When I hear of you at anchor 
In Naniwa’s port, 

I will hasten to your side. 

Not even tying my riband. 

6)1-7 Suffering from old age and prolonged [v : 897-905] 
illness , and thinking of his children. 

§0 long as lasts the span of life, 1 
We wish for peace and comfort 
With no evil and no mourning, 

But life is hard and painful. 

As the common saying has it. 

Bitter salt is poured into the smarting wound. 

Or the burdened horse is packed with an upper load. 
Illness shakes my old body with pain. 

1 The span of human life was considered to be 120 years. 


All day long I breathe in grief 
And sigh throughout the night. 

For long years my illness lingers, 

I grieve and groan month after month. 
And though I would rather die, 

I cannot, and leave my children 
Noisy like the flies of May. 

Whenever I watch them 
My heart burns within. 

And tossed this way and that, 

I weep aloud. 


I find no solace in my heart ; 

Like the bird flying behind the clouds 
1 weep aloud. 

Helpless and in pain, 

1 would run out and vanish, 

But the thought of my children holds me. 

No children to wear them in wealthy homes. 
They are thrown away as waste. 

Those silks and quilted clothes ! 

With no sackcloth for my children to wear. 
Must I thus grieve. 

For ever at a loss ! 

Though vanishing like a bubble, 

I live, praying that my life be long 
Like a rope of a thousand fathoms. 

Humble as I am. 

Like an arm-band of coarse twill. 

How I crave a thousand years of life ! 



An elegy 1 on the death of Furuht. [v : 904-6] 

What worth to me the seven treasures, 

So prized and desired by all the world ? 

Furuhi, born of us two, 

Our love, our dear white pearl, 

With dawn, with the morning-star, 

Frolicked about the bed with us, standing or sitting ; 
When dusk came with the evening-star, 

He pulled our hands, urged us to bed, 

‘ Leave me not, father and mother, 

Let me sleep between you, 

Like saki-kusa, 2 - the three-stalked plant.’ 

So spoke that lovely mouth. 

Then we trusted, as one trusts in a great ship, 

That he would grow up as time passed by, 

And we should watch him, both in weal and woe. 
But, as of a sudden sweeps the storm, 

Illness caught our son. 

Helpless and in grief, 

I braced my sleeves with white cord, 

Grasped my shining mirror, 

And gazing up into the sky 
I appealed to the gods of heaven ; 

Dropping my forehead to the ground 
Madly I prayed to the gods of earth : 

‘ It is yours to decide his fate, 

To cure him or to let him die.’ 

Nothing availed my prayers, 

He languished day by day. 

His voice failed each morning, 

His mortal life ebbed out. 

Wildly I leapt and kicked the floor, 

Cried, stared up, stared down, 

1 Though this poem is of uncertain authorship, it is put here because it suggests 
Okura in style. — Original Note. 

2 Not identified. 


And beat my breast in grief. 

But the child from my arms has flown ; 
So goes the world .... 


So young he will not know the way ; 
Here is a fee for you, 

O courier from the Nether World, 

Bear him on your back. 

With offerings I beseech you, 

Be true and lead him up 
Straight along the road to heaven ! 

641 Composed on the occasion of his illness. [vi : 978] 

gHOULD I, a man, die in vain 
With no renown — no name 
Spoken of for ten thousand ages ? 

Once Yamanoe Okura fell gravely ill. Fujiwara Yatsuka 
sent a messenger to him to inquire after his condition. Okura , 
after making a reply , burst into tears , and recited the above 


642-4 A Seventh Night 1 Poem. z [vru: 1520-2] 

'j’HE Oxherd and the Weaver Maid standing 
Face to face across the River, 

1 The 7th night of the 7th month is the only night in the year on which the 
Oxheid (a star in Aquiia) is allowed to visit his sweetheart, the Weaver Maid (the 
star Vega), living on the other side of the 1 Ieavenly River (the Milky Way). The 
legend, which is of Chinese origin, eaily found its way into Japan, where the 
celebration of the ‘Seventh Night,’ or l anabata Matsun, as it is called, became, 
and still remains, one of the most popular festivals throughout the country. 

1 Okura composed these poems on gazing up at the Heavenly River on the 
night of the 7th day of the 7th month in the 1st year of Tempyo (729). — Original 

21 1 

Since heaven and earth were parted — 

Never has he ceased from loving, 

Nor has he ceased from grieving. 

Because of the blue waves all hopes are lost. 
Because of the white clouds many tears have been 

Must he thus go on sighing ? 

Must he thus go on longing ? 

Had he a boat, vermilion-stained, 

Had he an oar with a jewelled shaft, 

He would ferry across in the calm of morning, 

Or row over on the swelling tide of evening. 

Then, on the shining beach of the Heavenly River, 
The lovers would spread the celestial scarf 
And he, their beautiful arms interlocked. 

In many a love-tryst, autumn though it be not. 


The wind and the cloud go to and fro 
Between the banks — but no word comes 
From his wife so far away. 

Though it seems a stone’s throw, 

The Heavenly River separates them — 

Nay, help there is none. 

64J-6 Flowers of the autumn moorlands. [viii : 1 5 37-8I 

P’he flowers that blow 
In the autumn fields. 

When I count them on my fingers, 

There they are — 

The flowers of seven kinds. 

They are the bush-clover , 1 

1 i. e. l^espede^a. 


The ‘tail flower/ 1 the flowers 
Of the ku^u 2 3 vine and patrinia,3 
The fringed pink, and the agrimony ,4 
And last the blithe c morning face/5 

647-8 Poems of the fisher-folk of Shika , in the [xvi : 3861] 
province of Chiku^en. 

Jhough, waiting for you to come, 

I put your rice in the bowl 
And stand outside by the gate. 

You come not home, Arao ! 

YOU care naught for the living [xvi : 3865] 

Of your wife and children — 

Though I wait these many years, 

You come not home, Arao ! 

In the era of Jinki 6 7 the Da^aifui appointed Munakatabi 
Tsumaro , a citizen of Munakata District , Chiku^en Province , 
steersman of the ship carrying provisions to the island of 
Tsushima . Tsumaro went to Arao , a fisherman of Shika 
Village , Kasuya District , and said to him : c I have some- 
thing to ask of you? Arao replied : c Though we belong to 

different districts , we have long sailed in the same ship , To 
my heart you are dearer than a brother , and I am prepared 
to share death with you. I will refuse you nothing? Tsu- 
maro said : c The Da^aifu authorities have appointed me 

steersman of the ship carrying provisions to the island of 

1 Obana , otherwise called susuki , i. e. Miscantbus sinensis. See note to No 83. 

2 A broad-leaved creeping vine, with reddish-purple flowers (Puerana Tbunbergiana) 

3 i. e. Vatrima scabiosaefoha y a wild plant, three or four feet in height, with yellow 
flowers in small heads. 

4 A kind of 4 5 hemp agrimony * {gLupatorium japontcum). 

5 Literal translation of asagao , which meant a different flower from what it does 
to-day, viz. f morning glory/ 

6 i. e. 724-9. 

7 The government which administered Kyushu and the two islands of Tsushima 
and Iki. 


Tsushima. But I am too old and weak to go to sea. 
Therefore, I have come to you. Will you take my place?’ 
Arao consented, and went to his work. Setting out from the 
headland of Mimirakup Matsura District, Hitmen Province, 
he sailed for Tsushima. Then, suddenly the sky grew dark, 
and a violent storm broke out, attended with rain. Under 
the stress of weather, Arao went down with his ship. His 
wife and children, lamenting and longing for him, composed 
these poems. It is also said that Yamanoe Okura, then 
Governor of Chikiqen Province, who was touched by the 
plight of the wife and children, composed these poems in order 
to express their sentiments. 

Takahashi Mushimaro 

649-jo To Fufwara Umakai on his departure as [vi : 971-2] 
Inspector-General of Saikaido. 

p^x this time of the year when the white-clouded 
Tatsuta Hill 

Begins slowly to crimson with dew and frost, 

You cross it to go on a journey. 

Over five hundred hills you will tramp your way 
Till you reach the land of Tsukushi 
Where men guard the shore against the alien foes. 
There, despatching your subordinates for inspection 
To the extremities of hill and plain, 

You will survey the land’s defences everywhere. 
Even in that far place whence Echo makes reply 
And at the remotest nook whither creeps the toad. 2 

But with the approach of springtime, 

Come back swiftly like a bird on the wing ! 

Yes, when the red azaleas glow by the wayside 
Amid the knolls along the Tatsuta road, 

1 Sometimes regarded as a scribal error for Miner ah*. 

2 See note to No. 6n. 


And when the cherry-trees are in bloom, 

I will come to meet you — to greet you on your 


I believe you to be, my lord, 

A man who without lifting up words 

Will conquer an enemy 

Even ten thousand strong, and then return. 

From the ‘ Mushimaro Collection ’ 

6} 1-3 Mount Fuji. [111:319-21] 

! There towers the lofty peak of Fuji 
From between Kai and wave-washed Suruga. 
The clouds of heaven dare not cross it, 

Nor the birds of the air soar above it. 

The snows quench the burning fires. 

The fires consume the falling snow. 

It baffles the tongue, it cannot be named. 

It is a god mysterious. 

The lake called Se 1 is embosomed in it. 

The river we cross, the Fuji , 2 is its torrent. 

In the Land of Yamato, the Land of the Rising Sun, 
It is our treasure, our tutelary god. 

It never tires our eyes to look up 
To the lofty peak of Fuji ! 


The snows that crown the peak of Fuji 
Melt on the mid-June day. 

And that night it snows again. 

1 Lake Se was divided by a subsequent eruption into Lake Shop and Lake Sei-ko. 

2 The Fuji is one of the three most rapid rivers in Japan. 

So lofty and awful is the peak of Fuji, 
The clouds of heaven dare not cross it. 
But linger trailing near ! 

6; 4-j Of the Maiden Tamana at Sue 1 of the l- T x : 1738-9] 

province of Kapusa. 

'J’here lived a maiden Tamana 
At Sue that bordered on Awa. 

Broad of breast was she. 

Her waist slender like a wasp’s, 

And radiant her face. 

When she stood smiling like a flower, 

Wayfarers, breaking their journey. 

Turned to her door, unbeckoned. 

A neighbour, abandoning his wife, 

Unasked, offered his precious keys to her. 

Thus charmed were all men ; 

And lithely she leaned upon them 
With wanton airs and graces. 


When a man stood by her door, 

Out she went and met him 
Forgetting all, 

Though in the dead of night. 

6 }6~7 Urashima of Mi^unoe [ix : 1 740-1] 

\yHEN, in spring, the sun is misted. 

And going out on Suminoe’s shore 2 
I see rocking fisher-boats, 

They remind me of the things 

1 Now Kimitsu District in Chiba Prefecture. 

* In Yosa District, Tango Province. 


That happened long ago. 

Urashima of Mizunoe 
Went a-fishing to the sea; 

Proud of his plentiful catch 
Of sea-bream and bonito, 

He did not come back home 
Though seven days came and went ; 

But beyond the bounds of sea 
He rowed out his little boat ; 

Then it happened that he met 
The Sea God’s daughter. 

They talked, agreed, pledged love. 

And hand in hand they reached 
The Land Everlasting. 

There in the Sea God’s palace. 

In its sweet and inmost chamber. 

They might have lived, both he and she. 
Never growing old, nor dying. 

Until the end of time. 

How foolish of this worldly man : 

He said to his beloved : 

* Let me go home for a while 

And take word to my father and mother ; 

Then, again, as soon as it is morrow, 

I shall come back to you.’ 

‘ If you will come again 
To this Land of Happiness, 

And meet me just as now. 

Take this casket, but keep it closed.’ 

She said to him over and over. 

Arriving at the shore of Suminoe 
He sought his home, but could find none. 

He sought his hamlet, which he could not see. 
In wild wonderment he thought : 

< In three years since I left. 


How could my home be lost, 

No trace of fence remaining ? 

If I open this casket,’ he said, 

‘ My old house may appear to me.’ 
Thereupon he opened it a little. 

A white cloud rose out of the casket. 

And drifted towards the Land Everlasting. 

He ran, shouted, waved his sleeves ; 

He stamped and writhed upon the ground. 
Then swooned upon the beach. 

Wrinkles furrowed his youthful skin, 

His black hair turned white. 

His breath grew fainter and fainter. 

At last he died. 

That Urashima of Mizunoe, 

I see the site of his abode. 


When he mignt have lived for ever 
In the Land Everlasting, 

How foolish of that man. 

Though of his own choice ! 

6j8-p Of a maiden walking alone on the great [ix : 1742-5) 
bridge of Kaivaehi. 

A maiden walks alone 

On the great vermilion bridge 
Across the Katashiwa. 1 

She trails her crimson skirt. 

Her cloak is dyed blue 

With the herbs of the mountain. 2 

T A river flowing through the present village of Katashita, and joining the 
River Yamato in Naka-Kawachi District in Osaka Prefecture. 

2 Yama-ai , i. e. * mountain indigo-plant * (Mer curia /is kiocarpd). The dye was 
obtained by boiling its leaves. 


Has she a husband young as green grass ? 
Does she sleep single like an acorn ? 

1 would ask her ; 

But, oh, not to know her bower ! 


Were my dwelling by the bridge, 

I would give her shelter. 

So wistful she looks, going alone ! 

660-1 Composed 1 when the courtiers started on a [ix: 1747-8] 
journey down to Naniwa, in spring, in 
the third month. 1 

QN the peak of Ogura above the rapids 3 
In the mountains of Tatsuta 
Soaring in white clouds. 

The cherry-trees are in full bloom. 

Every branch bending with loaded blossoms. 

But the wind is ceaseless as the peak is lofty. 

And day after day falls the spring rain ; 

The flowers have scattered from the upper sprays. 

May the blossoms on the lower branches 
Neither fall nor lose their beauty, 

Till you, who journey, grass for pillow, 

Come home again! 


Seven days will end our journey ; 

O Tatsuta, God of the Wind, 4 
Never scatter the blossoms 
Before thy breath! 

' By Takahashi Mushimaro. 

2 Perhaps toward the end of the Jinki era. 

3 The rapids are said to have been the Kame-m-se (the ‘ Tortoise Rapids ’). 

4 The god enshrined in the mountains of Tatsuta. 


662-j Composed when Lord Otomo, 1 the revenue- [ix : 175 3 -4I 
officer , 2 climbed Mount Tsukuba. 

j^s you, honoured Lord, travelled all the way, 
Wishing to see the twin-peaked Tsukuba 
In the land of Hitachi, 

I have brought you to the summit to enjoy the view, 
Climbing, out of breath, by the roots of trees. 

And wiping away beads of sweat in the scorching 

The god allows us and the goddess gives us favour, 
They uncover the peaks of Tsukuba in the sun. 
Which were veiled with timeless clouds and rain ; 
And bare the beauteous land clear to view, 

Which lay dim, obscure. 

And in our joy and gratitude. 

Unbinding the ribands of our clothes 
We sported ourselves as freely as at home. 

Though the peaks are rank with summer weeds, 
How much more delightful it is to see them to-day 
Than in genial spring. 


To-day, has any day surpassed it ? 

Even that day when the ancients climbed 
The peaks of Tsukuba ! 

664- j On a cuckoo. fix : 1755-6] 

Q cuckoo, you were born 

Among the eggs of the uguisu. 

You do not sing like your father, 

Nor do you cry like your mother. 

1 Presumably Otomo Tabito. 

2 An official whose duty it was to inspect the financial affairs of the provincial 


About the fields where the unohana 1 bloom 
You fly, uttering your high shrill notes 
And scattering the orange-flowers. 

You cry the livelong day, 

But your voice is ever sweet to hear. 

O bird, I will offer you a gift ; 

Go not far, but dwell near my house, 
Among the orange-flowers. 


At night when, darkening the sky. 

The rain falls, 

A cuckoo goes crying. 

Ah ! that bird ! 

666-y On climbmg Mount Tsukuba. fix • 1757-8] 

qlimbing the peaks of Tsukuba 

Perchance to ease my heart, sorrow-laden 
With travelling, grass for pillow, 

I see the wild ducks are come, 

Chillily calling in the fields of Shizuku 2 
Where the * tail flowers ’ fall, 

And the land of Toba? in Niiharft 
Is rippled white in the autumn wind. 

And the splendid view from the peaks of Tsukuba 
Relieves me of the heavy gloom 
Gathered on many a weary day. 


As a gift for the comely maiden 
Reaping in the autumn field, 

1 Sec note to No. 451. 

1 Lies east of the mountain, m Nnban District, 
i Situated west of the mountain, in Makabe District. 

a An old district comprising the present districts of Makabe and Nishi-Ibaraki. 


Far down the Tsukuba Mountain, 

Oh, I will break off a spray of tinted leaves. 

668-$ Climbing Mount Tsukuba on the [ix: 1759-60] 

day of kagai.' 1 

qn Mount Tsukuba where eagles dwell. 

By the founts of Mohakitsu, 

Maidens and men, in troops assembling. 

Hold a kagai, vying in poetry ; 

I will seek company with others’ wives, 

Let others woo my own ; 

The gods that dominate this mountain 
Have allowed such freedom since of old ; 

This day regard us not 
With reproachful eyes, 

Nor say a word of blame. 


Though clouds upon the Male Peak rise 
And autumn showers drench me through, 

How can I leave it ! 

670-1 On parting from Cord Otomo z on the bridge [ix : 1 780-1] 

at Karunifi in Kasbima District. 

the headland of Kashima 
Opposite Cape Miyake, 

Your vermilion boat 4 is ready 
With all its jewelled oars, 

And when, at evening flood-tide, 

1 A colloquialism for uta-gafa which was a popular festival in rhe eastern prov- 
inces, during the course of which men and women danced together, singing amorous 

1 i, e. Otomo Tablto. 

J Located near the present railway station at Hikawa. 

4 See note to No. 187. 


You embark with all your rowers, 
Cheering, heartening them. 

We whom you leave behind 
Will crowd side by side on the shore, 
Grieved at your going, stamping our feet, 
Crying aloud, contorted with sorrow, 

As your boat leaves us 
For that harbour of Unakami. 


It were wiser, my lord, if you crossed it 
When the seas calm down ; 

Never set sail on these rising waters ! 

672-} Of the Maiden of Mama of Katsushika, [ix : 1 807-8 J 

jn the cock-crowing land of Azuma 
— As men have handed down to us 
The tale of long ago — 

It was a maiden Tekona 

Who lived at Mama of Katsushika. 

She wore blue-collared hemp, 

And skirt of plain hemp-cloth that she wove ; 

She walked unshod, her hair uncombed. 

And yet no high-born damsel dressed in rich brocade 
Compared with this country girl. 

When she stood smiling like a flower, 

Her face like the full moon. 

Many were the suitors seeking her, 

As summer moths the fire, 

As ships in haste the harbour. 

Why did she wish to die 
When life is but a breath ? 

She laid herself in her grave, 

The river-mouth, under the noisy surf. 

This is of the days long past, 


Yet it seems that I had gazed 
Upon her yesterday. 


When 1 see the well at Mama of Katsushika, 

It reminds me of Tekona 

Who stood here oft, drawing water. 

674- 6 On seeing the tomb of the Maiden Unai. fix • 1 809-1 1] 

'j'HE Maiden Unai of Ashinoya, 1 
From her half-grown eighth year, 

Until her loose-hung hair was done up, 

Dwelt in safe seclusion, 

Unseen by neighbouring folk. 

Then many wooers gathered round. 

Eager to see this lovely girl ; 

But two among them, Chinu and Unai, 

Vied with each other for her smile. 

They met, grasping their sword-hilts, 

And with their quivers and bows of spindle-wood 
Slung from their shoulders ; 

Each swearing in hot rivalry 
To plunge through flood and fire. 

Helpless, she sought her mother : 

‘ When I see their deadly strife 
Because of simple me, 

How can I live to marry him I love ? 

I will wait in Yomi, the Nether World.’ 

So telling of her secret love for one 
She killed herself in grief. 

Chinu dreamed of it that night 
And followed her in death. 

1 Now known as Ashiya ; east of Kobe 


Gallant Unai, left behind, 

Cried in grief, looking up to heaven. 
Ground his teeth and wept upon the earth ; 
Then bravely followed her with his sword, 

‘ Never shall he defeat me ! ’ 

Their kinsfolk gathered in counsel. 

And built the maiden’s grave, 

A tomb on this side and on that 
For each hot youth ; 

As a token of their love for ever. 

And a remembrance till the end of time. 
Their history thus learned, 

And though it happened long ago, 

Moved me to tears 

As if but now they had died. 


Whenever, passing through Ashinoya, 

I see the Maiden Unai’s tomb, 

I weep and weep aloud. 

The branches of the tree bend to one side 
On the maiden’s tomb ; 

It may be that her heart, some say. 

Leaned to young Chinu so. 

Owari — 

6yy ^yHEN the hills of spring [vm : 1421] 

Are overladen with cherry-blossoms, 

It is well to see 

Young girls in their white sashes 
Gathering spring herbs. 


Kamo Taruhito 

67 8 -So Mount Kagu. 1 [ 111 : 257 - 9 ] 

spring has come when the mist trails 
On the heaven-descended hill of Kagu , 2 
The lake? is rippled by the breezes through the 

And cherry-flowers fill the leafy boughs. 

The mallards call to their mates 
Far off on the water. 

And the teal cry and whirr 
About the beach. 

But the pleasure-barges, which of old 
The courtiers retiring from the palace rowed, 

Now lie desolate. 

Oarless, poleless, and unmanned ! 


It is plain that no one comes boating : 

The diving mandarin-ducks and teal 
Dwell upon the barges. 

How time-worn all has grown, unnoticed ! 

On the hill of Kagu the moss lies green 
At the ancient roots 
Of the speary cryptomerias. 

1 It is supposed that these poems were composed on viewing the desolation lying 
about the hill > on which once stood the palace of the then deceased Prince of Takechi, 
The Prince, son of the Emperor Temmu, was proclaimed Crown Prince to the 
Empress Jito, but died in the ioth year of the Empress’s reign (696) 

* See note to No. 2. 

i 1 e the lake of Haniyasu, which was at the foot of the hill. 


Sena Gyomon 

On dishonest persons. [xvi : 3836] 

jn the hills of Nara 

There grows the child’s-hand cvpress' 

With leaves double-faced. 

On either side of me I see 
A swarm of rascals. 2 

Tsuki — 

682-6 An elegy on seeing a dead man on the [xtti: 3339-43] 
shore of Kamishima, in the province 
of Bingo. 

^fter his weary travels 

Through the plains and mountains. 

Across the flooding rivers. 

To the wide-spread sea. 

And at the ferry ruled by the fearful god. 

Where no soft breeze blows 
Nor gentle surges break. 

On this shore washed by the ceaseless waves, 

The lofty mountain as his screen, 

The deep bay as his pillow. 

In death he lies. 

Perchance he was his parents’ love, 

He may have had a wife tender as a blade of grass. 
Ask his home, he cannot tell you where. 

Ask his name, that too he cannot tell. 

1 Konote-gashiwa : probably a different tree from that now known by the same 

2 The poem permits another construction according to which the last two lines 
may be rendered to read : 

* Double-faced rascals I see everywhere 
No matter which way I turn.* 


Whose word did he fondly follow 
That he dared this perilous voyage. 
These raging seas ? 


His parents, wife and children, 

Wait for him on tiptoe. 

This ill-fated man ! 

In spite of his dear ones’ longing, 
He is pillowed on the beach. 

On the rugged rocks ! 

While he lies by the deep sea. 

Poor wife, she looks for his return, 
‘To-day, surely to-day.’ 

On the shore washed by the surges. 
In misery he lies ; 

But I know not his homeward way ! 

From the ‘Tanabe Sakimaro Collection’ 

687-9 Lament for the decay of the old City [vi : 1047-9] 

of Nara. 

'J’he Land of Yamato over which reigns 
Our great Lord and Sovereign in peace. 

Being a land governed by the Imperial House 
Since the time of the first God-Emperor, 

This Imperial City of Nara was here founded. 

That hence the heirs born to the Throne 
Might rule the under-heaven in endless succession 
Down through the myriads of ages. 

Here in spring when the shimmering kagerd 1 rises, 

1 See note to No. 109. 


The cherry-bloom blazes forth in the tree-shade 
While the kao-dori 1 sings without ceasing 
In the Mikasa fields near the hill of Kasuga. 
When autumn comes with its dew and frost, 

On the Beacon Height of Mount Ikoma 
Many a stag, trampling the hagi 2 bush. 

Calls to his mate with an echoing voice ; 
Alluring are the hills to look upon. 

And pleasant the homes to live in. 

The courtiers of eighty clans 
Having built their mansions in rows, 

I thought its Great Palace would flourish 
As long as heaven and earth endured — 

O Nara, city of my abiding trust 5 
But because the times are new. 

All have gone — led by their Sovereign — 

Even as the spring flowers fade and go. 

Or as the birds fly away with daybreak. 

On its wide streets where once proudly trod 
The lords and ladies of the Great Palace, 

No horses pass ; nor men. 

What desolation — alas ! 


Now that with the change of times 
Nara is become 
An Imperial City that was, 

The grass grows rank in the streets. 

Since Nara, the Imperial City, 

So long familiar to me. 

Is now falling to decay. 

Whenever I go outdoors. 

Bitterer grows my grief. 

A bird, not identified. 

i e. Lespede^a, elsewhere rendered * bush-clover.’ 


In praise of Kuni, the new capital. [vi : 1050-2] 

jn O-Yashima, the dominion under heaven 
Of our Sovereign, a god in living flesh, 

Many are the provinces. 

And unnumbered the dwelling-places of men. 

But as a province of well-ranged mountains. 

And a happy place where the rivers meet. 

Here in the Kase Mountains of Yamashiro 
Has he planted stout pillars and raised 
The Futagi Palace, whence he rules the land. 

The rivers being near, 

Clear comes the sound of the running waters ; 

The mountains rising close by, 

The clamorous voices of birds are heard. 

When the autumn comes. 

The stags call loudly to their mates. 

Their voices echoing through the mountains. 

When the spring comes. 

Thick over hill-sides and amid rocks 
The flowers bloom bending the sprays. 

O happy fields of Futagi ! 

O noble palace site ! 

Well did our Sovereign, learning this. 

Here establish after his august desire. 

The great imperial abode. 


It must surely be for the unsullied loveliness 
Of the Futagi fields on Mika’s plain, 

That here was established the imperial abode. 

Lofty are the mountains. 

And clear run the river waters. 

Hallowed ever shall remain 

The imperial abode for a hundred ages. 


<> 95-8 Q Futagi Palace where is enthroned (vi : 1053-8) 

Our Lord and Sovereign, the Divine One ! 

Here the mountains are covered deep with countless 

And clear- voiced are the tumbling river waters. 

In the spring when the warblers come to sing. 

The shady mountain slopes glow 
With a profusion of flowers that bloom 
Like brocade amid the rocks ; 

In the autumn when the stags call to their mates, 

The encrimsoned leaves fall 

With the passing showers that darken the sky. 

As will the Sovereigns born in succession 
Rule hence the under-heaven for thousands of years. 
So shall remain the great imperial abode 
Immutable for all ages. 


Should the waters of the Izumi River 
Ever cease to flow, 

Then the great imperial abode — 

Then only — might suffer change. 

When I see how pleasingly ranged 
Are the Futagi Mountains, 

I know this is an imperial abode 
That will not change with ages. 

The mountain land of Kase — 

The c reel ’ on which the maidens 
Wind the hempen yarn they spin — 

Is become, as time passes, 

An Imperial City ! 

Because in the Kase Mountains 
The trees stand thick. 


Every morning the voice is heard 
Of the warblers thronging there 
In song. 

The cuckoo singing yonder 
In the mountain of Koma 
Will not come here. 

Because far is the passage 
Across the Izumi River. 

-701 Composed at the Palace of Namiva. [vr : 1062-4] 

'J’he Palace of Naniwa, whither often comes 
Our Lord and Sovereign ruling in peace, 

Stands by the whale-haunted sea — 

And so near the beach where men gather shells, 
That there is heard the clamour of the waves 
Chafing at the morning breeze. 

And the plash of oars in the evening calm. 

When I listen waking from sleep at dawn — 

Hark ! with the ebbing of the ocean tide 
The plovers are calling to their mates 
On the sand bank, while amid the reeds 
Re-echo the voices of cranes. 

Whoever sees it will praise. 

Whoever hears of it will yearn to see — 

This Palace of Ajifu I never tire to look on. 


The Palace of Naniwa, whither often comes 
Our Sovereign, stands so near the ocean, 

I see the little boats 
In which the fisher-maids ride. 

As the tide ebbs. 

The voice of the cranes 

Calling to their mates amid the reeds 
Re-echoes through the Palace. 

jo 2- 4 On passing the bay of Minume. [vi : 1065-7] 

o Minume Bay, chosen by all Yashima’s shipmen 
Since the age of the God of Eight Thousand 
Spears 1 

As the haven for mooring their countless ships. 
Here the shore waves clamour in the morning wind. 
And the ocean weeds drift in on the evening waves 
O clean beach of white sand ! 

Unwearied I watch it, walking back and forth. 

Well has it been commended by ever}' visitor 
To be widely admired. 

And admired will it be ages after — 

This clean white beach ! 


O Minume Bay, reminding one 
Of a shining mirror 1 
Never will the countless ships 
Pass, unheeding, by its shore. 

Clean is the shore, and beautiful the bay. 

So has it been since the age of the gods 
A calling-place for a thousand ships — 

This beach of Owada. 

joj On seeing a dead man when crossing the pass [ix : 1800] 
of Asbigara. 2 - 

jje lies unloosened of his white clothes, 

Perhaps of his wife’s weaving 

1 Y achihoko-ao-Kami (Okuninushi-no-Kami) . 

* A mountain-pass between Sagami and Suruga Provinces. 


From hemp within her garden-fence. 
And girdled threefold round 
Instead of once. 

Perhaps after painful service done 
He turned his footsteps home, 

To see his parents and his wife; 

And now, on this steep and sacred pass 
In the eastern land of Azuma, 

Chilled in his spare, thin clothes. 

His black hair fallen loose — 

Telling none his province. 

Telling none his home. 

Here on his journey he lies dead. 

706-8 On passing the tomb of the Maiden [rx : 1801-3] 

of Ashinoya .* 

J stand and gaze at the tomb 
Of the Maiden Unai of Ashinoya, 

For whom two valiant youths 
Strove with each other long ago ; 

It stands by the roadside, built of rocks. 

To leave a tale for many an age to come. 

And every traveller upon this road, 

Even from lands remote as clouds of heaven. 

Pauses by the grave, 

Some grieving, others weeping loud ; 

And as I see this maiden’s tomb 

Of which the people tell from mouth to mouth 

And with sighs from heart to heart. 

Grief breaks me down, 

Thinking of the piteous tale of old. 

1 See Nos. 674-6. 



She was wooed by gallant Shinuda 1 
In those far days. 

The Maiden Unai, and this is her tomb. 

This maiden, how lovely even in the tale ! 
They saw her with their living eyes. 
Those young men. 

709-11 An elegy on a younger brother’s death, [rx : 1804-6J 

M Y beloved brother, born of my own parents, 

A life fleeting as the morning dew. 

Helpless before the gods. 

And shelterless. 

In this Rice-abounding Land of Reed Plains — 
Never will he homeward turn his face again. 

He departed, as vines do part. 

Led by his spirit. 

Far from us as the clouds of heaven. 

To Yom, region of the dead. 

Bewildered as in the darkest night. 

With heart-ache like the arrow-stricken deer, . 
Disturbed like the reed-fence in the wind. 

Crying loud like birds in spring. 

With my heart burning day and night, 

I sorrow over him ! 


Parted though we are. 

If ever I could hope again to meet him, 
I should not thus wildly grieve. 

Watching the mourners leave him 
In the rugged hills. 

1 Another name of Chinu. 

2 55 

My heart is wrung again. 

Wakamiya Ayumaro 

712 On the fairy mountain-mulberry branch. [ni : 387] 

J.JAD not there been the man 
Who set the fish-weir of old, 

Here it would still remain. 

That mountain-mulberry branch. 1 * * 4 

Kon Myogun 

70 At the death of Lord Otomo, z Grand Councillor lm : 45 5 ] 
of State, in the seventh month of the third 
year of Tempyo 

■yyHEN so little of his life remained. 

He asked, ‘ Are the bush-clovers 
Yet in flower? ’ — Alas, my master ! 


When some girls presented Tsukan, a priest, with a packet 
of dried abalone, and, for amusement, asked him to perform 
incantations, he responded with this poem. 

7 J 4 £ven if you bore them to the deepest sea [in : 327] 
And cast them into the water. 

How could these come to life again ? 

1 According to legend, a man called Umashme, in Yoshino, built a fish- weir to 

the River Yoshino, and caught a spray of a * mountain-mulberry tree * ( Morui 
bombycis). He brought it home, when it turned into a beautiful girl. They became 

man and wife. 

4 1. e. Otomo Tabito 



7U On quilted silk. [in : 356] 

'J’he quilted silk from Tsukushi, 

The land of unknown fires , 1 
Although I have not worn it, 

Looks comfortable and warm. 

716 'j'o what shall I liken this life ? [in : 35 J ] 

It is like a boat, 

Which, unmoored at morn, 

Drops out of sight 

And leaves no trace behind. 

A Monk of the Gango-ji Temple 

717 A poem of self-lamentation. [vi : 1018] 

white gem unknown of men — 

Be it so if no one knows ! 

Since I myself know its worth 
Although no other — 

Be it so if no one knows ! 

The Monk of the Gango-ji temple , having attained en- 
lightenment , was possessed of much wisdom, hut the world 
knew little of him and treated him with contempt. So he 
composed the above poem bewailing the ignorance concerning 
his talent. 

1 See note to No. 524. 


Kojima, a Young Woman of Tsukushi 

718 To a traveller. [m : 381] 

gE not hasty. 

However much you long for home ; 

Go, watching well the winds, 

For rough is your way. 

Oyakeme, a Young Woman of Buzen 

719 JN the twilight darkness [iv : 709] 

Indistinguishable is the road. 

Wait till the moon-rise, and go. 

That I may see you, my dearest, 

Even for that while ! 

Ato Tobira, a Young Woman 

720 qnce — only once, [iv:7io] 

I saw him in the light 
Of the sky-wandering moon ; 

Now I see him in my dreams. 

Taniha Ome, a Young Woman 

721 jjere where the wild ducks [iv : 71 1] 

Sport in the pond, 

The leaves fall from the trees 
And float — but no floating heart 
Have I who love you true. 


A Young Woman of Hitachi 

722 To Fuji war a Umakai 1 when he left the province [iv : 5 a. i] 

for the capital upon his transfer to a new post . 

poRGET not, I pray, your Eastland girl 
Who will be thinking of you always, 

As she cuts the hemp-stalks standing in the yard 
And spreads them out to dry. 

A Young Woman of Harima 

72} To the steward Ishikawa 2 when he left for [tx : 1777J 
his new post in the capital. 

■yyHEN you are away, wherefore should I adorn 
myself ? 

Never shall I think of taking even the boxwood 

Out of my toilet-case ! 

724-7 Composed on the occasion of an imperial [ni : 287-8] 
visit* to Shiga. 

that I am here, 

I wonder where is my home : 

We have come over the ranging mountains 
Wreathed with white trailing clouds 1 

— By Lord IsonokamiA 

1 Son of Fujiwara Fubito. He was appointed Inspector-General of the three 
provinces of Awa, Kazusa and Shimosa in 719. 

* i. e. Ishikawa Kimiko. 

j Probably refers to the visit of the Empress Gensho in the 1st year of Yoro (717). 
4 - Isonokami Otomaro. 

Should 1 be favoured with a happy lease of life, 
Ag ain I will see the breaking waves 
White on the shore of Otsu in Shiga. 

— By Ho^umi Oyu. 1 

726-9 Composed at a snow-viewing court banquet. 

In the first month of the eighteenth year of Tempyo (746) 
snow fell some inches deep.' 2 * 4 - Tachibana Moroe' , Minister 
of the heft, went, together with princes and courtiers, to the 
Palace of the ex-Empressp and swept it aivay. The ex- 
Empress called the party into the Palace, gave a feast, 
awarded sake, and ordered each to compose a poem. 

'J'Ill my hair is white 4 like the falling [xvn : 3922] 

1 enjoy our Sovereign’s grace ; 

My heart overflows with gratitude ! 

— By Tachibana Moroe. 

■yyHiLE I behold the brightness of the [xvn : 3923] 
fallen snow 

That has covered all under heaven. 

Veneration fills my heart ! — By Ki Kiyohito. 

qn this New Year’s Day, [xvn : 3925] 

The beginning of the year, 

It promises a fruitful autumn. 

This snow that lies so deep. — By Fujii Aloroai. 

1 Hozumi Oyu served at court in the two reigns of the Empress Gensho and the 
Emperor Shomu. He was exiled to the Isle of Sado for some offence in the 6th yeai 
of Yoto (722) in the reign of the Empress Gensho, and was called back to court 
under the Amnesty, proclaimed in the 1 2th year of Tempyo (740) in the reign of 
the Emperor Shomu. This poem was perhaps made on the way to Sado. 

2 At Nara, the then capital, little snow fell and very seldom lay many inches 

5 i. e. the Empress Gensho. 

4 Moro6 was then fifty-eight years of age. Thirty-five years had passed since 
his promotion to the Junior Grade of the Fifth Rank. 


'J'he white snow which lies so deep [xvn : 3926I 
that it glistens 

Within and without the palace-court 
Never wearies my eyes ! — By Otomo Yakamochi. 

730-1 Poems composed in obedience to the imperial [xix : 4273-4] 
order at the banquet after the Harvest 
Festival, 1 on the twenty-fifth of the eleventh 
month of the fourth year of Tempyo- 
Shoho (732). 

jn building the great sanctuary 2 
That she may flourish long 
As last heaven and earth, 

Awe and gladness fill my heart. 

— By Kose Natemaro. 

J.J4GH in the sanctuary 

Five hundred ropes are stretched out ; 

That her reign may last for a myriad ages. 

Five hundred ropes are stretched out. 

— By Isbikawa Toshitari. 

732-7 Poems composed at the plum-blossom viewing banquet 
which was held at the residence of Otomo Tabito , 
Governor- General of the Dacyiifu, in the first 
month in the second year of Tempyo (730). 

"YyHEN with the first month comes the |v : 815] 

Thus breaking sprays of plum-blossoms. 

We’ll taste pleasure to the full. 

— By Ki, the secretary. 

1 Fhe Harvest Festival is a ceremony held at court every autumn, at which new 
rice is offered to the gods. It is followed by a banquet at the Palace. 

1 A new sanctuary was built every year in w T hich to worship the gods. 


]N my garden fall the plum-blossoms — [v : 822] 

Are they indeed snow-flakes 
Whirling from the sky ? — By the host. 

Y^hen the plum-blossoms are gone, [v : 829] 

Are not the cherry-flowers 
Ready to bloom in their place ? 

— By Sakiko , the physician. 

'J'he prime of my life has far declined ; [v : 847] 
Even if I drank an elixir 
To wing me to the clouds. 

How could I regain my youth ? — By the host. 

jf I could see the capital, [v : 848] 

Rather than drink an elixir 
To wing me to the clouds, 

Youth would bud in me again. 

Humble though I am. — By the host. 

On plum-blossoms (composed later by Tabito) . [v : 8 5 2] 

jn my dream said a plum-blossom : 

A gallant flower I count myself. 

Float me in your cup of sake. 

Embassy to Shiragi. 

Poems exchanged between the embassy despatched to Shi- 
ragi and those who were left at home , expressing their sorrow 
at separation , in the eighth year of Tempyo ( 73 6 ), and poems 
on the hardships and solitude of the voyage. 

738 ■'^‘HEN I am parted from you, my [xv : 3 5 78] 


Who fold me as with wings. 

As a water-bird its chick on Muko Bay, 1 
On the sand-bar of the inlet — 

0 I shall die of yearning after you. 

759 Qould my great ship take you in, [xv: 3579] 

I would keep you, beloved. 

Folding you as with wings ! 

74 ° \yHEN mist rises on the seashore [xv =35801 

Where you put in, 

Consider it the breathing 
Of my sighs at home. 

741 -yyHEN autumn comes we shall meet [xv: 3581] 

again ; 

Then how should you raise such sighs 
That they would mist the shore ! 

742 ■yyEAR yourself not out [xv : 3586] 

With yearning after me, 

In the month when the autumn wind blows 
We shall meet again. 

745 pOR you, who journey to Shiragi, [xv : 3587] 

I will, in purification, 2 wait, 

Longing to see your eyes again, 

To-day or to-morrow. 

7 44 pjnaware that the ships must wait [xv : 3 5 94] 

For high tide, 

1 have parted, to my grief, 

From my love so soon. 

1 Muko was a general name for Kobe and vicinity. 

2 When any one of the family was on a journey, those left at home lived in puri- 
fication, worshipping the gods. They believed that if anything evil happened at 
home the same would befall the one on his journey. 


7v/ On the evening when they harboured at the [xv : 3613] 
shore of Nagai, in Mi^uki District , 

Bingo Province. 

^lthough across the plains of the sea I came, 
Passing through eighty islands, 

Not once has the Citv of Nara 


Left my heart. 

746 On the evening when they stopped at the [xv : 3615] 
shore of Ka^ahaya. 1 

M Y love must sigh after me — 

Far off from the shore of Kazahaya 
A mist is trailing. 

747-X On looking up at the moon when embarking [xv 13623-4] 
from the shore of Nagato. 2 - 

j$^s the moon sinks on the mountain-edge 
The fishermen’s lights flicker 
Far out on the dark wide sea. 

When we think that we alone 
Are steering our ships at midnight. 

We hear the splash of oars 
Far beyond us. 

749 — J 1 Referring to various things. [xv : 3627-9] 

jjrom Mitsu, dearest shore to me, 

As to my wife her mirror in the morning, 

We started at the flood-tide 

1 In the province of Akh 

1 Also in Aki. 


In our stately full-oared ships 
For the Land of Kara, 

Steering straight ahead to Minume 
Piloted through the waves. 

But the sea ran high with white surges 
And we coasted shore after shore ; 

As evening drew on, clouds arose 
And veiled the island of Awaji, 

That made me long to see my love. 

At dead of night, with our bearings lost. 

We harboured in the bay of Akashi 
And passed the night upon the water ; 

When far out at sea we saw 
Fisher-maids row their little boats. 

Floating them side by side. 

As daylight came and the flood-tide reached us, 
Cranes called flying to the reedy coast ; 

To leave the shore with morning calm. 

Both our boatmen and rowers. 

Laboured with loud cheers ; 

And like the grebes we pushed our way 
To see the dim, far isle of ‘ Home.’ 

If the isle was faithful to its name, 

It would relieve our weary hearts ; 

We strained and rowed our stately ships 
To come to port the sooner. 

But the sea rose up between. 

We left the islet far away 
And anchored ship at Tama ; 

Like a crying child we wept 
To see the shore and the beach. 

Here I have gathered for my wife 
The gems that deck the Sea God’s arms 


And put them in my sleeves ; 

But what use are they 
When I have no messenger 
To take them home ? 

So I drop them down again. 


At Tama Bay I have gathered 
The white pearls of the ocean, 

But I drop them down again, 

To no one can I show them. 

When autumn comes 
Our ships will harbour here ; 

Bear and leave shells of forgetfulness , 1 
You, white surges of the ocean. 

7J2 By Tanabe Akiniwa , two nights after they [xv : 3638] 
passed Naruto 2 at Oshima. 

^re these truly the fisher-maids 

Who are said to gather the beautiful weeds 
In the whirling tide of famed Naruto ? 

7/j They encountered a sudden contrary storm and [xv : 3644] 
rough sea off Saba and drifted. On the next day, 
with a favourable wind they reached the shore 
of Wakuma , in Shimotsuke District, Busmen 
Province. Here, reflecting on the hardships, 

Yuki Yakamaro composed a poem. 

ppx our dread Sovereign’s word, 

Whither his royal ships take us, 

* 1. e. wasure-gai ; wasure means 4 forget , 5 and kai means * shell . 5 By reason of its 
name it was believed to make all sorrows forgotten. 

4 The straits where the swift current, forming whirlpools, passes with a resound- 
ing noise. 


There we find our harbour. 

7/4 T he Ashing fires far away (w : 5648] 

On the plain of the sea — 

Oh, make them brighter 

That I may see the Island of Yamato. 

7// Gating on the moon by the seashore. [xv : 3666] 

evening falls the autumn wind is cold ; 

Would that I were at home, wearing the sweet 

My wife unstitched and washed for me ! 

7 ft Three days after they had landed at Karadomari 1 [xv : 3669] 
in Shim a District , Chikn^en Province, they look- 
ed at an unusually beautiful moon, and, moved 
by the scene, each composed a poem on the tedium 
of the journey . This poem, one of six, was 
composed by Mibu Utamaro, the DaihanganS 

although I am on a journey, 

I pass the evening by the blazing fire. 

While my wife at home 
Must long for me in the dark. 

7/7 At the port of Hikitsu.i jxv : 3676] 

o for my couriers. 

Yon heaven-traversing wild-geese, 

1 Derived from Kara (Korea) and tomari (stopping-place) ; so named because the 
port then occupied an important place in the communication between Japan and 

2 i. e. title for an official, third in rank, in the embassy to Shiragi. 

5 An old seaport in the north of Kyushu. 


That I might send my words 
To the City of Nara ! 

j 8 - 6 o On the death of Yuki Yakamaro from a fxv : 3688-90] 
sudden attack of the plague when he 
arrived at the isle of Iki. 

Q you, who were voyaging to the Land of Kara, 
Oar Sovereign’s distant court — 

Since you told her that had suckled you, 
c I shall return when autumn comes/ 

Weary months of time have passed. 

And your housefolk wait and long, 
c He may be home to-day, 

He will surely come to-morrow/ 

But, have your kinsmen failed 
In purifications due ? 

Or have you failed in your duties ? 

Before you reach the distant land. 

And far away from Yamato, 

You lie for ever here 
On this isle of rugged rocks. 


O you, who lie at Iwata Field, 

If your housefolk ask me where you are. 

How shall I answer them ? 

You have parted from us, as if to say, 
c This is the way of the world/ 

While I go upon my voyage 
With vain abiding love for you ! 


7 6 *-} An Elegy composed by Fujii Kooyti . [w : 5691-3I 

Y^HEN you well might have wished to live 
Eternal as heaven and earth. 

You left your long-beloved home. 

To furrow the surging waves. 

And days and months have come and passed. 

As the wild-geese in succession come and cry. 

Your wife and mother leave the door and wait, 
Skirts drenched with the morning dew, 

Garments wet with the evening mist. 

As if you lived and flourished still. 

But now you reck not of the grief 
That wrings a beating heart ; 

And on the field strewn with flowering bush-clovers, 
Under the roofs thatched with early susukij 
You lie for ever in your resting-place, 

Beside the mountain cold with dew and frost. 

In regions far as clouds from home. 


Are you hidden behind the isle. 

You for whom your beloved wife and children 
Patiently on tiptoe wait? 

Poor wretched creatures they. 

Who must wait in vain for you, 

For you who lie upon this mountain 
Where soon the yellow leaves will fall. 

1 A kind of feathery pampas grass. See note to No. 83 . 


Poems by the frontier-guards despatched from various prov- 
inces to Tsukusbi as a relief contingent in the second month 
of the seventh year of Tempyo-Shoho (yjj). 

Presented to the court by the Military Commissioner ,» 
Sakamoto Hitogami, an official of Totdmi Province, 
on the sixth day of the second month. 

764 ■j’he dread imperial command [xx : 4321] 

I have received : from to-morrow 
I will sleep with the grass. 

No wife being by me. 

— By Mononobe Akimochi, Lower Naga District ; z 
a guard from a Kuni-no-miyatsuko 5 family . 

76 J wife thinks of me much, I know ; [xx : 4322] 

Her shadow shows in the water 
Of the well-pool from which I drink — 

For the world I can’t forget her ! 

— By Wakayamatobe Mumaro, Aratama District ;4 
a guard who was a district official. 

766 jgvEN in a strange land I see [xx : 4323] 

The flowers of each season bloom — 

The flowers I have known at home. 

Why is it that there grows 
No flower called ‘ Mother ’ ? 

— By Hasetsukabe Mamaro, Yamana District ;5 
a guard. 

1 An officer appointed for each province to take its new ly enlisted men as far as 
the port of Namwa. 

2 An ancient district, now part of Hamana District, Shizuoka Prefecture 
? A local chief. 

4 An ancient district, now part of Iwata District, Shizuoka Prefecture. 

1 An ancient district, now part of Inasa District, Shizuoka Prefecture. 

7*7 O that my father and my mother were [xx : 4325] 
flowers ! 

Then, even if I must travel, grass for pillow, 

I would take them with me. 

Holding them reverently in my hands. 

— By Hasetsukabe Kuromasa, Say a District . 1 

768 1 wish I had the leisure [xx : 4327] 

To draw a picture of my wife 
That I might look on it and think of her 
As I go on my journey ! 

— By Mononobe Komaro, Dower Naga District. 

Presented to the court by the Military Commissioner 
of Sagamu Province, Fujiwara Sukunamaro , 
the Governor. 

769 1 leave my father and mother behind [xx : 4328] 

In obedience to the imperial command. 

And sail the perilous sea 

Where my ship sweeps against the rocks. 

— By Hasetsukabe Hitomaro, a guard. 

77 ° \yiTH the ships all in trim [xx : 4330] 

At the port of Naniwa, 

To-day is the day I leave — 

Without my mother to see me go. 

— By Mariko Omaro, Kamakura District ; z a guard. 

* An ancient district, now part of Ogasa District, Shizuoka Prefecture. 
2 Now, Kamakura District, Kanagawa Prefecture. 


Presented to the court by the Military Commissioner 
of Suruga Province , Fuse Hitonusbi, on the 
seventh day of the second month. 1 

77 '/ jjow I regret it now — fxx : 4337] 

In the flurry of departure. 

As of the waterfowl taking to flight, 

I came away without speaking a word 
To my father and my mother. 

— By Udobe Ushimaro, a guard. 

772 gE strong like a mansion built fxx : 4342) 

With blessings on its true-wood pillars — 

May the years bring no change, 

0 mother, to your lovely look ! 

— By Sakatabe Obitomaro. 

775 A S for me, I can take fxx : 4343] 

Travels as they come ; 

But my poor wife with the children — 

She must be falling thin with care ! 

— By Tamatsukuribe Hirome. 

774 r J'HOUGH I tried to forget, as I came [xx : 4344J 
Trudging over moors and over mountains, 

1 cannot forget them — 

My father and my mother ! 

— By Akdno Osamaro. 

77 J Never can I forget the words [xx : 4346] 

My father and mother spoke — 

Patting me on the head, and saying : 

* The actual presentation of this group of poems took place on the 9th of the and 
month. — Original Note 


‘ My son, good fortune be with you ! ’ 

— By Plasetsukabe Itiamaro. 

Presented to the coart by the Military Commissioner of 
Ka^usa Province, Mamuta Samimaro, on the ninth day of 
the second month. 

77 <> J^ather than that I should remain at [xx : 4347] 

Longing for you, 

I would be the sword that you wear 
And pray the gods to keep you from harm. 

— By the father of Kusakabe Minaka , a guard. 

777 _^h, must 1 leave you, dear — [xx : 4352] 

You, who clasp me, 

Even as the creeping bean-vine clings 
To the wild rose-bush by the wayside ! 

— By Hasetsukabe Tori , Amaha District ; l a guard. 

778 'yy'ELL do I remember how she wept, [xx:4357] 

Standing in the reed-fence corner — 

That dear girl of mine — 

Her sleeves all wet with tears ! 

— By Osakabe Chikuni , Tchihara District ; z a guard. 

779 y^ hen I started out from home [xx :435 s ] 

In obedience to the imperial command, 

How the girl clung to me 
And moaned her grief 1 

— By Mononobe Tatsu, Sue District ;3 a guard. 

* Now part of Kimitsu District, Chiba Prefecture. 

2 Now part of Ichihara District, Chiba Prefecture. 
5 Now part of Kimitsu District, Chiba Prefecture 


Presented to the court by the Military Commissioner 
of Hitachi Province , Okinaga Kumshima, the 


780 ^ FRONTiER-guard when I set out, [xx : 4364] 

Oh, what turmoil there was ! 

Of the work my wife should do 
I said not a word and came away. 

— Bj Wakatoneribe Hirotari, Ubaraki District 7 

781 yyHAT do 1 care for life or death — [xx : 4370] 

I who have come praying all the way 
To the god of hail-spattering Kashima 1 2 3 4 5 
And joined the imperial host ? 

— By Otoneribe Chifumi, Naga District ;s a guard. 

782 'j’HE steep mountain-road of Ashigara4 [xx : 4372] 

I will travel, the good god granting,; 

And never will turn back homewards ; 

The Pass of Fuwa 6 7 I will cross. 

Where well a reckless man might fear to stand ; 

I will go as far as my horse can take me. 

Even to the uttermost point of Tsukushi 7 — 

There I will stop and thus will pray : 

* May those I love be well till I return ! ’ 

— By Shidoribe Karamaro. 

1 An ancient district, comprising pans of the present districts of Higashi-Ibarahi, 
Nishi-Ibaraki, and Niibari, Ibaraki Prefecture. 

2 i. e. Takemikazuchi-no-kami, who is enshrined at Kashima, and who is a patron 
of warriors. 

3 Identical with the present district of the same name in Ibaraki Prefecture. 

4 On the north side of Hakone. This road, which led from Sagami Province into 
Suruga, was famous for its steepness. 

5 It was the custom for travellers crossing a mountain to pray to its god for safety. 

6 In the western part of Mino Province, and near the border of Omi. 

7 The frontier-guards were garrisoned in the various headlands of Kyushu 


Presented to the court by the Military Commissioner of 
Shimotsuke Province, Tagucbi Oto , on the fourteenth 
day of the second month. 

78 3 j will not from to-day [xx : 4375] 

Turn back toward home — 

I who have set out to serve 
As Her Majesty’s humble shield. 

— By Imamatsuribe Yosoju, a non-commissioned 

officer 7 

784 pRAYiNG to the gods of heaven and [xx : 4374) 


And thrusting hunting arrows in my quiver. 

For the far isle of Tsukushi 
Now I depart — yes, I ! 

— By Otabe Aramrni , a non-commissioned officer. 

787 'j’HOSE pines standing in rows — [xx : 4375 J 

How like to my own people ! 

They stood just so, 

As they came out 
To bid me farewell. 

— By Mononobe Mashima , a non-commissioned officer. 

786 QH, that my dear mother [xx : 4377 ] 

Were a jewel-piece 
That I might place in my hair-knot 1 2 
And always wear above me ! 

— By Tsumori Okurusu. 

1 A non-commissioned officer in command of ten men. 

2 In old times men wore their hair parted in the middle and done up into a knot 
( mt^ura ) on each side of the head. 


[xx : 4383] 

787 Q for a sight once more 

Of my dear mother now — 

When the ships are ready 
By the shore of Tsu-no-Kuni, 1 
And I go forth ! 

— By Hasetsukabe Taruhito , Shioya District ; a guard. 

Presented to the court by the Military Commissioner of 
Shimofusa Province , Inukai KJyohito , on the sixteenth day 
of the second month. 

788 gEFORE me on my track [xx : 4385 J 

Lie the sounding waves of the sea ; 

Behind me, my wife and children — 

All left at home ! 

— By Kisakibe Isoshima , Katsushika District. 

Presented to the court by the Military Commissioner of 
Shinanu Province on the twenty-second day of the 
second month. 

789 p^x Misaka, the Pass of the Gods, 2 * * * [xx : 4402] 

I have made offerings, 

Praying for the safety of my life — 

All for my mother’s and father’s sake. 

— By Kamutobe Kooshio, Hanishina District ;3 a 


1 The province of Settsu of later times, comprising parts of the piesent prefectures 
of Osaka and Hyogo. Naniwa was situated in this province. 

2 The pass leading from Ina District, Shinano Province, to Ena District, Mmo 

Province, was known as * Misaka 7 (Pass of the Gods), because of its exceeding 


? The present Hanishina District, Nagano Prefecture. 


Presented to the court hy the Military Commissioner, 
TLamitsukenu Suruga , a provincial official \ 

79 o j wish there were a man going to mv [xx : 4406] 

By him I would send word and say : 
c Hard is travelling, with grass for pillow/ 

— By Otomobe Fushimaro. 

Presented to the court hy the Military Commissioner 
of Musashi Province , A%umi Mikuni, on the 
twenty-ninth day of the second month . 

791 T he re< ^ P on y cannot be fetched, fxx : 4417J 

Being let loose on the upland plain. 

Must I send my man on foot — alas ! 

Over the hill range of Tama P 1 

— By Ujibe Kurome , wife of a guard , Kurahashibi 
Aramushi , Toy os him a District. 2 3 

79 2 W/hile, sleeping in your clothes, [xx : 44 2 °j 

You travel, grass for pillow. 

Should your sash-string tear off, 

Sew it on yourself, using 
For my hand — see, this needle ! 

— By Kurahashibe Otome , wife of Momnobe Mane , 
Tachibana District ;3 a guard. 

1 The hill-range stretching along the south bank of the Tama River in Musashi. 

2 Now part of Tokyo Prefecture. 

3 The present Tachibana District, Kanagawa Prefecture. 

2 57 

79}-t Poems composed on a trip to the river of Matsura . 1 

Preface . 

Once I wandered for a while in the district of Matsura . 
When I visited the abyss of Tamashima , I happened to meet 
some girls fishing. Their flowery faces and radiant forms 
were beyond compare . Their eye-brows were like tender 
willow leaves , and their cheeks were like peach flowers. 
Their spirits soared above the clouds , and their gracef ulness 
was not of this world . I asked , c Where do you live ? 
What is your father’s name ? Are you , if I may ask , 
fairies ? ’ answered, smiling, c a fisherman’s 

daughters . jBf/jgg of low birth, we live in a grass-thatched 
cottage . II 7 ? neither land nor house of our own . Hw ^ 

w give you our names ? But, by nature we are km with the 
water, and love the mountains. So, at one time, at Lopu 2 
we vainly envy the life of the giant fish ; at another, lying at 
Wuhsia 2 vainly do we look up to the banks of trailing mists. 
Now, by rare chance, we have met with one so noble as you, 
and we are happy to have revealed ourselves. So, will you 
pledge yourself to us for life ? ’ * Yes’ I replied, ‘ gladly 

I will.’ fust then the sun set beyond the western mountains, 
and my horse was impatient to leave. Therefore I expressed 
my feeling in verse. 

gux a fisherman’s daughters [v : 853] 

You say of yourselves, 

Yet your looks reveal 

That you are girls of noble birth. — By Tabito. 

On the Tamashima River, [v : 854] 

Here by its upper stream, stands our home. 

But from bashfulness 

We did not tell you where. — By the girls. 

In the river of Matsura, [v : 855] 

1 The rivet of Matsura flowed into the bay of Karatsu through Matsura District, 
Hizen. It was not the present river of the same name, but the upper reach of the 
river Tamashima. It is also called the Kuri. 

2 Lopu and Wuhsia are places alluded to in Chinese fairy-tales. 


You stand fishing for aytt. 

Brightening up the shallows ; 

Your skirts are drenched . — By Tab/ to. 

When spring comes round, [v : 859] 

Through the ford near our home, 

The little ayu will shoot, 

Impatient for you . — By the girls. 


797-8 On the occasion of the transfer 1 of the court [1 : 79-80] 
from Tujhvara to Nara. 

qbedient to our mighty Sovereign’s w r ord, 

I left my long-loved home, 

And paddled my boat down the Hatsuse, 2 
Many times looking back toward my home, 

At each of the eighty windings of the river ; 

And benighted on the stream I reached 
The River Saho 3 flowing through Nara ; 

There from my couch I could see. 

Clearly in the bright moonlight of dawn, . 

The night-frost lying like a sheet of linen 
And the river bound with ice as if with rocks. 

Often on such a freezing night, loyal to my duties, 

I paddled down to build the mansion, 

Where I hope my lord will live 
For a thousand ages. 

And that I too may journey here for as long. 

1 The capital was transferred to Nara by the Empress Gemmyo in the 3rd year 
of Wado (710). 

2 The Hatsuse runs near the town of Hatsuse and at the foot of Mount Miwa, 
and, flowing to the north, pours into the Saho. 

* Runs from north to west of the present city of Nara, and through the old 
capital of Nara, and, joining the Hatsuse, it thus forms the River Yamato. 


I shall come to the mansion of Nara 
For a myriad ages ; 

Think not I shall forget ! 

799 An elegy on seeing the dead body of a beautiful [rn : 434] 
woman in the pine-ivoods of Himeshimay 
in the fourth year of IVado (711). 

'J'hough I see the white azaleas on the shore 
Of Miho of Kazahaya, 

1 am sad, remembering the lady 
Whose soul is here no more. 

Soo An elegy on the death of Prince Kashiwadebe. 1 2 [in : 442] 

£S if to foreshadow 

That the world will be vain, 

This bright moon waxes and wanes ! 

80 r On bidding farewell at Asbiki, Chikupen, to [iv : 549I 

Ishikawa Taruhito, an official of the Da- 
Tyifu, transferred to a new post, in 
the first year of Jinki (724). 

friend, you are setting out 
On a long, long journey — 

May the gods of heaven and earth 
Help you till you reach your home ! 

1 Himeshima was at Naniwa, in Settsu Province, whereas Kazahaya in the poem 
was in Kii Province, the obvious discrepancy pointing to textual corruption. The 
poem probably alludes to the legend of a young noble, called Kume, said to have 
lived in Miho of Kazahaya. 

2 Son of Prince Nagaya, Minister of the Left, who was condemned to death in 
the 2nd month in the 6th year of Jinki (729), whereupon Prince Kashiwadebe 
committed suicide. 

SO 2 

The Scarf- Waving Hill . [ 


s 7 ij 

Otomo Sadehiko 2 was suddenly despatched on a special 
mission to the Sovereign's tributary . 3 His sweetheart , Lady 
Sayo of Matsura, sorrowing at this hasty separation , and in 
her fears of never meeting him again , climbed a steep hill, and 
watched her lover's ship sail away, her heart breaking with 
grief. A.t last she took off her scarf and wildly waved it. 
At this, those who happened to be near her burst into tears, 
and ever after people called the hill the Scarf -Waving Hill. 

J^ady Sayo of Matsura, as her name tells 
Of one waiting for a lover far away, 

Pressed by her longing, waved her scarf ; 

Hence the name of this hill. 

803-4 Composed on the occasion when the princes and [vi • 948-9] 
courtiers were by imperial order confined 
in the 'bureau of Palace-Guards. 

'J'o the hill of Kasuga where ku%u vines creep, 

The spring has come — the lush spring. 

With mists hovering over the dale 
And warblers singing on Takamado. 

Ah, the spring we could scarce wait for — 

We, courtiers of eighty clans, hoping 

That with such days following one upon another. 

When wild geese come flocking together. 

We might go out with friends to sport. 

And ride our horses side by side in the fields ! 

Had we foreseen this punishment, 

Dreadful beyond speech, 

1 A little hill standing on the eastern skirts of the village of Kagami in Hamasaki, 
Matsura District, Hizen. It borders on Niji-no-Matsubara. 

2 Otomo Sadehiko was sent to Mimana to suppress a rebellion, and to support 
Kudara, in the 2nd year of the reign of the Emperor Senka (537). 

? i e. Mimana in Korea. 


We would have gone to the Saho River 
Where the sanderlings cry. 

And purified ourselves 

With the root of the sedge growing on the rock, 
And cleansed our stains in the running water. 

O that we, men of the Great Palace, 

Should, in obedience to the imperial command, 
Dare not even go out in the streets. 

But pass the days — these days of spring — 

Longing for the open air. 


We went to sport in the Saho vale, 

Only because we feared to miss 

Its plum-bloom and the willows in their prime. 

Who then noised it throughout the palace ? 

In the first month of the fourth year of Jinki (j2j) several 
princes and a number of court nobles met in the Kasuga Field 
to play a ball game. It happened on that day that the skies 
suddenly grew dark and a rain-storm broke , attended with 
lightning and thunder. At this moment in the palace there 
were present neither guards nor attendants. By imperial 
order all the men were punished for delinquency by being con- 
fined in the Bureau of Palace-Guards, from which they were 
forbidden to go out in the streets. The above poem was com- 
posed in sorrow and dismay. The author is unknown. 

Isonokami Otomaro and his Wife 

Soy -6 Qn the banishment to Tosa of Isonokami [vi : 1019-20,1] 


jjecause of your errant love for a maid. 

Luckless Lord Furu Isonokami, 

1 These two poems are addressed to Otomaro in sympathy with his plight. 


Bound with a rope like a horse. 

And surrounded with bows and arrows 
Like a hunted boar, 

You go at the dread imperial command 
Down to the province, heaven-distant. 

Would from the mountain of Matsuchi 
You could return to us who wait behind ! 

You set out, dear lord and friend, 

In obedience to the imperial command, 

For that land across the sea, 

May the Gods of Suminoe who — 

Though too awesome to speak of — 

Appear in mortal shape, 

Descend upon your ship’s prow 
To protect you from wind and wave. 

At every island point you touch, 

And every turn of the coast you pass ! 

May they keep you free from all ills 

And shortly send you back to your homeland 1 

807-8 j a dear child to my father, [vi : 1022-3] 

* And a dear child to my mother — 

Alas ! on the ‘ Awesome Pass ’ of Kashiko 
Where men of eighty clans 
Returning to the capital 
Make offerings with joyful thanks, 

I present my nusa 1 sadly in prayer, 

Going down the long road to Tosa ! 


Off the hallowed strand of Osaki, 

Though narrow is the sound. 

The boatmen thronging the water 
Will not pass hastily on, 

* A wreath of white paper hung up before a deity. 


As I — alas ! an exile — must. 1 


809 On the ruins of the City of Nara. [vi : 1045] 

j^ow truly now I understand 

The impermanence of this world, 

Seeing Nara, the Imperial City, 

Lie thus m rums. 

810-1 Addressed to a son by his mother when the [ IX : 1790-1] 
ships of the embassy to China were leaving 
the port of Naniwa in the fifth year 2 of 
Tempyo (7}f). 

deer that seeks the hagi flowers for mate 
Brings forth a single fawn, it is told ; 

My son, single as that fawn, now starts 
Upon his travels, grass for pillow ; 

And I, purified, hang a string of bamboo-rings 
And, setting out the sacred wine-jar 
Dressed with mulberry cloth. 

Implore the gods. 

May he of whom I think 
Ever travel safe and sound. 


When hoar-frost falls on the plain 
Where the traveller shelters, 

Cover my darling with your wings, 

O flock of cranes of heaven ! 

1 This long poem and envoy ate put into the mouth of Otomato. 

2 Perhaps in April. 


8 12-3 Addressed to an envoy 1 setting out for China [xin. : 4245-6) 
in the fifth year of Tempyo (733 ) . 

A FTER travelling from the Imperial City 
Of beauteous Nara in Yamato 
Down to wave-bright Naniwa, 

You are now sent on a voyage 

From Mitsu of Suminoe, 2 

Straight to the land 

Where the sun sets ;5 

May our great Gods of Suminoe — 

With reverence I speak — 

Sitting on the prow of your ship 
And standing by the stern, 

Guard it from the perilous wind and wave. 

At every strand you touch, 

At every port you harbour in. 

And lead you back in safety 
Home to our land. 


May the surges near and far from shore 
Never wash over your ship, 

Until it is rowed back 
And harbours in this port ! 

814 gHALLOw is the mountain well-pool [xvr : 3807] 
That glasses the clean image 
Of yonder hill of Asaka^ — 

But no shallow heart 
Have I for you, O Prince ! 

Regarding the above poem it is said : On the occasion 

1 i. e. Tajihi Hironaru 

2 i. e. the present Sumiyoshi of Osaka 

3 i. e. China, as opposed to Japan, the Land of the Rising Sun 

4 In Fukushima Prefecture. 


when Prince Ka^uraki 1 was despatched to the province of 
Mutsu, the Governor received him in a conspicuously neglect- 
ful manner. The prince was displeased. ', and there was anger 
in his looks. Though wine and food were offered him, he 
refused to touch them. Now there was in the company a 
former uneme (a palace attendant), who was an accomplished 
lady. Holding a wine-cup in her left hand, and wine in her 
right hand, she tapped the prince on the knee and recited this 
poem. The prince, appeased and delighted, made merry, 
drinking all day long. 

8ij To Prince Niitabe [xvi : 3835] 

'J'he lake of Katsumata 
Has no lotus, I know. 

Just as Your Highness, 

Speaking so, has no beard . 2 

A story is told as follows. Once Prince Niitabe went out 
for a walk in the city, and saw Take Katsumata, the sight 
of which delighted his heart. Even after returning to his 
mansion , he was unable to contain his enthusiasm. So he 
spoke to a lady, saying : ‘ I went out to see Take Katsumata. 
Pure and limpid was the water, and gorgeous the lotus-bloom 
— a sight lovely indeed beyond speech ! ’ The lady replied by 
reciting the above satirical poem. 

1 i c Tachibana Moroc 

1 The prince had a luxuriant growth of beard. 


When the Governor-General of the Da^aiju, Otomo Tabito, 
was appointed Chief Councillor of State , and travelled home 
to the capital, in winter, in the eleventh month of the second 
year of Tempyo (730), his followers took a different route, 
going by sea. On that occasion they composed poems on the 
sorrows of the journey. The following is one of the ten 
anonymous poems. 

816 gTARXXNG out on my travels, [xvn : 3897] 

Unknown as the limit of the great sea, 

She asked me when I should return, 

That lovely girl ! 

817-8 A Seventh Night Poem. [ix : 1764-5] 

qver the River of Heaven, 

I throw a jewelled bridge 
Across its upper shallows, 

I float a chain of boats 
Across its lower shallows. 

Even when the rain is falling 
Though the wind is hushed. 

Even when the wind is blowing 
Though the rain falls not, 

That my lord may come over to me. 

Failing me never. 

Not wetting his skirt, 

I throw a jewelled bridge. 


A mist rises over the River of Heaven ; 

My lord whom I awaited, 

‘ To-day, surely to-day ’ — 

Poles out his boat at last ! 


On smoke 

Yonder on the plain of Kasuga 
I see wreaths of smoke arise — 
Are the young girls 
Boiling the starworts. 

Plucked from the fields of spring ? 



820 Composed during the Sovereign’s visit to Ise. [vn : 1089] 

qn the ocean where no islands are in sight, 

Far out on the surging waves 
White clouds arise. 

821-2 qur Sovereign who rules in peace, [xm : 3234-5] 
Offspring of the Bright One on high, 

Holds in demesne 

The land of Ise, of the Divine Wind, 

Which provides the august table . 1 

When we survey this realm, 

High and noble rise the hills. 

Bright and clear run the rivers, 

Broad is the sea that gives us harbour, 

And famous is the island there we see. 

Because he prized these, 

— So awful on my lips — 

On the plain of Ishi in Yamanobe 
His sun-lit palace was reared, 

Glorious as the morning sun 
And radiant as the evening sun. 

As long as heaven and earth shall last. 

And as long as sun and moon, 

May the courtiers serve him 

At the palace prosperous like the spring hills 

Loaded with the blossoms. 

And alluring as the coloured leaves 
On the hills of autumn. 

1 Fishes were caught in Ise for imperial use. 



I.o, near the royal well of Ishi 
In Yamanobe, rise the mountains 
Hung with nature’s own brocade ! 

Cherry-Flower Maid. [xvi : 3786—7] 

Once there was a young woman of the name of Sakura-ko 
( Cherry-Flower Maid). She was courted by two young men , 
who in their rivalry cared not for their lives, but contended 
bitterly as if eager for death. The girl wept and said to her- 
self : ‘ From olden times to these days never has it been heard 
nor seen, that one woman should go to two houses to marry. 
Now there is no way to reconcile the hearts of these young men. 

It would be best for me to die so that they may cease for ever 
from harming each other? Then, she sought the wood, 
where, hanging herself from a tree, she died. The two young 
men could scarce contain their grief. Tears of blood trickled 
down their collars. These are the poems they made to ex- 
press their sentiments : 

j thought 1 would wear it 
When the spring came — 

Alas, my ‘ cherry-flower ’ 

Is fallen and gone ! 

When the cherry-flower blooms — 

My dear love’s namesake — 

I shall long for her 
Each year and evermore ! 

Once there was a young man and a fair maid (their names 
cannot be ascertained '), who were meeting in secret , unknown 
to their parents. Now the maid , desiring to acquaint the 
parents with the affair , wrote a poem , and sent it to her 

82 y L OVE 1S a torment |x\ 1 : 5803] 

Whenever we hide it. 

Why not lay it bare 

Like the moon that appears 

From behind the mountain ledge ? 

826 jf need be, I'd follow you fxvi : 3806] 

Even to the rock vault 
In the Ohatsuse Mountains 
And be together with you ; 

Be not troubled, dearest ! 

It is said that there was a young woman who met a young 
man in secret without letting the parents know of it. The 
young man , fearing their rebuke , seemed rather doubtful about 
continuing the affair. Thereupon , the young woman composed 
the above poem and sent it to him. 

82 / jf there be a law that allows [xvi : 3809] 

The tradesman to break a contract, 

Return to me, then, my under-robe ! 

It is said that there was once a young woman beloved of a 
high-born personage. His love waning, he returned to her the 
keepsake she had given him. Thereupon the girl, aggrieved 
and resentful, composed the above poem and sent it to her 
fickle lover. 


828 On the transiency of the world. [xvi : 3849] 

Loathing both seas of Life and Death, 

How deeply I long 
For the upland of Nirvana, 

Untouched by the tides of Change ! 

One of two poems said to have been inscribed on the face of 
a koto which was found in the Hall of Buddhas of the 
Kahara Temple. 

829 A poem from Noto. 1 [xvi : 3878J 

s° to the mud-bed 
Of the Kumaki Sea 
You have dropped a hatchet, — 

A Shiragi hatchet, ha ha ! 

Oh, never mind, do not cry ! 

Let us see if it will 
Float up to the top, ha ha ! 

It is said that a foolish man once dropped a hatchet into 
the bottom of the sea , but he did not know that a piece of metal , 
once it sunk under the water , would not rise to the surface. 
The above poem was composed and recited for purposes of 

830 Another poem from Noto. [xvi: 3880] 

the Table Island 
Of Kashimane 

Have you gathered turbo shells 
And brought them home ? — 

Crushed the meat out with a stone, 

1 A province on the northern side of Honshu, jutting out into the Japan Sea. 


Washed and cleaned it 
In a swift-flowing river, 

Rubbed it hard in salt, 

Put it in a tall dish. 

Set it on a table, — 

And so served it to your mother. 
Darling little housewife ? 

And so served it to your father, 
Darling little housewife ? 

Two Beggar Songs . 1 

8 }i The Kart. [xvi : 3885] 

0 good friend, dear master, 

You are settled snugly at home. 

Should you set out on a journey, 

Whither would it be ? To the Land of Kara 
To capture the monsters called ‘ tigers ’ — 

Eight head of them all alive — 

Bring them back and make mats 
Of their skins and pile them eightfold — 

To the ‘ eightfold mat ’ mountains 
Of Heguri, in the months of April and May, 

1 go to serve in the medicine hunt. 2 
Once as I stood on the one-slope hill 
Under two tall ichihti- trees 

And waited for deer, grasping eight bows 
And grasping eight turnip-head arrows, 4 
Lo, there stood before me a hart — 

Says he, wailing : ‘ Soon must I die. 

But still I will serve my lord, 

1 These songs or ballads were sung from door to door by mendicant minstrels 

2 Deer were hunted in this season for their newly grown horns, which were 
used for medicinal purposes 

1 A kind of oak ( Quercus gUvd). 

4 Arrows with turnip-shaped heads. 

2 75 

Dedicating humbly to his use 
My horns for hat ornaments, 

Mv ears for inkstands. 

My eyes for shining mirrors. 

My hoofs for bow-ends, 

My hair for writing-brushes, 

My skin for leather-boxes, 

My flesh for mincemeat, 

My liver, too, for mincemeat, 

And my umbles for salt-pickles. 

‘ Thus, old slave as I am, 

This single body of mine 
Will put forth a sevenfold bloom. 

Will put forth an eightfold bloom — 

So sing my praise, sing my praise ! ’ 

This poem relates on behalf of the hart its hardships 


The Crab. [xvi : 3886] 

p? the wave-bright Naniwa Bay 
I make my home and live in hiding. 

My lord calls me, 1 hear, to his mansion — 

Me, a humble crab amid the reeds. 

Wherefore this lordly summons ? 

Am I called as singer 
Of the songs I know well ? r 
Am I called as flute-player ? 

Am I called as ic/o-player ? z 

Anyhow to hear the lordly command 

1 The line is sometimes interpreted as meaning 4 1 know well the circumstance 
(the leason for the summons).’ In that case, it should precede the line above it, 
reading : 

* I know well the circumstance. 

Am I called as a singer of songs ? ’ 

2 All these questions are, of course, rhetorical, each implying the negative an- 


One day I journey to Asuka ; x 
Come to Okina 1 though I stand ; 

To Tsukunu 1 though I carry no cane. 

And at the inner gate on the east side 
I enter the mansion to await the lordly command. 

There I am seized and bound, 

Though I am no horse to be strapped and haltered. 
Though I am no ox to be tied with a nose-cord. 

Then, my lord, going to the hill. 

Peels an ample measure of elm bark ; 

Lets it hang and dry in the sun ; 

Pounds it in a mortar ; 

Grinds it through a quern standing in the yard. 

He fetches salt from Naniwa Bay, 

The fine first-dripped salt. 

One day he goes to the potter 

And brings back on the morrow a jar he made. 

My lord, smearing my eyes with salt, 

Bestows on me lordly praise — 

Lordly praise ! 

This poem relates on behalf of the crab its hardships 
and sufferings. 

833-4 An elegy on the death of his wife. 2 - [xrx : 4236-7] 

^re there no gods of heaven and earth ? 

My dearest wife is dead ! 

Though I wished to live hand in hand 
With my love, Hata-otome — 

Her name tells of the god 
Who lightens and thunders — 

1 Asit of Asuka, Oki of Okina, and Tsuku of Tsukunu, are homophones respec- 
tively of the words for to-morrow, lay down, and lean on a staff. In the translation the 
play on these words is entirely lost. 

z These verses were recited by Gamo, a courtesan.— -Original Note 

2 77 

All my hopes were vain ! 

And I am in despair. 

With a sash of mulberry cloth on my shoulders, 
And in my hands offerings of twill bands, 

1 prayed, ‘ Divide us not ! 5 

Yet those sleeves of hers I slept upon 

Now trail among the clouds 1 


O that I could think it real ! 

No use : I only dream I lie 
Pillowed on her sleeves. 

Azuma Uta (Eastland Poems) 

S}j -6 Poems from the province oj Hitachi . [xiv : 3 3 50-1 j 

^hough I have silks 

Fresh from the new mulberry cocoons. 

Of the Tsukuba Mountain, 

Oh, how Fd love 

To wear that gown of yours. 

On the Tsukuba Mountain slope 
Has snow fallen ? — or no ? 

Has she — my darling girl — 

Hung out her clothes to dry ? 

8 ) 7-8 Poems from the province of Shimofusa. [xiv : 3386-7] 

"jpHOUGH it be the night when I make 
Offerings of the early rice 1 
Of Katsushika, 

1 On the sacred night of rice-offering all the menfolk of the household were 
obliged to stay outside. 


I will not keep you, darling. 

Standing outside the house. 

Would there were a horse 
That could travel with silent feet ! 
Then, over the jointed bridge of Mama 
In Katsushika, I’d come to you 
Night after night. 

8)9 A poem from the province of Hitachi. [xiv : 5393] 

if with wardens posted 

On this and that side of the Tsukuba Mountain, 
Aly mother watches me ; 

But our spirits have met. 

840-1 Poems from the province of Shmanu. [xxv : 3399-400] 

'j’HE highway of Shinanu 
Is a new-cut road. 

You may trip on the stubs': 

Put on your sandals, dearest ! 

Even the pebbles on the beach 
Of the Chikuma River in Shinanu, 

If you walk on them, 

I will gather like precious stones. 

842-4 Poems from the province of Kamitsuke. 

T ET our love be made as plain [xiv : 34x4] 

As the rainbow that spans 
The Yasaka weir of Ikaho, 

Could I but sleep and sleep with you ! 


[kiv: 3421] 

Do not rumble, O Thunder, 

Over the mountains of Ikaho ! 

Though to me it is no matter, 

You frighten this little darling of mine. 

The mountain wind of Ikaho — [xiv : 3422] 

There are days when it blows 

And there are days when it blows not. 

But my love is timeless. 

<?■// A poem from the province of Shimotsuke. [xiv : 3425] 

§wift over the plains of Shimotsuke 
And across the Aso’s river-beach, 

My feet scarce touching the pebbles, 

I have come as if through air — 

Now pray, tell me your mind ! 

* * * 

S46 J-JARK, the bells are ringing [xiv: 3438] 

Over Tsumuga Fields ; 

It must be that the younger lord 
Of the mansion of Kamushida 
Goes hawking on the plains. 

847 T™ P os t-horse bells are tinkling, [xiv : 3439] 

The post-house well is fenced in; 

Will you give me water — mind you, 

Straight from your own sweet hand ? 

§EE, neighbour, [xiv : 3440] 

Washing morning greens in the river, 


Your child and mine are well-matched 
In years — give me yours ! 

849 not burn the brake — [xiv : 345 2 ] 

So lovely as it is ! 

Let new grass grow there as it will — 

The new grass mingling with the old ! 

8 jo hands so chapped from rice- [xiv : 3459] 

pounding — 

To-night again, he will hold them, sighing, 

My young lord of the mansion ! 

8ji ^way, you who rattle at my door, [xiv : 3460J 

On this sacred night of new rice-offering. 

When I’ve sent my man out 
And worship in the house alone. 

8j2 jn obedience to the imperial command [xiv : 3480] 
I set out as a soldier ; 

Away from my dear wife I’ve come. 

And away from her pillowing arm. 

8 j } q that I were the cloud [xiv : 3510] 

That sails the sky 1 
To-day I’d go and talk to my wife ; 

To-morrow I’d come back again. 

8J4 'J’he cloud clings [xiv . 3514] 

To the high mountain peak — 

So would I cling to you, were I a cloud. 


\nd you, a mountain peak ! 

<S 'J’he mouth of the mare [xiv : 3532] 

Grazing in the spring meadow 
Never stops ; nor do her lips at home, 

She talks of me — my wife ! 

8j6 J.JERE at the river neck, [xiv : 3546 ] 

With green-budding willows overgrown, 

Oh, how I wait for you — 

No water I draw from the stream, 

But stand, ever stamping the ground ! 

Poems of Frontier-Guards 

8)7-8 JF I leave you behind, [xiv : 3567-8] 

1 shall miss you : 

0 that you were 

The grip of the birch wood bow 

1 am taking with me ! 

If I stay behind, 

1 must suffer 

The pain of longing — 

Rather I’d be the bow 

You carry on your morning hunts. 

Sj 9 FRON’TIER-gUard [XIV :356c,] 

1 set out in the morning ; 

And at the door — 

How she wept, my darling wife, 

Unwilling to let go my hand ! 

a 8 z 

[XIV : 3 57°] 

860 j will think of you, love. 

On evenings when the grey mist 
Rises above the rushes, 

And chill sounds the voice 
Of the wild ducks crying. 

86 1 '^yHEN I see a woman [xx : 4425] 

Indifferently asking, 

Whose husband is going 
As a frontier-guard, 

How I envy her lot, 

So free from all cares !‘ 

86 2 Q for the body of my darling wife, [xx : 4431] 

Better far than seven coats 
Worn one over another. 

When on a chilly night of frost 
The bamboo leaves are rustling loud l 1 

Dialogue Poems 

863-4 JJad I foreknown my sweet lord’s [xi : 2824-5] 

My garden, now so rank with wild weeds, 

I had strewn it with pearls ! 

What use to me a house strewn with pearls ? 

The cottage hidden in wild weeds 
Is enough, if I am with you. 

1 These are poems of a previous year, which were copied by Iware Moro- 
gimi, and sent to Otomo Yakamochi. — Original Note. 


[xit : 3117-8J 

86j-6 Cince 1 had shut the gate 
And locked the door, 

Whence did you, dear one, enter 
To appear in my dream ? 

Though you had shut the gate 
And locked the door, 

I must have come to you in your dream 
Through the hole cut by a thief. 

86,-8 j would make my way without a [xm : 3305-6! 
thought of you. 

But when I look up to the green-clad hills, 

The azaleas are you, my lovely girl, 

And you, my blooming girl, the cherry-flowers. 
People would make you mine. 

They would make me your own. 

Even the rugged hills, if men so wish, 

Will draw towards each other ; 

Keep true your heart ! 


How can I rid my thoughts of love ? 

I pray to the gods of heaven and earth, 

Yet ever does my love increase ! 

869-jo go it is, my dearest lover ; [xm: 3307-8] 

As time goes, eight long years, 

Beyond the term of childhood 
When my tufty hair was clipped, 

Beyond the bloom of girlhood 
Thriving like the sprays of the orange-tree, 

And secret like this stream 
That runs beneath the sand, 

I wait till I win your heart. 



I, too, have prayed to the gods 
Of heaven and earth. 

Yet love will have its way. 

871-4 ^yHERE others’ husbands ride on [xnr : 3314-7] 

Along the Yamashiro road. 

You, my husband, trudge on foot. 

Every time I see you there I weep. 

To think of it my heart aches. 

My husband, take on your back 
My shining mirror, my mother’s keepsake. 

Together with the scarf thin as the dragon-fly’s wing. 
And barter them for a horse, 

T pray you, my husband. 


Deep is the ford of the Izumi, 

Your travelling clothes, I fear. 

Will be drenched, my husband. 

What worth to me my shining mirror, 

When I see you, my husband, 

Trudging on your weary way ! 

By her husband. 

If 1 get a horse, my beloved. 

You must go on foot ; 

Though we tread the rocks. 

Let’s walk, the two of us, together ! 

877-9 'J’o gather the wave-borne pearls 
On the shores of Ki, 


[xm : 3 3 x 8-22] 

My dearest lord has travelled far, 

Crossing the mountains of £ Man and Wife ’ ; 
When, standing by the roadside in the evening, 
I tried to divine : 

‘ When will he come home ? ’ 

Then came the oracle ; 

‘ Lady, your husband whom you await 
Does not come to you, 

Because he seeks the pearls 
Borne by the ocean waves, 

Because he gathers the white pearls 
Washed by the ripples on the shore ; 

“ Seven days at longest, it will take me, 

At soonest, two.” 

So your husband said ; 

Do not lose heart, good lady.’ 


With the aid of staff or none 
Would I start to meet him, 

But alas, I know not 
Which way he comes ! 

Not straight. 

But by this road to Kose, 

Treading the stony shore, 

I have come, 

In love’s distress. 

He passed the night with me. 

And as day dawned 

Opened the doors and left for Ki ; 

When can I have him back at home ? 

By her husband. 

Though my love, long standing at the gate, 
May now have retired within. 


Since she so loves me, I return. 

880-1 Poem of ridicule addressed to a priest , [xvi : 3846-7] 

and reply . 

j)0 not tether a horse 
To the stubble 

Of my new-shaven priest’s chin, 

And pull too hard ! 

For, poor priest, he will cry. 

Oh, say not that ! 

Do you not cry — 

You too, good parishioner — 

When the village master comes 
To collect the taxes ? 

From the ‘ Collection of Ancient Poems ’ 

88 2 'J’errible are the ocean billows ; [vii : 1232] 

Yet, shall we not set sail 
With entreaties to the gods ? 

88 j 'J’he waves toss high; [vii : 1235] 

‘ Boatman,’ I say — 

‘ Should we stay the night here floating like water- 

Or still press on ? ’ 

884 'j’HE night crow calls as if to tell of [vii : 1263] 

But, on this hill-side, 

Over the tree-tops all is still. 


88 j Qoing alone to the western market, 1 [vn : 1264) 

Making no careful choice I bought the silk, 

But what a costly bargain it was ! 

886 'J’hese hemp-clothes which you take — [vn : 1265] 

A frontier-guard enlisted for this year — 

When they are worn out at the shoulders, 

Who will mend them for you, my husband ? 

88 j qome to me, my dearest, [xi : 2364] 

Come in through the bamboo-blinds ! 2 
Should my mother ask me. 

I’ll say, ’Twas but a gust of wind. 

888-9 On the cuckoo. [x : 1937-8] 

jn the Kamunabi Mountains — 

My old home, 

Whither I, a young man, am bound — 

There among the mulberry twigs at dawn, 

And in the young pine-trees at eve, 

Your voice is heard; 

The village-folk fondly listen. 

While the mountain echo replies — 

Is it for love of your mate, 

O cuckoo, that you cry 
Through the midnight hours ? 


Are you, too, O cuckoo, 

A wanderer from home 

1 There were two markets, eastern and western, in Nara. The western market 
was situated near the present town of Koriyama. 

2 Tamadare ; screens made of reeds or finely-split bamboo, used to prevent the 
entrance of too much light. 


And longing for your mate — 

You, who in the Kamunabi Mountains 
Cry far into the night ? 

* * * 

890-1 A poem of travel. [111:388-9] 

•yyoNDERFUL is the Sea ; 

Setting the isle of Awaji m the middle, 

He girdles with white waves the land of Iyo ; J 
And from the straits of Akashi 
He leads the flowing tide at evening, 

And lets it ebb at dawn away ; 

And we, in fear of the brawling waves. 

Harbour at the isle of Awaji, 

Sleepless, waiting for the break of day ; 

When on the field of Asanu 2 
Above the waterfall 
The pheasants make their shrill cries 
To tell us of the dawn ; 

Come, men, let us row out with a will, 

Now, while the sea is calm. 


As I coast round the cape of Minume, 

Flocks of cranes are crying, 

Making me long for Yamato. 

89 2 qlearly I see the pebbles in the water, [vn : 1082] 
So bright the moon is shining. 

As the night wears on. 

1 By Iyo the poet seems to mean the whole of Shikoku. 

2 The present village of Asano at the north-western shore of the island, where 
there is a waterfall of the same name. 


[vii : 1086] 

893 £s if to say the land will prosper 

With its Otoraos 1 2 — the mighty clan 
Of warriors bearing quivers — 

The bright moon shines. 

894 On rain. [vrr : 1091] 

j^et no rain fall to drench me through ; 

I wear beneath my clothes — 

The keepsake of my loved one. 

89 J On a hill. [vii : 1096] 

'J'hough not sure of the tale of old, 

It is long years since I myself saw, 

This heaven-descended hill of Kagu. 

896 On grass. [vn:ii2i] 

§USUKI, growing along the way to my beloved. 
When I go to her. 

Bend, O susuki on the plain ! 

897 On the koto 7 [vn : 1x29] 

■yyHEN I take the koto , sobs break forth ; 

Can it be that in its hollow space 
The spirit of my wife is hiding ? 

1 The text for the second line admits of various interpretations : (i) at the guards’ 
quarters occupied by the Otomo family, (2) at Mitsu of Naniwa, the fief of the O- 
tomo family, (3) at the mansion of the Otomo family. 

2 A kind of lute. See also No. 265. 

In Yamashiro. 

[vn : 1138] 


jtJowEVER loud I call to the man, 

‘ Ferry me across Uji’s stream,’ 

My voice, it seems, does not reach him, 

I hear no splashing of his oar. 

899 In Sett su. [vri : 1154] 

'j'HE rain beats on me, I make a shelter — 

Ah, when can I gather pebbles 
On the low-tide shore of Ago ? 

900 During the journey. [vrr:n6i] 

'J'his evening on my journey far from home, 

In the chilly autumn wind, 

The wild-geese go crying. 

901 Like the sails spread on the fishing- [vn : 1182] 


I see the white waves rearing 
Along the shore of Tomo. 1 

9 02 ^bove the height of Mikasa in Kasuga [vn : 1295] 

The boat of a moon appears ; 

We, revellers, see it, 

Reflected in our wine-cups. 

1 The Inland Sea coast of Hiroshima Prefecture. 


90 j A love poem referring to the pearl. [vn : 1317] 

'J'he white pearl, sunk under the deep sea, 

Though the wind blows and the seas run high, 

I will not rest until I make it mine ! 

904 Kef erring to the grass. [vn : 1336] 

who burns the sere weeds 
On the open plain in early spring — 

Is it not enough ! 

Must he burn my heart, too ! 

90 J Referring to the thunder. [vn : 1 369] 

j^ike the flash and roar near the clouds of heaven, 
To see him awes me, 

To see him not saddens me. 

906 Elegy. [vn : 141 1] 

j^ow fortunate he is ! 

Who, until his raven hair is grey, 

Can hear his wife’s soft voice ! 

907 On the warbler. [x:i82i] 

Y^here the spring mist slowly drifts, 

The warbler in the green willow-tree 
Sings, holding a twig in his beak. 

90S ^then the spring comes, 

The sweet spring, — 


[x : 1830] 

Brushing the slender bamboo-tops 
With his wings and tad, 

Warbles the uguisu. 

909 On the snow. 

Yonder in the plum-tree. 

Fluttering from branch to branch, 
The warbler sings ; 

And white on his wings falls 
Airy snow. 

910 On the cherry-flowers. 

Yhough your season is not over, 
Cherry-blossoms, do you fall 
Because the love is now at its height 
Of those who look on ? 

911 Q H , when will this night end 

And the morning break ? 

I long to see the plum-blossoms 
That the songster scatters, 
Flitting from branch to branch 1 

9 9 * * 12 An outing. 

Yhe lords and ladies 
Of the Great Palace 
Have leisure enough ; 

Here they are out together 

Bedecked with plum-flowers. 


[x : 1 840] 

[x:i8 5 5 ] 

[x:i8 7} J 

[x: 1883] 

9i>- 4 Lament for old age. [x 

■^hen winter is gone and spring comes. 
New is the year, and new the month ; 
But man grows old. 

All things are best when new ; 

But perchance with man 
He alone is good who is old. 

91 j Kef erring to ram. 

qan only a spring rain so drench 
Your garments through ? 

If it rains for seven days, 

Will you not come for seven nights ? 

916 Referring to the grass. 

^£Y love-thoughts these days 

Come thick like the summer grass 
Which soon as cut and raked 
Grows wild again. 

9*7 Referring to flowers. 

'J’hat you like me not 
It may well be — 

Yet will you not come 
Even to see the orange-tree 
Abloom in my door-yard ? 

: 1884-5] 

[x : 1917] 

[x : 1984] 

[x : 1990] 


[x : 1995] 

918 Referring to the sun. 

j?ven in the heat 

Of the blazing sun of June, 

That cracks the earth’s green face, 

My tear-wet sleeves will not dry 
Because I see you not. 

Seventh Night Poems. 

919 Y on c l° u d blown [x : 2041] 

And wafted by the autumn wind — 

May it not be the celestial scarf 
Of the Weaver, the Star-maid ? 

920 the rain-drops [x:zo52] 

That fall this evening 
Are, perhaps, the spray 
From the oars of the Oxherd, 

Rowing fast his boat. 

921 ■yyrrH the jewels of my anklets [x : 2065] 

And of my armlets all a-swinging, 

1 weave at the loom. 

Would I might sew your robe in time ! 

922-4 to-night he makes his one journey [x : 2089-91] 
of the year 

Over the Heavenly River, passing Yasu Beach — 

He, the love-lorn Oxherd longing for his maid, 
Whom he can never see but once a year, 

Though from the beginning of heaven and earth 
They have stood face to face across the Heavenly 


This evening when the autumn wind arises, 

Swaying the pennoned reeds, stalk and blade. 

He in his red boat, many-oared 
And gaily trimmed, bow and stern, 

Buffeting the white waves of the Heavenly River 
And crossing the swift and swirling waters, 

Will come rowing — the lone Star-man — 

Certain of the bliss 

Of his young love’s embrace. 

So will he sate his year-long want 

To-night, this Seventh Night of the Seventh Moon — 

Strangely it thrills my heart ! 


This is the night 

When the celestial lovers meet 

To undo, the one for the other, 

Their girdles of Koma 1 brocade — 

Ah, that rapture in the skies ! 

I think of the happy river-quay 
Where the Oxherd, rowing on 
Across the stream, 

Will come at last 
To moor his little boat. 

92; On the cricket. [x:2i6o] 

^ passing shower 

Has fallen on the garden grass ; 

And I hear the voice 
Of the crickets singing — 

Autumn is here. 

1 i. e. North Korea 


On the bills. 

[x: 2177] 

guRGEONiNG anew in spring. 

All green in summer. 

And now in dappled-crimson clad 
Oh, gorgeous hills of autumn ! 

92- On the moon. 

I sit worn and weary. 

Pining after you. 

The autumn wind goes sighing 
And low hangs the moon. 

928 Referring to night. 

'J’hough men say 

An autumn night is long. 

It is all too brief 
For unloading my heart 
Of all its love. 

* * * 

929 'j'HE crickets chirp at my bedside — 
And how my heart aches ! 

I sit up, unable to sleep. 

Thinking of you all the while. 

Referring to frost. 

qo not away, dear heart. 

So late in the night ! 


[x : 2298] 

[x : 2303] 

[x: 23 io] 


[x: 2336] 

The hoar-frost is on the leaves 

Of the dense bamboo-grass by the lane. 

931 Referring to snow. jx : Z342] 

jjaving met you as in a dream, 

I feel I would dissolve, body and soul, 

Like the snow that falls, 

Darkening the heavens. 


932 p you so heed your mother, [xi : 25 17] 

All is lost — never could you and 1 
Fulfil our love ! 

933 pi come to her [xi : 2526] 

When she waits and waits. 

Full of gladness she will beam on me — 

I will hasten to that smile. 

934 j have determined that my dear lord’s [xi : 2531] 

Shall not be revealed, 

Even with my life at stake ; 

Never forget me ! 

933 p I come, surprising her, [xi : 2546] 

Full of gladness she will brighten ; 

Those eyebrows linger in my eye. 


[XI : 2554] 

936 "Y^hen I meet you, 

I cannot but conceal my face, 

Yet, ever after, I desire 
To see you, dearest lord. 

937 y ou had better tell [xi : 2572] 

A more plausible tale ; 

Who upon earth, since what age, 

Died for a girl he never had seen ? 

938 J-Jowever much I beat him [xi : 2.574] 

With my clenched fist, 

That he may forget her face, 

Never chastened is he, 

This rascal love ! 

939 J wile not comb my morning hair : [xi : 2578] 

Your loving arm, my pillow. 

Has lain under it. 

940 j who have counted me for a strong [xn : 2875] 


Only a little less than heaven and earth — 

How short of manliness now that I love ! 

94 1 §tanding or sitting, [xii : 2887] 

I know not what to do. 

Though I tread the earth. 

My heart is in the skies. 


[xn : 2912] 

942 'J’o-night I am coming 

To visit you in your dream, 

And none will see and question me — 

Be sure to leave your door unlocked ! 

949 "J'he drum that the watchman beats [xi : 2641] 

Tells the time of our tryst; 

It is strange that he has not yet come. 

944 'J’he vivid smile of my sweetheart, [xi : 2642] 

That shone in the bright lamp-light, 

Ever haunts my eyes. 

94J W ERE t ^‘ e I ta ^a bridge to crumble [xi : 2644] 

At Oharida, 1 

By the cross-beams I would come to you ; 

Be not troubled, my love. 

946 U NRESTING 5 like the people [xi : 2645] 

Dragging logs for the palace 
In the timber-forest of Izumi, 

I long for you. 

947 §oot-black: as she is, like the shed [xi : 2651] 

Where Naniwa people burn the reeds, 

My wife is ever fresh to me. 

948 every trotting sound of a horse’s [xi : 2653] 

I rush out under the pine and look, 

Hoping it may be you. 

1 In Asuka District, Yamato. 


949 2^eave me, O propitious spirits ; fvi : 2661] 

Since my love has come to this. 

What care I for useless life ? 

9 jo ^yHiLE with my sleeves I sweep the bed [xi : 2667] 

And sit up, lonely, awaiting you, 

The moon has sunk. 

9 ji ways are left me now to meet my [xi : 2695] 


Must I, like the lofty peak of Fuji 1 in Suruga, 

Burn on for ever 
With this fire of love ? 

972 'J'roubles are many in the path of a [xn : 2998] 
little boat 

Making for port through the reeds. 

Think not I have ceased visiting you — 

I who would come this very minute. 

9J3 '^yHEN the moon 2 that shines [xn : 3004] 

In the far empyreal sky 
Is no more — then, only then. 

Shall cease this love of mine. 

9 J 4 N EVER do I doubt your heart, [xn :302s] 

From whose depths ocean-deep 
You promised me your love. 

1 Mount Fuji was an active volcano in the Manyo age. 

2 An alternative text gives the ‘ sun 5 


[xii: 3056] 

9 )) j^OATH to pass by her gate, 

I have bound the grass stalks there. 

Let stay the knot, O wind ! 

For I will come to see it there again. 

9)6 'J'hough I am chidden like a horse [xii : 3096] 

That crops the barley grown across the fence, 

I love and love — 

Never can I halt my thoughts of you ! 

* * * 

9)7 the upper course of the river [xi 12858] 

People wash the tender herbs ; 

Like a, straying leaf thereof, I would float down. 
And reach the shallows near my love ! 

9)8 W ELL is the hiU of Mimoro1 guarded ; [xm : 3222] 
The staggerbush is in bloom at the foot, 
Camellias are in flower at the top ; 

How beautiful she is, 

A mountain that would soothe even a crying child ! 1 2 

9 ) 9-60 ^yiTH the ninth month when the [xrn 13223-4] 

Rumbles and the sky is overclouded, 

The autumn showers set in 
Before the wild-geese come and call. 

1 There are many mountains bearing the name of Mimoro, 

2 The maiden whom the poet loves is likened to Mount Mimoro. She is well 
guarded by her mother, lest people should approach her ; a girl, sweet and tender- 
hearted, taking care of a crying child. 


By the watch-house on the sacred fields of Kamu- 

On the pond-dykes in the hedge-bound fields, 

Many elm-trees intermingle 
With the sprays of autumn tints. 

With my little wrist-bells ringing, 

Woman though I am, 

On tiptoe I bend and break the sprays 
And run to deck your locks with them. 


Sorrowing to see them alone, 

The yellow leaves of Kamunabi, 

I broke some off to bring to you, beloved. 

961-} people have told from mouth to [xm : 3227-9] 

Since the age of the gods when, it is said, 

Five million, ten million gods alighted 

On this Rice-abounding Land of Fertile Reed Plains, 

To pacify the evil gods, — 

Mount Mimoro of Kamunabi is misted with spring 
And in autumn the leaves are dyed in crimson ; 

The Asuka that girdles Mimoro of Kamunabi 
With its swift stream, allows of no rank moss 
On its pillowy boulders ; 

But, till those rocks grow green with moss, 

May every fresh night bring happiness to me — 

O let me in my dreams divine the way. 

Thou, God, who art a Sword enshrined ! 


Till mosses green the bole 

Of the cryptomeria, the sacred tree, 

On Mimoro of Kamunabi, 

Never shall my longing pass away. 


When the priest erects the sacred wand 
And offers sake to the gods, 

How fair is the berried vine 
That adorns his locks ! 




964-J with my axe I felled the trees [xm : 3232-3] 

On the cypress-covered Mount of Niu ; 

I built a raft of them, 

1 fixed a pair of oars. 

Along the stony beach I row, 

By many a jutting rock. 

It never tires my eye to see 
The white spray and swift water 
Roaring through the rapids of Yoshinu. 


Roaring through the rapids of Yoshinu — 

Falls the white-breaking water ; 

1 would show my wife at home 
This white-breaking water. 

966 jjighty are the harbours [xm : 3239] 

Around the lake of Omi ; 

And at every jutting 
Of eighty islets 
Stands an orange-tree. 

On the top spray they spread bird-lime, 

On the middle twig they tie a grosbeak. 

And on the lower bough a hawfinch. 

But in frolic sport the birds, 

Luring innocently their mothers. 


Snaring innocently their fathers ; 
Grosbeak and hawfinch, alas l 1 

967-8 our awful Sovereign’s word, jxni : 3240-1] 

I crossed the hills of Nara 
That never tire our eyes, 

I poled across the rapids of the Izunn, 

With its timber-piled shore, 

I crossed the Uji gazing at the torrents, 

I prayed, making offerings to the god 
On Mount Osaka, the pass to Omi ; 

And I journeyed over to Karasaki 
Of Shiga in Sasanami, 

Which, if fortune favours me, I shall see again 
When I turn homeward. 

Thus, as I travelled on, with many a sigh, 

At each of the eighty turnings of the road. 

Farther and farther receded my home. 

Steeper and steeper the mountains I crossed ; 

And now on Mount Ikago, 2 3 terrifying 
Like an unsheathed blade, 

I stand bewildered, 

Knowing not what may lie before me. 


1 sigh and implore 

The gods of heaven and earth : 

If fortune favours me, 

On my journey home I shall see again 
The headland Karasaki of Shiga. 

1 This poem is supposed to allude to some political event of the day. 

2 Stands on the north side of Lake Brwa. 

3 According to a book the envoy was composed by Hozumi Oyu when he was 
banished to the Isle of Sado. — Original Note. 


[XIII : 3242] 

969 the palace of Kukun 

At Takakita in Minu, 1 
I learn that eastward lies 2 
Another palace it were well to see, 

But they bar my way. 

The Okiso, the mountains in Minu 1 

Howsoever people 
Tread them to the plain. 

Howsoever people 
Thrust them to one side, 

Heartless they are, 

The Okiso, the mountains in Minu ! 

970-1 q that the bridge to heaven were [xm • 3245-6] 

And the lofty mountain loftier ! 

Then I would fetch and offer to him 

The magical elixir 

Which the Moon God treasures, 

And give him back the ardour of his youth. 


How grievous it is to see 

Old age upon him stealing day by day, 

— On him, whom I cherish 

As the moon and the sun of heaven. 

972 .-} jhough there are men without [xm : 3248-9] 


In this fait Land of Yamato, 

My mind ever clings to you 
Like a wistaria-vine, 

1 Minu (1. e. Mino) is a province in the middle of Honshu. 

1 Scholars differ in reading and interpreting the text of this and the preceding 


My heart ever holds to you 
Like a tender blade of grass. 

And 1 shall pass this tedious night 
Longing for a sight of you ! 


Could I but think 

There breathed another like you 

In this fair Land of Yamato, 

How should I so languish ? 

974-6 'J'he Land of Yamato is a land [xin : 3250-2] 

Where matters fall as will the gods 
Without lifted words 1 of men. 

It is so, yet 1 do lift up words : 

Do not the gods of heaven and earth 
Know my love-lorn heart ? 

As days and months have passed, 

With loving my mind is troubled. 

With longing my heart aches. 

If never I meet him, 

1 shall languish 
Till I die. 

When I see him face to face, 

Only then my pain will cease. 


Since I trust you as a sailor 
His stately ship at sea, 

However much I spend myself for your sake. 

Regret I shall not know. 

Now you leave the Imperial City 
On your journey, grass for pillow. 

When can I have you home again ? 

1 See note to No. 175 . 


97 ?-$ giNCE days of old it has been said : [xm : 3255-6] 

‘ Love brings trouble to our hearts.’ 

So it is said from mouth to mouth. 

And, not sure of my maiden’s mind, 

Nor of the means whereby to learn it, 

Pouring all my mind and soul out 
Till my heart withers like cut rushes. 

In secret and unknown 
I shall feed my helpless love for her 
While I have breath. 


Though she may not think of me like this, 

Alas, 1 cannot forget her 
Even for a moment ! 

$ 79-80 •j’he water at Ayuchi in Ohanda 1 — [xm : 3260-1] 

People draw it ceaselessly, 

They drink it constantly ; 

Ceaselessly as they draw it, 

Constantly as they drink it, 

I love you, lady, with a love 
Which will never cease. 


To cast away my love-thoughts 
l know not how ; 

So long it is since 1 met you ! 

981-2 jn that most wretched hovel 1x111:3270-1] 

Only fit for burning, 

On the foul and ragged matting 
Ready for the rubbish heap. 

1 Identified variously as in Nara and Aichi Prefectutes hy diffeient scholars. 


He sleeps, his own arm intertwined 
With the vilest of vile arms 
Which I would tear awry. 

Yet, for him. 

Each moment of the whole long day, 
Each moment of the darkest night, 

I weep and wail 
Until the flooring creaks. 


It is I that burn my heart out. 

My heart 

That yearns for him ! 

983-4 'J'hat meadow 1 which my heart [xni : 3 272-3 1 


Was fenced m by a villager ; 

Since when I heard that it was done 
I know not how to stand, 

1 know not where to sit ; 

Even in my own house, 

As if on a journey. 

My heart is seared with longing. 

Nor can I cease from grieving ; 

And wavering as clouds of heaven. 

Disturbed as the fence of reed. 

Disordered as entangled hemp. 

Without a thousandth part of my great love 
Being known and understood, 

I languish till I die ! 


Peerless is the love 1 make. 

And so lean I waste, 

I must wear my girdle threefold round. 

T The girl heToves is likened to the meadow where she lives. 


[xiii • 3280] 

98 j jjowever long I wait for him. 

My lord does not come. 

When I look up to the plains of heaven, 
The night hours have advanced. 

Late at night, the storm beats, 

And the snow-flakes falling on my sleeves 
Are frozen while I wait and linger. 

Now never will he come to me, 

But I will meet my loved one later, 

As vine meets vine. 

So comforting my lonely heart, 

With my sleeves I sweep our bed, 

And as I cannot waking meet him, 

May I meet him in my dream, 

On this heavenly-perfect night ! 

986-7 'J’hrough the plain of Miyake [xm : 3295-6] 

Treading the earth with your bare feet. 

Breasting your way through the summer grass. 

What sort of girl do you visit, my son P 1 

But, Mother, you don’t know her, 

But you don’t know her, Father. 

Her tresses black as a mud-snail’s bowels, 

The way she wears those fluttering ja-ribbons, 

The way she wears her Yamato boxwood comb, 
That beauteous maid, — my love. 


To her, kept secret from my parents, 

Pushing by the summer grass I hasten. 

Through the plain of Miyake. 

1 This is a dialogue poem. But the question is asked by the son himself. 



[xiii : 3299 ] 

love stands in my sight 
Across the stream. 

And on this side stand I. 

1 do not cease from longing, 

Nor do I cease from grieving. 

O for a little vermilion boat, 

And a pair of little jewelled oars, 
That I might row across 
And talk and talk with her ! 

989-90 ^he village-folk told me, saying : [xm : 5303-4] 

Your sweet husband whom you miss 
Came from the hill of Kamunabi, 

Now strewn with yellow leaves ; 

He rode a jet-black horse 
And crossed the shallows seven ; 

Yes, lonely and wan he met us — 

This they told me. 


Would that I had passed them. 

Untold, unspeaking ! 

Oh ! why did they tell me 
Of my husband’s plight ? 

99 1 jn the land where white clouds hover, [xiii : 3 329 } 

In the land where blue skies bend. 

Among all the people under the clouds of heaven. 

Is it I alone that long for him ? 

Since I alone thus miss my lord. 

Filling heaven and earth with words of longing. 

Is it with pining that my heart sickens ? 

Is it with thinking that my heart aches ? 

My love increases with the days ; 

Ceaselessly 1 languish for my husband. 

Yet, this ninth month which he told me 
To keep as our never-to-be-forgotten month — 
To recall for a thousand ages, 

And talk of through eternity — 

This ninth month, when our love began, 

Fast races to its close ; 

How can I bear an agony so great ? 

For me the month is dying 
To leave me in despair. 

So, on the steep and rocky path, 

To the rock-bound doorway 
With morning I go out in grief, 

With evening I come in, weeping ; 

And spreading out my jet-black hair 1 lie ; 

Not for me the soothing sleep of others, 
Uneasy as a boat tossing on the waves. 

With sorrowful thoughts I pass 
Dreary nights numberless ! 

992 'J'he hill of secluded Hatsuse, [xm : 3331] 

And the hill of green-bannered Osaka, 

Are graceful where they slope down, 

Are beautiful where they rise up. 

A pity that these dear hills 
Should grow desolate ! 

99 } "J’he lofty mountains and the seas, [xni: 3332] 

Being mountains, being seas. 

Both exist and are real. 

But frail as flowers are the lives of men, 

Passing phantoms of this world. 


994-1 \\fHEN I truste d as one trusts in a [xm * 3544-5] 
great ship. 

That he would come to me this month, 

And I waited for the day, 

A courier brought me word — 

Though vague as a fire-fly’s light — 

That he w*as gone like the autumn leaf. 

Now I tread the earth as flames, 

Standing or sitting I know not where to go ; 
Bewildered like the morning mists. 

Vainly I breathe out eight-foot sighs. 

I would, to find him where he lies, 

Wander as a cloud of heaven. 

And die as the stricken deer, 

But, as I do not know the way to him, 

Thus I remain alone and miss him, 

And weep aloud. 


When I see the wings of the wild-geese 
Skimming the reedy shore. 

They remind me of the arrows 
He carried on his back. 

996 jjsrr only your soul dwell [xvi : 385 1] 

In the Realm of Nothingness, 1 2 
You shall see not far off 
Hakoya’s transcendent hills. 

1 It is said that this envoy was written by the wife of a frontier-guard. If so, it 
is probable that she also wrote the long poem. — Original Note. 

2 c Realm of Nothingness * is mentioned in the book of Chuang-tse, a Chinese 
philosopher. Hakoya (a Japanese reading of the Chinese Mokuyeb ), mentioned 
also in the book, is an imaginary region inhabited by superhuman beings. The 
meaning of the poem is that supreme felicity can be attained only through the 
emancipation of the mind from worldly pieoccupations 



[xvi : 3852] 

j)o the vast oceans die ? 

Do the mountains die ? 

Verily they do — for lo. 

The waters vanish from the seas ; 

The green mountain becomes bare and barren. 

998-9 love’s labours of these days, [xvi : 38s 8-9] 

If reported and recommended 
For the grant of honours, 

Would win a cap of the Fifth Rank. 

Should no grant be made 

For my love’s labours of these days, 

1 would go and appeal 

To the metropolitan magistrate. 

jooo A. fearful thing. [xvi : 3889] 

| remember ever so long 

That rainy night, when all alone 
1 met you with your face ghastly pale 
Like a spectral fire. 1 * 

1 bJxiodama, here rendered as 4 spectral fire,’ is a luminous manifestation in the 

form of a ball of phosphorescent fire. It is supposed to emanate from a dead body. 




Ko moyo nnko mochi fugushi moyo mifugushi mochi 
kono oka ni na tsumasu ko le kikana na norasane 
soramitsu Yamato no kuni wa oshmabete ware koso ore 
shikmabete ware koso masc ware kosowa se rowa norame 
le womo na womo 

Yamato mwa niurayama aredo 
nobontachi kummi wo sureba 
unabara wa kamame tachitatsu 
Yamato no kuni wa 

Yu sareba Ogura no yama m 

tonyorou Ame-no-Kaguyama 
kunibara wa kcburi tachitatsu 
umashikuni zo Akitsushima 


naku shika wa koyoi wa nakazu 


Yasumislushi waga Okinn no ashita mwa tonnadetamai 
yube mwa iyontatashishi mitorashi no azusa no yumi no 
nakahazu no oto sunari asagari ni ima tatasurashi 
yugari ni ima tatasurashi mitorashi no azusa no yumi no 
nakahazu no oto sunari 

Tamakiharu Uchi no onu m um a namete as a fumasuran 
sono kusafukanu 


Kamiyo yori aretsugikureba hi to sawam kuni mwa michite 
ajimura no kayoi wa yukedo waga kouru kimi nishi araneba 
hiru wa hi no kururumade yoru wa yo no akuru kiwami 


omoirsut'ju i mo negatemuo akashitsurakumo nagaki kono yo wo 

Yama no ha m ajnnura sawagi yukunaredo ware wa sabushie 
kimi nishi araneba 

Omiji no Toko no yama naru Isayagawa kc no korogoro wa 
koitsutsumo aran 


Kaguyama wa Unebi wo oshito Mnnmashi to aiarasoiki 
kamiyo yori kaku narurashi inishie mo shika narekoso 
utsusemi mo tsuma wo arasourashiki 

Kaguyama to Mimmashiyama to aishi toki tachite mi ni koslu 

Watatsuim no toyohatagumo ni inhi sashi koyoi no tsukuyo 


Kimi ga yuki kenagaku narinu yama tazune mukae ka yukati 
machi nika matan 

Kakubakan koitsutsu arazuwa takayama no lwane shi makite 

Aritsutsumo kimi woba matan uchmabiku waga kurokami ni 
shimo no okumadeni 

Aki no ta no ho no e ni kirau asagasumi izuhe no kata ni 
waga koi yaman 


Amanohara furisakcmireba Okimi no munochi wa nagaku 



Aohaca no Kohara no ue wo kayoutowa me ruwa miredomo 
tadam awanukamo 


Hiro wa yoshi omoivamutomo tamakazura kage in mietsutsu 


Isanacon Omi no unn wo oki sakete kogikuru fune 
he csukite kogikuru fune okitsukai itaku na-haneso 
hecsukai itaku na-haneso wakakusa no csuma no 
omou ton tatsu 


le naraba mxo ga te makan kusamakura tabi ni koyaseru 
kono tabito aware 


Iwashiro no hamamatsu ga e wo hikimusubi masakiku araba 
mata kaen mm 

Ie m areba ke m moru n wo kusamakura tabi mshi areba 
shii no ha m moru 


Kasumi tatsu nagaki harubi no kuremkeru wazuki mo shirazu 
murakimo no kokoro wo itami nuekodon uranagekioreba 
tamadasuki kake no yoroshiku totsukarm waga Okimi no 
idemashi no yama kosu kaze no hit on oru waga koromode ni 
asa yoi ni kaeramureba masurao to omoeru ware mo 
kusamakura tabi nishi areba omoiyaru tazuki wo shirant 
Ami no ura no amaotomera ga yaku shio no omoi zo yakuru 
waga shitagokoro 


Yamagoshi no kaze wo rokijimi nuru yo ochizu le naru uno wo 
kakete shmubitsu 

2 5 

Nigitazu m funanori senro tsuki mateba shio mo kanamu 
ima wa kogndena 


Fuyugomon haru sankureba nakazarishi tori mo kinakmu 
sakazanshi hana mo sakeredo yama wo shigemi intemo torazu 
kusa fukami toritemo iruzu akiyama no konoha wo mitewa 
momiji woba toritezo shinubu aoki woba okitezo nageku 
soko shi urameshi akiyama ware wa 


Umasake Miwa no yama aonivoshi Nara no yama no 
yama no ma ni lkakurumade michi no kuma itsumorumadeni 
tsubarani mo mitsutsu yukanwo shibashiba mo misaken yama wo 
kokoro naku kumo no kakusaubeshiva 

Miwayama wo sbika mo kakusnka kumo dannno kokoro aranamo 

Kimi matsuto waga koioreba waga yado no sudare ugokashi 
aki no kaze fuku 

Yasumislnshi wago Okimi no kaslnkokiya mihaka csukauru 
Yamashina no Kagami no yama ni yoru wamo yo no koto go to 
hiru wamo hi no kotogoto ne nomiwo nakitsutsu anteya 
momoshiki no omiyabito wa yukiwakarenan 


3 r 

Kaze wodani kouruwa tomoshi kaze wodani kontoshi mataba 
nam ka nagekan 

Ware wamoya Yasumiko crari mmahito no egatem su tou 
Yasunuko etan 


Imo ga tame ware cam a Inriu okibe naru tama yosemochiko 

Asagin m nurenisln koromo hosazushite hitori \a kimi ga 
yamaji koyuran 


Kakaranto kanetc slnnseba omifune hateshi to man m 
shimc yuwamashiwo 

Yasunnshishi wago Okimi no 5mifunc macbi ka kouran 
Shiga no Karasaki 

Utsuscmi shi kanu m tacneba hanareite asa nageku kimi 
sakarnte waga kouru kinn tama naraba te ni makimochite 
kmu naraba nuo;u toki mo naku waea kouru kinn zo kizo no vo 
ime ni nnetsuru 

* * * 


Mi~Yoshmu no Mimiga no mine ni toki nakuzo yuki wa funkeru 
ma nakuzo amc wa funkeru sono yuki no toki nakiga goto 
sono ame no ma nakiga goto kuma mo ochizu omoitsutsuzo kuru 
sono yamamiclu wo 



Waga sato 111 oyuki rurcn Ohara no furinishi sato m 
furamakuwa nochi 

Waga oka no okami in lire furashimesln yuki no kudake shx 
soko m chiriken 


Haru sugice natsu kirarurashi shirorae no koromo hoshitari 


Yasumishishi waga Okmu no yu sareba meshitamaurashi 
akekureba roiramaurashi Kamioka no yama no momiji wo 
kyo mokamo toitamawamashi asu mokamo mesliitamawamashi 
sono yama wo funsakemitsutsu yu sareba ayam kanaslnmi 
akekureba urasabikurashi aratae no koromo no sode wa 
hiru roki mo nasbi 


Moyuru hi mo tonte tsutsumite fukuro mwa iruto lwazuyamo 
shiruro iwanakumo 

Kirayama m tanabiku kumo no aogumo no hoshi sakariyuku 
tsuki mo sakarite 


Ina to ledo shiuru Shihi lioga shiigatari konogoro kikazute 
ware koimken 

Ina to iedo katare katareto norasekoso Shihi iwa mose 
shiigatan to noru 


Momozutau Iware no ike ni naku kamo wo ky 5 nomi miteya 




Ashihiki no yama no slnzuku ni imo matsuto ware tachmurenu 
yama no shizuku ni 

A wo matsuto kimi ga nureken aslnhiki no yama no shizuku ni 
naramashimonow T o 


Taki no ue no Mifune no yama ni iru kumo no tsuneni aranto 
waga mowanakuru 

5 1 

Uneme no sode fukikaesu Asukakaze miyako wo tomi 
itazurani fuku 


Ashibe yuku kamo no hagai ni shimo furite samuki yube wa 
Yamato shi omohoyu 


Iwabashiru Tarunn no ue no sawarabi no moeizuru haru ni 


Waga seko wo Yamato e yaruto sayo fukete akatokitsuyu ni 
waga tachinureshi 

Futari yukedo yukisugigataki akiyama wo ikani ka kimi ga 
hitori koyuran 

5 <5-7 

Kamukaze no Ise no kuni nimo aramashiwo liarn shika kiken 
kimi mo aranakuni 

Mnnaku lion waga suru kimi mo aranakum nam shika kiken 
ulna tsukarurum 


Utsusomi no hito naru ware ya asu yoriwa Futagami yama wo 
irose to waga min 

Iso no ue ni ouru ashibi wo taoramedo misubeki kinn ga 
anto lwanakum 


Okureite koitsutsu arazuwa oishikan michi no kumami m 
shime yue waga se 


Hitogoto wo shigemi kochitami ono ga yo m imada wataranu 
asakawa wataru 

62 -3 

Utsuso wo Omi no okimi ama nareya Irago ga shima no 
ramamo karimasu 

Utsusemi no inochi wo oshimi nanu m nure Irago no shima no 
tamamo kariosu 


Tsunusahafu Iware 110 michi wo asa sarazu yukiken Into no 
omoitsutsu kayoikemakuwa hototogisu naku satsuki mwa 
ayamegusa hanatachibana wo tama m nuki kazura m sento 
nagatsuki no shigure no toki wa momijiba wo orikazasanto 
hau kuzu no iya tdnagaku yorozuyo m taejito omoite 
kayoiken kimi woba asu yu yoso mkamo min 

Komonku no Hatsuseotome ga te m makeru tama wa midarete 
arito iwazuyamo 

Kawakaze no samuki Hatsusc wo nagekitsutsu kinn ga arukum 
mru hito mo acva 


N ay u take no tooyoru Miko samtsurau wag a okimi wa 
komonku no Hatsuse no yama ni kamusabi m ltsuknmasuto 
tamazusa no hito zo litsuru oyozure ka waga kikitsuru 
tawakoto ka waga kikitsuru mo ametsuchi ni kuyashiki koto no 
yononaka no kuyashiki koto wa amagumo no sokuc no kiwami 
ametsuchi no i tare ruma deni tsue tsukimo tsukazumo vukite 
yuke toi ishiura mochite waga yado m mimoro wo tatete 
makurabe ni lwaibe wo sue takatama wo ma naku nukitare 
yudasuki kama ni kakete ame naru Sasara no onu no 
nanafusuge te m tonmochite hisakata no Amanokawara m 
idetachite nnsogitemashiwo takayama no iwao no ue ni 

Oyozure no tawakoto tokamo takayama no iwao no ue 111 
kimi ga koyaseru 

Isonokami Furu no yama naru sugimura no omoisugubeki 
kimi naranakuni 


Okimi no mutsutama aeya Toyokuni no Kagami no yama wo 
miya to sadamuru 

Toyokuni no Kagami no yama no lwato tate komonnikeraslu 
matedo kimasazu 

lwato waru tajikara mogamo tayowaki omma nishi areba 
sube no sluranaku 


Waga seko wa izuku yukuran okitsumo no Naban no yama wo 
ky 5 ka koyuran 

3 2 5 


Tamadasuki Unebi no yama no Kashihara no hijin no miyo yu 
arcmaslnshi Kami no koto goto tsuga no ki no lya tsugitsugim 
amenoshita shirashnneshishiwo sora ni mitsu Yama to wo okitc 
aomyoshi Narayama wo koc lkasamam omohoshimeseka 
amazakaru hma mwa aredo lwabashiru Onn no kuni no 
Sasanami no Otsu no miya ni amenoshita shirashimeshiken 
Sumerogi no Kami no Mikoto no 5miya wa koko to kikedomo 
5tono wa kokoto ledomo harukusa no shigeku oitaru 
kasunn tatsu harubi no kireru momoshiki no 5miyadokoro 
mireba kanashimo 

Sasanami no Shiga no Karasaki sakiku aredo 5miyabito no 
fune machikanetsu 

Sasanami no Shiga no owada yodomutomo mukashi no hito m 
mata mo awameyamo 


Yasumishishi waga Okimi no kikoshiosu amenoshita ni 

kuni washimo sawatn aredomo yama kawa no kiyoki kochi to 

mikokoro wo Yoshinu no kuni no hana chirau Akitsu no nube m 

nnyabashira futoshikimaseba momoshiki no omiyabito wa 

fune namete asakawa watari funagioi yukawa wataru 

kono kawa no tayuru koto naku kono yama no iya takashirasu 

mizu hasliiru taki no miyako wa miredo akanukamo 

Miredo akanu Yoshinu no kawa no tokoname no tayuru koto naku 
mata kaeri min 


Yasumishishi waga Okimi kamunagara kamusabi sesuto 
Yoshinugawa tagitsu kochi ni takadono wo takashirimashite 
noboritachi kummi wo sureba tatanaharu aogakiyama 
yamatsumi no matsuru mitsuki to harube wa hana kazashimochi 
aki tateba momiji kazaseri Yukawa no kami mo 


omike m tsukaematsuruco karmtsuse m ukawa wo tate 
shimotsuse ni sade sashiwatasu yama kawa mo vorite tsukauru 
kami no nnyo kamo 

Yama kawa mo yorire tsukauru kamunagara tagitsu kochi m 
funade scsukamo 


Ago no ura 111 funanori suran otomera ga tamamo no suso 111 
shio mitsuranka 

Shiosai m Irago no shimabe kogu fune m imo noruranka 
araki slnmami wo 


Yasumishishi waga okimi takaterasu Hi no Miko 
kamunagara kamusabi scsuto futoshikasu miyako wo okite 
komoriku no Hats use no yama wa maki tatsu arayamamichi wo 
iwagane no shimoto oslnnabe sakaton no asa koemashite 
tamakagiru yu sankureba nnyuki furu Aki no onu ni 
hatasusuki shmo wo oshmabe kusamakura tabiyadori sesu 
mishie omoite 

Aki no nu ni yadoru tabibito uclimabiki 1 mo nurameyamo 
mishie omouni 

Makusa karu aranu mwa aredo momijiba no sugimshi kimi ga 
katami tozo kosln 

Himukasln no nu ni kagiroi no tatsu mietc kaenmi sureba 
tsuki katabukmu 

Hmamishi no Miko no Mikoto no uma namete mikari tataslnshi 
toki wa kimukau 


Iwami no unn Tsunu no urami wo ura nashito Into koso mirame 

3 2 7 

kata nasluto Into koso iniramc yoshieyashi ura wa nakutomo 
yoslneyashi kata wa nakutomo isanaton umibe wo sashite 
Watazu no anso no ue m kaaonaru tamamo okitsumo 
asa hafuru kazc koso yorame yoi hafuru nami koso kiyore 
nami no muta ka yori kaku yon tamamo nasu yorineshi imo wo 
tsuyujimo no okiteshi kureba kono michi no yasokuma gotom 
yorozutabi kaennn suredo lya tom sato wa sakannu 
tya takam yama mo koekmu natsukusa no omoishinaete 
shmuburan imo ga kado nun nabike kono yama 

Iwami no ya Takatsunuyama no ko no 111a yori waga furu sode wo 
imo mitsuranka 

Sasa no ha wa miyaina mo sayam sayagedomo ware wa imo omou 


Tsunusahafu Iwami no uini 110 kotosaegu Kara no saki naru 
ikun mzo fukanuru ouru anso nizo tamamo wa ouru 
tamamo nasu nabikmeshi ko wo fukamiru no fukamete moedo 
saneshi yo wa lkura mo arazu hau tsuta no wakare shi kureba 
kimo mukau kokoro wo itami omoitsutsu kaerimi suredo 
obune no Watan no yama no momijiba no chin no magai m 
imo ga sode sayani mo miezu tsumagomoru Yakami no yama no 
kumoma yon watarau tsuki no oshikedomo kakuroikureba 
amazutau mlu saslunure masurao to omoeru ware mo 
shikitae no koromo no sode wa torite nurenu 

Aogoma no agaki wo hayami kumoi nizo imo ga atan wo 
sugite kimkeru 

Akiyama m otsuru morrujiba shimaraku wa na-chirimi dares o 
imo ga atari mm 


Ametsuchi no hajime no toki no lnsakata no Amanokawara ni 
yaoyorozu chiyorozu kami no kamutsudoi tsudoiimashite 


kaniuhakan hakansln toki ni amaterasu Hirume no Mikoto 
ame woba sliirasliimesuto Ashiliara no Mizuho no Kuni wo 
amersuchi no yoriai no kiwami shirashimcsu Kami no Mikoto to 
amagumo no yae kakiwakite kamukudashi imasematsunshi 
takaterasu Hi no Miko wa Asuka no Kiyomi no miya ni 
kamunagara futoshikimashite Sumerogi no shikimasu kum to 
Amanohara lwato wo hiraki kamuagan agariimashinu 
waga 5kimi Miko no Mikoto no amenoshita shirashimeshiseba 
harubana no t5tokaranto mochizuki no tatawashikento 
amenoslnta yomo no hito no 5bune no omoitanomite 
amatsumizu aogite matsuni ikasamani omohoshimeseka 
tsure mo naki Mayumi no oka ni miyabashira futosbikiimasln 
miaraka wo takashinmashite asa gotoni mikoto towasazu 
hitsuki no maneku nannuru soko yuem Miko no miyabito 
yukue shirazumo 

Hisakata no ame mirugotoku aogimishi Miko no mikado no 
aremaku osiumo 

Akanesasu hi wa teraseredo nubatama no yowataru tsuki no 
kakuraku oshimo 


Shima no miya Magari no ike no hanachidori hitome ni koite 
ike ni kazukazu 


Tobu ton no Asuka no kawa no kamitsuse ni ouru tamamo wa 
shimotsuse m nagare furifuru tamamo nasu ka yori kaku yon 
nabikaishi tsuma no mikoto no tatanazuku nigihada surawo 
tsurugitachi nil ni soe neneba nubatama no yodoko mo aruran 
soko yueni nagusamekanete kedashikumo auyato moite 
tamadare no Oclii no onu no asatsuyu ni tamamo wa hizuchi 
yugiri ni koromo wa nurete kusamakura tabine kamo suru 
awanu kimi yue 

3 2 9 

Shikitae no sode kaeshi kimi tamadare no Ochmu ni suginu 
mata mo awameyamo 


Tobu ton no Asuka no kawa no kamitsusc ni iwahashi watashi 
shimotsuse ni uchihashi watasu iwahashi ni omabikeru 
ramamo zo tayurcba ouru uchihashi ni oiooreru 
kawamo mozo karurcba hayuru nani shikamo waga okimi no 
tarascba tamamo no mokoro koyaseba kawamo no gotoku 
nabikaishi yoroshiki kimi ga asamiya wo wasuretamauya 
yumiya wo somukitamauya utsusomi to omoishi toki 
harube wa hana onkazashi aki tatcba momijiba kazashi 
shikitae no sode tazusawan kagami nasu mircdomo akazu 
mochizuki no iya mezurashimi omohoshishi kimi to tokidoki 
idemashite asobitamaishi mikemukau Kmohe no miya wo 
tokonnya to sadametamaite ajisahafu mcgoto mo taenu 
shikarekamo ayani kanashimi nuedon no katakoizuma 
asaton no kayowasu kimi ga natsukusa no omoishmaete 
yuzutsu no ka yuki kaku yuki obune no tayutau mireba 
nagusamuru kokoro mo arazu soko yueni sen sube shireya 
oto nomimo na nomimo taezu ametsuchi no iya tonagaku 
shinubiyukan mina ni kakaseru Asukagawa yorozuyo madem 
hashikiyashi waga okimi no katami m koko wo 

Asukagawa shigarami watashi sekamaseba nagaruru mizu mo 
nodoni ka aramaslii 

Asukagawa asu dam mmto omoeyamo waga okimi no 
mina wasure senu 

Kakemakumo yuyushikikamo 
Asuka no Makanu no hara ni 
kashikokumo sadametamaite 
yasumishishi waga okimi no 
maki tatsu Fuwayama koete 


lwamakumo ayani kashikoki 
hisakata no Amatsunnkado wo 
kamusabuto iwagakurimasu 
kikoshimesu sotomo no kum no 
komatsurugi Wazami ga hara no 


karimiya ni amorimashite amenoshita osametamai 
osukum wo sadameramauto ton ga naku Azuma no kum no 
miikusa wo meshitamaite chihayaburu hito wo yawascto 
matsurowanu kum wo osameto Miko nagara yosashitamacba 
omimi m tachi torihakashi 5mite ni yumi tonmotashi 
mnkusa wo adomoiramai toronouru tsuzumi no oto wa 
lkazuchi no koe to kikumade fukinaseru kuda no oto mo 
atamitaru tora ka hoyuruto morobito no obiyurumadeni 
sasagetaru hata no nabiki wa fuyugomori haru sankureba 
nu gotom tsukite aru hi no kaze no muta nabikuga gotoku 
tonmoteru yuhazu no sawagi miyuki furu fuyu no hayashi m 
tsumuji kamo imakiwataruto omoumade kiki no kashikoku 
hikihanatsu ya no shigekeku oyuki no midarete kitare 
matsurowazu tachimukaishimo rsuyujimo no kenaba kenubeku 
yuku tori no arasou hashi ni Watarai no Itsuki no miya yu 
kamukaze ni lfukimadowashi amagumo wo In no me mo misezu 
tokoyami in ooitamaite sadameteslri mizuho no Kum wo 
kamunagara futoslnkimashite yasumishishi waga 5kimi no 
amenoshita m5shitamaeba yorozuyo m shika shimo aranto 
yubana no sakayuru toki ni waga okimi Miko no mikado wo 
kamumiya ni yosoimatsurite tsukawashishi mikado no Into mo 
shirotae no asagoromo kite Haniyasu no mikado no hara ni 
akanesasu hi no kotogoto shishijimono lhaifushitsutsu 
nubatama no yube ni nareba otono wo furisakemitsutsu 
uzura nasu ihaimotohori samoraedo samoraieneba 
harutori no samayoinureba nageki mo imada suginum 
omoi mo imada tsukineba kotosaegu Kudara no hara yu 
kamuhafuri hafuriimashite asamoyoslri Kino he no miya wo 
tokomiya to takaku shimatsurite kamunagara shizumarimashinu 
shikaredomo waga 5kimi no yorozuyo to omohoshimeshite 
tsukurashishi Kaguyama no miya yorozuyo ni suginto moeya 
ame no goto furisakemitsutsu tamadasuki kakete shinuban 

Hisakata no ame shirashinuru kimi yuern hitsuki mo shirazu 


Hamyasu no ike no csucsumi no koniornui no yukuc wo shiram 
toneri \va madou 


Amatobu\a Karu no lmcln wa wagunoko ga sato mshi areba 
nemokorom mnnaku hoshikedo yamazu yukaba lntomc wo 61111 
maneku yukaba Into shinnubcmi sanckazura nocln mo awanto 
obune no omoitanomitc tamakagiru nvagakifuchi no 
komon nonu koirsutsu aruni wataru lii no kurevukuga goto 
tcru tsuki no kumogakuru goto okitsumo no nabikishi imo wa 
momijiba no sugitc imkito tamazusa no tsukai no icba 
azusayunn oto ni kikite lwan sube sen sube shiram 
oto nonnwo kikite arieneba waga kouru clue no hitoe 1110 
nagusamoru kokoro mo ariyato wagimoko ga yamazu idemishi 
Karu no ldn ni waga tachikikeba tamadasuki Unebi no yama ni 
liaku tori no koe mo kikoezu tamahoko no micln yuku hito mo 
hitori dam niteshi yukaneba sube wo nann imo ga na yobite 
sode zo fnritsuru 

Akiyama no momiji wo shigenn madomuru imo wo motomen 
yamaji shirazumo 

Momijiba no chinvuku nabem tamazusa no tsukai wo mireba 
aishi hi omolioyu 

109-1 l 

Ursusemi to omoishi toki m tonmoclute waga futari mishi 
liashinde no tsutsumi m tateru tsuki no ki no kochigochi no e no 
liaru no ha no sliigelaga gotoku omoerishi imo mwa aredo ^ 
tanomerislii kora mwa aredo yononaka wo somuki shi eneba 
kagiroi no moyuru aranu ni shirotac no amaliiregakuri 
ronjimono asadachiimasliite irilii nasu kakurimshikaba 
wagimoko ga katami ni okeru midorigo no koinaku gotom 
toriatau mono shi nakereba otokojimono wakibasamimochi 
wagimoko to futari waga neshi makurazuku tsumaya no uclu ni 
him wamo urasabikurashi yoru wamo ikizukiakaslii 

33 2 

nagekedomo sen sube shirani kouredomo au yosln wo nami 
5tori no Hagai no yama ni waga kouru lmo wa imasuto 
hito no leba iwane sakumite nazumikosln yokckumozo naki 
utsusemi to omoishi imo ga tamakagiru honokani danimo 
mienu omoeba 

Kozo miteshi aki no tsukuyo wa terasedomo aimishi imo wa 
iya toshi sakaru 

Fusumaji wo Hikite no yama ni imo wo okite yamaji wo yukeba 
ikeritomo nashi 


Akiyama no shitaburu imo nayutake no tooyoru kora wa 
lkasamani omoioreka takunawa no nagaki inochi wo 
tsuyu kosowa ashita m okite yube mwa kiyuto le 
kiri kosowa yube niwa tachite ashita mwa usuto ie 
azusayumi o to kiku ware mo ohoni mishi koto kuyashikiwo 
shikitae no tamakura makite tsurugitachi mi ni soe neken 
wakakusa no sono tsuma no ko wa sabushimika omoite nuran 
kuyashirmka omoikouran toki narazu sugimshi kora ga 
asatsuyu no goto yugin no goto 

Sasanami no Shigatsu no kora ga makanji no kawase no michi wo 
mireba sabushimo 

Amakazou Otsu no ko ga aishi hi m ohoni mishikaba 
ima zo kuyashiki 


Tamamoyoshi Sanuki no kum wa kumkara ka miredomo akanu 
kamukara ka kokoda totoki ametsuclii hitsuki to tomoni 
tariyukan kami no miomo to tsugite kuru Naka no mmato yu 
fune ukete waga kogikureba tokitsukaze kumoi ni fukuni 
oki mireba shikinami tachi he mireba shiranaim sawagu 
isanaton umi wo kashikomi yuku fune no kaji hikiorite 
ochikochi no shima wa okedo naguwashi Samine no shima no 


arisomo m ion shite mireba nami no to no shigeki hamabe wo 
shikitae no makura m nashite aradoko to yorifusu knm ga 
le shiraba yukitemo tsugen tsuma shiraba ki mo towamashiwo 
ramahoko no michi dam shirazu obohoshiku machi ka kouran 
hashiki tsumara wa 

Tsuma mo araba tsumite tagemashi Sami no yama nu no he no uhagi 

Okitsunami kiyoru ariso wo shikitae no makura to makite 
naseru kimi kamo 


Okimi wa kann nishi maseba amagumo no Ikazuchi no ue ni 
lori serukamo 


Yasumishishi waga okimi takahikaru waga Hi no Miko no 
uma namete mikari tataseru wakagomo wo Kariji no onu ni 
slnshi kosowa lhaiorogame uzura koso lhaimotohore 
shislnjimono ihaiorogami uzura nasu lhaimotohori 
kashikomito tsukaematsunte hisakata no ame mirugotoku 
masokagami aogite miredo harukusa no iya mezurashiki 
waga okimi kamo 

Hisakata no amayuku tsuki wo ami ni sashi waga okimi wa 
kinugasa m sen 


Tamamo karu Mmume wo sugite natsukusa no Nujima no saki ni 
fune chikazukinu 

Awaji no Nujima no saki no hamakaze m imo ga musubishi 
hi mo fukikaesu 

Aratae no Fujie no ura m Suzuki tsuru ama toka miran 
tabi yuku ware wo 


Inabinu mo yukisugigatem omoereba kokoro kohoshiki 
Kako no shima miyu 

Tomoshibi no Akashi-oto nx iran hi ya kogiwakarenan 
le no atari mizu 

Amazakaru hma no nagaji yu koikureba Akashi no to yon 
Yamatoshima miyu 

Kehi no umi no mwa yoku arashi karigomo no midareizu rrnyu 
ama no tsunbune 


Mononofu no yaso-Ujigawa no ajirogi m isayou nami no 
yukue shirazumo 


Oini no nil yunamichidori naga nakeba kokoro mo shmuni 
mislne omohoyu 


Naguwashiki Inami no umi no okitsunami chie m kakunnu 
Yamatoshimane wa 

Okinn no to no mikado to arigayou shimato wo mireba 
kamiyo sin omohoyu 


Konioriku no Hatsuse no yama no yama no ma ni isayou kumo wa 
imo mkamo aran 


Mi-Kumanu no ura no hamayu momoe nasu kokoro wa moedo 
tadani awanukamo 



Imshic ni anken hiro mo waga goto ka imo m koitsutsu 


Kamoyama no nvane sin makeru ware wokamo shiraniro imo ga 
machitsutsu aran 

Na-omoito kimi wa ledomo awan roki itsu to shiriteka 
waga koizaran 


Kyo kyo to waga matsu kinn wa Lhikawa no kai ni majmte 
anto lwazuyamo 

Tadano ai wa aigatsumashiji Islukawa ni kumo tachiwatare 
mitsutsu slnnuban 


Ainc no umi ni kumo no nami tachi tsuki no finie hoshi no hayashi ni 
kogikakuru nnyu 


Ashihiki no yamagawa no sc no naru nabeni Yuzuki ga take ni 
kumo taclnwataru 


Makimuku no yamabe toyomire yuku mizu no minawa no goroshi 
yo no hi to ware wa 


Toku ante kumoi m miyuru imo ga ie ni hayaku itaran 
ayume kurogoma 


1 43 

Tokoshiem natsu fuyu yukeya kawagoromo ogi hanatanu 
yama ni sumu Into 


Okura no trie toyomunan imebito no Fushimi ga tai ni 
kan watarurashi 

U 5 

Sayonaka to yo wa fukenurashi kariganc no kikoyuru sora ni 
tsuki wataru miyu 


Hisakata no Ame-no-Kaguyama kono yube kasumi tanabiku 
haru tatsurashimo 


Imshie no hi to no ueken sugi ga e m kasumi tanabiku 
haru wa kmurashi 


Waga seko m urakoioreba Amanogawa yofune kogitoyomu 
kaji no to kikoyu 


Ta so kare to ware wo na-toiso nagatsuki no tsuyu m nuretsutsu 
kimi matsu ware wo 


Sumrnoe no oda wo karasu ko yatsuko kamo naki 
yatsuko aredo imo ga mitame to watakushida karu 


* 5 * 

Kimi ga came tajikara tsukare oritaru kmu zo 
haru saraba lkanaru iro m sunteba yoken 


Ninnuro wo fumishizumu ko shi tadama narasumo 
tama no goto tentaru kimi wo uchi c to mose 


Megushito waga mou imo wa haya mo shmeyamo 
ikeritomo ware m yorubeshito hito no lwanakuni 


Asatode no kimi ga ayui wo nurasu tsuyuhara 
hayaku okiidetsutsu ware mo mosuso nurasana 


Tarachine no haha ga te hanare kakubakan subenaki koto wa 
imada senakuni 

* 56 

Ware yu nochi umaren hito wa waga gotoku koi suru michi ni 
aikosuna yume 


Masurao no utsushigokoro mo ware wa nashi yoru him to lwazu 
koi shi watareba 

i 5 5 

Uchihisasu miyaji wo hito wa michiyukedo waga mou kimi wa 
tada hitori norm 


15 9 

hvao sura yukitdrubeki masurao mo koi tou koto wa 
no chi kuimkeri 


Koishinaba koi mo shinetoya wagimoko ga wagie no kado wo 
sugite yukuran 


Ikanaran na wo ou kami m tamuke seba waga mou imo wo 
line nidani mm 


Ametsuchi to iu na no taetc arabakoso imashi to ware to 
au koto yamame 


Kuril michi wa iwa fumu yama no nakumogamo waga matsu kimi ga 
unia tsumazukuni 


Y amashina no Koliata no yama wo uma wa aredo kachi yu waga koshi 
na wo omoikane 


Mizu no ue m kazu kakugotoki waga inochi imo ni awanto 


Otsuchi mo toraba tsukimedo yononaka ni tsukisenu mono wa 
koi nishi arikeri 



Imo ni koi menu asake ni oshidon no koko yu wataruwa 
imo ga tsukai ka 


Tarachme no haha ga kau ko no mayogomori komoreru imo wo 
mm yoshi mogamo 


Hihito no nukagami yueru shimeyu no shiminishi kokoro 
ware wasuremeya 


Hayahito no na ni ou vogoe ichijiroku waga na wa nontsu 
tsuma to tanomase 


Tsurugitachi moroha no toki m ashi fumite shim mshi shinan 
kimi m yontewa 


Nnhari no ima tsukuru michi sayakam mo kikitekerukamo 
imo ga ue no koto wo 

Narukami no shimashi tovomite sashikumori ame mo furabaya 
kimi ga tomaran 

Narukami no shimashi toyomite furazutomo ware wa tomaran 
imo shi todomeba 


Ashihara no Mizuho no Kuni wa kamunagara kotoage senu kuni 
shikaredomo kotoage 20 waga suru koto sakiku masalaku maseto 


tsutsumi naku sakiku imasaba arisonami antemo minto 
locnanii chicnami ni shiki kotoage su ware wa kocoage su ware wa 

Slnkishima no Yainato no kuni wa kotodama no rasukuru kuni zo 
masakiku ankoso 

J 77 

Furimshi onnna mshiteya kakubakan kox ni shizuman 
tawarawa no goto 


Mivabxo to ware wa kikeruwo yado kasazu ware wo kaeseri 
oso no miyabio 

Miyabio m ware wa arikerx yado kasazu kaeshxshx ware zo 
miyabio nxwa aru 


Okimi wa kamx nishi maseba akagoma no harabau tai wo 
miyako to nashitsu 


Wagnnoko wa kushiro m aranan hidante no waga oku no te ni 
makite inamashiwo 


Orniva no uclix made kikoyu abiki suto ago totonouru 
ama no yobigoc 


Kuruslxikumo furikuru ame ka Miwa ga saki Sanu no watarx ni 
xe mo aranakum 



Sashinabe m yu wakasc kodomo Ichihizu no hibashi yori kon 
kitsu m amusan 


Inishie no Into m ware areya Sasanami no furuki miyako wo 
inireba kanashiki 

Sasanami no kumtsumikami no urasabite aretaru miyako 
mireba kanashimo 


Tabi mshite monokohoshikmi yamashita no ake no sohofune 
oki m kogu miyu 


Sakurada e tazu nakiwataru Ayuchigata slno hmikerasln 
tazu nakiwataru 


Iso no saki kogitamiyukeba Omi no mi yaso no mmato m 
tazu sawani naku 


Waga fune wa Hira no minato m kogihaten oki e na-sakan 
sayo fukeniken 


Izuku nika ware wa yadoran Takashima no Kachinu no hara ni 
kono hi kurenaba 


Kaku yueni mijito iumonowo Sasanami no furuki miyako wo 
misetsutsu motona 


i 93 -4 

Yasumishishi waga okimi takahikaru Hi no Miko 
hisakata no Amatsumiya ni kamunagara kami to imaseba 
soko woshimo ayam kashikomi hiru wamo hi no kotogoto 
yoru wamo yo no kotogoto fushi 1 nagekedo akitaranukamo 

Okimi wa kami nishi maseba aniagumo no loe ga shita m 


Yamato koi 1 no neraenum kokoro naku kono su no saki m 
tazu nakubeshiya 


Otono no kono motohon no yuki na-fumisone 
shibaslnba mo furazaru yuki zo yama nomini funshi yuki zo 
yume yoruna Into ya na-fumisone yuki wa 

Aritsutsumo meshitamawanzo otono no kono motohori no 
yuki na-fumisone 


Takeba nure takaneba nagaki imo ga kami konogoro rainum 

Hito wa mma ima wa nagashito taketo ledo kimi ga mislii kami 

Tachibana no kage fumu nnchi no yachimata ni mono wozo omou 
11110 ni awazute 


Kamukaze no Isc no hamaogi onfusete tabme ya suran 
araki hamabe ni 



Kawakami no yutsuiwamura m kusa musazu tsunemmogamona 
toko o tome nite 


Hikumauu m 1110a hagiwara inmidari koromo mowase 
tabi no shirnshi in 


Izuku mka funahate suran Are no saki kogitamiyukishi 


Masurao ga satsuya tabasami tachimukai iru Matokata wa 
mirurn sayakeshi 


Yasumislnshi waga Okimi takaterasu Hi no Miko 
aratae no Fuji war a ga ue m osukum wo meshitamawanto 
miaraka wa takashirasanto kamunagara omohosu nabeni 
ametsuchi mo yorite arekoso lwabaslnru Omi no kuni no 
koromode no Tanakamiyama no makisaku hi no tsumade wo 
mononofu no yaso-Ujigawa ni tamamo nasu ukabe nagasere 
sowo toruto sawagu mitami mo le wasure mi mo tanashirazu 
kamojimono nnzu ni ukiite waga tsukuru Hi no mikado m 
shiranu kum yori-Koseji yon waga kuni wa tokoyo ni naran 
fumi oeru ayashiki kame mo aratayo to Izumi no kawa ni 
mochikoseru maki no tsumade wo momotarazu ikada ni tsukuri 
nobosuran isohaku mireba kamunagara narashi 


Yasumislnshi wago Okimi takaterasu Hi no Miko 
aratae no Fujn ga hara m 5mikado hajimetamaite 
Haniyasu no tsutsumi no ue ni aritatashi meshitamaeba 


Yamato no Ao-Kaguyama wa hi no tate no 5mikado m 
haruyama to shimisabi taten Unebi no kono mizuyama wa 
hi no yoko no 5rmkado ru mizuyama to yamasabi imasu 
Miminasln no aosugayama wa sotomo no 5 mikado ni 
yoroshmabe kamusabi tateri naguwaslii Yoshmu no yama wa 
kagetomo no omikado yu kumoi mzo t5ku arikcru 
takashiruya amc no mikage ameshiruya hi no mikage no 
mizu kosowa tokoshienarame mil no mashimizu 

Fujiwara no omiyatsukae aretsugan otomc ga to mo wa 


Takahikaru waga Hi no Miko no yorozuyo m kum shirasamashi 
Shima no miya wamo 


Ametsucln to tomoih oento omoitsutsu tsukaematsurishi 
kokoro tagainu 


Asahi teru Sada no okabe ni mureitsutsu waga naku namida 
yamu toki mo nashi 


Mitatashi no shima no ariso wo ima mireba oizarishi kusa 


Himukashi no taki no mikado m samoraedo kino mo kyo mo 
mesu koto mo nashi 


Mizu tsutau iso no urami no iwatsutsuji moku saku michi wo 
mat a minankamo 



Hitohi mwa chitabi mairishi himukashi no 5ki mikado wo 


Asagumon hi no irmureba mitatashi no shima 111 ornre 


Asahi tern Shima no mikado m obohoslnku hitooto mo seneba 


Ochitagichi nagaruru mizu no iwa m furi yodomcru yodo ni 
tsuki no kage miyu 


Kakemakumo ayani kashikoshi Fujrwara no miyako shimimmi 
hito washimo nnchite aredomo kimi washimo oku imasedo 
yukimukau toshmoo nagaku tsukaekoshi kimi no mikado wo 
ame no goto aogite mitsutsu kashikokedo omoitanomite 
itsu shikamo hitarashimashite mochizuki no tatawashikento 
waga omou Miko no Mikoto wa haru sareba Uetsuki ga ue no 
to tsuhito matsu no shitaji yu noborashite kunimi asobashi 
nagatsuki no shigure no aki wa otono no migiri sbimimim 
tsuyu oite nabikeru hagi wo tamadasuki kakete shinubashi 
miyoki furu fuyu no asliita wa sashiyanagi nehariazusa wo 
mite ni torashitamaite asobashishi waga 5kinn wo 
kasumi tatsu haru no higurashi masokagami miredo akaneba 
yorozuyo ni kaku shimogamoto obune no tanomeru toki ni 
oyozure ni me kamo madoeru 5tono wo furisakemireba 
shirotae ni kazanmatsunte uchihisasu miya no toneri mo 
tae no ho no asaginu keruwa ime kamo utsutsu kamoto 
kumoriyo no madoeru hodo ni asamoyoshi Kinohe no michi 
tsunusahafu Iware wo mitsutsu kamnhafun hafurimatsureba 


yuku michi no tazuki wo shirani omoedomo shirushi wo nami 
nagekedomo okuka wo nami omisode yuki funshi matsu wo 
koto towanu ki niwa are do mo aratama no tatsu tsuki gotoni 
Amanohara funsakemitsutsu tamadasuki kakece shinubana 

Tsunusahafu Iware no yama ni shirotae ni kakareru kumo wa 
waga okimi kamo 


Momoshinu no Minu no Okimi rnshi no umaya tarere kau koma 
himukashi no umaya ratete kau koma kusa kosowa to rite kau gani 
mizu kosowa kumite kau gani nam shikamo ashige no uma no 

Koromode wo ashige no uma no ibayu koe kokoro arekamo 
tsune yu keni naku 


Midorigo no wakugo ga mi niwa tarachishi haha ni udakae 
suki kakuru liau ko ga mi niwa yukataginu hitsura m nui ki 
unatsuki no warawa ga mi niwa yuihata no sodetsukegoromo 
kishi ware wo nioiyoru kora ga yochi niwa 
mmaiiowata kaguroshi kami wo magushi mochi koko ni kakitare 
toritsukane agetemo maki mi tokimidari warawa ni nashimi 
usumono no nitsukau iro ni murasaki no 5aya no kinu 
Suminoe no Tozato-Onu no mahari mochi nioshishi kmu ni 
Komanishiki himo m nuitsuke sasae kasanae nami kasaneki 
utsusoyashi omi no kora ariginu no takara no kora ga 
utsutae wa hete oru nuno hizarashi no asatezukuri wo 
shikimo nasu wa shikini torishiki shikiya furu inakiotome ga 
tsumatouto ware nizo koshi ochikata no futaya shitagutsu 
tobu tori no Asukaotoko ga nagame lmi nuishi kurogutsu 
sashihakite niwa ni tatazumi makari na-tachito sauru otome ga 
honokikite ware nizo koshi mihanada no kinu no obi wo 
hikobi nasu Karobi ni torashi Watatsumi no tono no iraka ni 


tobikakeru sugaru no gotoki koshiboso m torikazarai 
masokagami toriname kakete onoga kao kacrai mitsutsu 
ham sante nube wo megureba omoshiromi ware wo omoeka 
sanutsutori kinaki kakerau aki sante yamabe wo yukeba 
natsukashito ware wo omoeka amagumo mo yukitanabiku 
kaentachi michi wo kurcba uclnhisasu miyaomina 
sasutake no toneriotoko mo shinuburai kaerai mitsutsu 
taga ko zotoya omohaete aru kaku zoshi koshi 
lmshie sasakishi ware ya hashikiyasln ky5 yamo kora m 
isa mtoya omohaete aru kaku zoshi koshi 
mishie no sakashiki hito mo nochi no yo no katami ni sento 
oibito wo okurishi kuruma mochikaerikoshi 

Shmabakoso aimizu arame lkite araba shirokami kora 111 

Slnrokami shi kora mo omaba kaku no goto wakaken kora in 

Hashikiyashi okma no uta m obohoslnki kokono no kora ya 
kaniakete oran 

Haji wo shmubi haji wo modashite koto mo naku mono lwanu saki 
ware wa yonnan 

Shim mo iki mo onaji kokoro to musubitcshi tomo ya taga wan 
ware mo yonnan 


Mimoro no Kamunabiyama yu tonogumori arac wa funkmu 
amagirai kaze sae fukinu 5kuchi no Makami no hara yu 
omoitsutsu kaerinishi hito ie ni itankiya 

Kaennishi hito wo omouto nubatama no sono yo wa ware mo 
i mo nekaneteki 


Masurao no tom o no oto sunan mononofu no omaetsugnm 
rate tatsurashimo 

Waga Okimi mono na-omohoshi Sumcgami no tsugite tamaeru 
ware nakenakuni 


Ashihiki no yama yukishikaba yamabito no ware m eshimcshi 
yamazuto zo kore 


Osukum no id no mikado ni imashira sin kaku makannaba 
tairakeku ware wa asoban tamudakite ware wa imasan 
Sumera waga uzu no mite mochi kakmadezo negitamau 
uchinadezo negitamau kaerikon hi ainoman ki zo 
kono toyomiki wa 

Masurao no yuku tou michi zo ohorokam omoite yukuna 
masurao no tomo 


Tachibana wa mi sae hana sae sono ha sae e ni shimo furedo 
lya tokoha no ki 


Soramitsu Yamato no kuni wa mizu no ue wa tsuchi yukugotoku 
fune no ue wa toko ni or ugo to 5kami no lwaeru kuni zo 
yotsu no fune funanohe narabe tairakeku haya watarikite 
kaerigoto mosan hi ni ainoman ki zo kono toyormki wa 

Yotsu no fune haya kaerikoto shiraka tsuke waga mo no suso ni 
lwaite matan 


2 39 

Ametsuchi wo cerasu hxtsuki no kiwami naku arubekimonowo 
nani woka omowan 


Waga seko to futan munaseba lkubaku ka kono furu yuki no 


Obune ni makaji shiji nuki kono ago wo Karakuni e vara 
iwae kamitachi 


Masurao ya katakoi scnto nagekedomo slnko no masurao 
nao koimkcri 

Nagekitsutsu masuraonoko no koarekoso waga motoyui no 
hijitc nurekere 


Ie m arishi hirsu m kugi sashi osameteshi koi no yatsuko no 


Karu no ike no urairu yukimeguru kamo surani tamamo no ue ni 
hitori nenakum 


Yoshinu naru Natsumi no kawa no kawayodo m kamo zo nakunaru 
yamakage nishitc 


Aoyama no mine no shirakumo asanikeni tsunem miredomo 
mezurashi waga kimi 



Me mwa mite tc mwa toraenu tsuki no uchi no katsura no gotoki 
imo wo ikam sen 


Ame ni masu Tsukuyomiotoko mai wa sen koyoi no nagasa 
ioyo tsugikoso 


Yakidachi no kado uchihanachi masurao no hogu toyomiki m 
ware eimkeri 


Yuzukuyo kokoro mo shmuni shiratsuyu no oku kono niwa ni 
korogi nakumo 


Tsukuyomi no hikari m kimase ashihiki no yama wo liedatete 

Tsukuyomi no hikari wa kiyoku teraseredo madoeru kokoro 
taezu omohoyu 


Ise no umi no okitsushiranami hana nimoga tsutsumite imo ga 
iezuto ni sen 


Tozuma no koko ni araneba tamahoko no micln wo tad5mi 
omou sora yasukaranakuni nageku sora yasukaranumonowo 
misora yuku kumo nimogamo takatobu tori nimogamo 
asu yukite imo ru kotodoi waga tame ni imo mo koto naku 
imo ga tame ware mo koto naku ima mo mishi goto taguitemogamo 

55 1 

Shikitae no tamakura makazu aida okite toshi zo henikeru 
awanaku moeba 


Inadaki m kisumeru tama wa furatsu nashi konatakanata mo 
kimi ga mammam 


Harukusa wa no chi wa chi riy as us hi rwao nasu toknva m imase 
r5roki waga kimi 


Hi rots umats u lkuyo ka henuru fuku kaze no koe no sumcruwa 
toshi fukamikamo 


Ujmiayama asakaze samushi tabi nishite koromo kasubeki 
imo mo aranakum 


Aratashiki toshi no hajime ni omou dochi imurete oreba 
ureshikumo aruka 


Himakashi no ichi no ueki no kodarumade awazu hisashimi 
ubc koinikeri 

2 63 

Ou no umi no kawara no chidori naga nakeba waga Sahogawa 


Kawazu naku Kamanabigawa ni kage miete ima ka sakuran 
yamabuki no hana 

26 5 

Yuzuku hi sasuya kawabe ru tsukuru ya no kata wo yoroshimi 
ube yosorikeri 


Baranion no tsukureru oda wo hamu karasu manabuta harctc 
hatahoko ni ori 


Kono yo m wa Into goto shigeshi kon yo nimo awan waga scko 


Yamabuki 110 sakicaru nube no tsubosunnre kono haru no ame ni 
sakan nankcn 


Koikusa wo chikaraguruma m nanakuruma tsurmte kouraku 
waga kokoro kara 


K01 wa mia wa arajito ware wa omoeruwo izuku no koi zo 


Ton ga naku Azuma no kum m takayama wa sawam aredomo 
fucagami no totoki yama no namitachi no migahoshi yama to 
kanriyo yori Into no litsugi kummi sum Tsukuba no yama wo 
fuyugomon tokijiki toki to mizute yukaba mashxte koishnni 
yukigc suru yamamichi sura wo nazumi zo waga koshi 

Tsukubane wo yoso nonn micsutsu ankanete yukige no nnchi wo 



Tawayame no kuslnge m noreru kagami nasu Mitsu no hamabe iu 
sanitsurau hi mo tokisakezu wagimoko ni koitsutsu oreba 
akegure no asagirigakuri naku tazu no ne nomishi nakayu 
waga kouru chie no hitoe mo nagusamoru kokoro mo anyato 
le no atari waga tachumreba aohata no Kazurakiyama m 
tanabikeru shirakumogakuri amazakaru hina no kumbe m 
tada mukau Awaji wo sugi Awashima wo sogai ni mitsutsu 
asanagi m kako no koe yobi yunagi ni kaji no to shitsutsu 
nami no e wo lyukisagukumi iwa no ma wo iyukimotohon 
Inabxzuma urami wo sugite tonjimono nazusaiyukeba 
Ie no shima ariso no ue m uchinabiki shijini oitaru 
nanonso ga nado kamo imo ni norazu kiruken 

Shirotae no sode tokikaete kaenkon tsukiln wo yonnte 
yukite komashiwo 


Namwabe ni hito no yukereba okureite haruna tsumu ko wo 
mi ruga kanashisa 


Yu sareba ashibe ni sawagi akekureba oki ni nazusau 
kamo suramo tsuma to taguite waga o nrwa shimo na-furisoto 
slurotae no hane sashikaete uchiharai sanu toumonowo 
yuku mizu no kaeranugotoku fuku kaze no xnienuga gotoku 
ato mo naki yo no hito mshite wakaremshi imo ga kiseteshi 
naregoromo sode katashikite hitori kamo nen 

Tazu ga naki ashibe wo sashite tobiwataru ana tazutazushi 
hiton sanureba 


Karakuni ni yukitarawashite kaerikon masuratakeo ni 
miki tatematsuru 



Shika no ama wa me kan shio yaki itoma nami kashige no ogashi 
ton mo minakuni 


Iohara no Kiyomi ga saki no Miho no ura no vutakeki mitsutsu 
monomoi mo nashi 

Hiru miredo akanu Tago no ura Okimi no mikoto kashikomi 
yoru mitsurukamo 


Aomyoshi Nara no miyako wa saku hana no niouga gotoku 
ima sakari nari 


Masurao no yuzue funokoshi itsuru ya wo nochi min Into wa 
kataritsugu gane 

Shiotsuyama uchikoeyukeba waga noreru uma zo tsumazuku 
le kourasliimo 


Okinu no idemashi no mani mononofu no yasotomonoo to 
ideyukishi uruwashizuma wa amatobuya Karu no michi yon 
tamadasuki Unebi wo mitsutsu asamoyoshi Kiji ni intachi 
Matsuchiyama koyuran kimi wa momijiba no chiritobu mitsutsu 
mutsumajiku wa woba omowazu kusamakura tabi wo yoroshito 
omoitsutsu kimi wa aranto asoso niwa katsu wa shiredomo 
shikasugani moda mo earaneba waga seko ga yuki no manimani 
owantowa chitabi omoedo tawayame no waga mi nishi areba 
nuchimon no to wan kotae wo liyaran sube wo shiranito 
tacliite tsumazuku 

Okureite koitsutsu arazuwa Ki no kuni no Imose no yama m 


Waga scko ga aro fumimoromc oiyukaba Ki no sekimon 1 


Mikanoliara rabi no yadori m camahoko no mi chi no yukiai m 
amagumo no yoso norm mitsutsu korotowan yoshi no nakereba 
kokoro nomi musetsutsu arum ametsuchi no kami kotoyosete 
shikitae no koromode kaere onozuma to tanomeru koyoi 
aki no yo no momoyo no nagasa ankosenukamo 

Amagumo no yoso 111 mishi yori wagimoko m kokoro mo mi sae 

Koyoi no hayaku akenaba sube wo nami aki no momoyo wo 


Taki no ue no Mifune no yama ni mizue sashi shijim oiraru 
toga no ki no lya tsugitsugini yorozuyo ni kaku shi shirasan 
Mi-Yoshinu no Akitsu no miya wa kamukara ka t5tokaruran 
kumkara ka migahoshikaran yama kawa wo kiyomi sayakenn 
ube shi kamiyo yu sadamekerashimo 

Toshinoha ni kaku mo miteshiga Mi-Yoshinu no kiyoki kochi no 
tagitsu shiran ami 

Yama takami shirayubana ni ochitagitsu taki no kochi wa 
miredo akinukamo 


Ashihiki no miyama mo say am ochitagitsu Yoshinu no kawa no 
kawa no se no kiyoki wo mireba kamibe wa chidori shiba naki 
shimobe wa kawazu tsuma yobu momoshiki no omiyabito mo 
ochikochi ni shijim shi areba mini gotoni ayani tomoshimi 
tamakazura tayuru koto naku yorozuyo ni kaku shimogamoto 
ametsuchi no kami wozo moru kashikokaredomo 


Yorozuyo m mitomo akameya Mi-Yoshmu no tagitsu k5chi no 

Minahito no inochi mo ware mo Mi-Yoshinu no taki no tokoha no 


Oshiteru Namwa no kum wa ashigaki no funmshi sato to 
hito mina no omoiyasumite tsure mo naku arista aida m 
umio nasu Nagara no miya ni makibashira futotakashikite 
osukuni wo osametamaeba okitsutori Ajifu no hara ni 
mononofu no yasotomonoo wa iori shite miyako nashitari 
tabi mwa aredomo 

Aranura ni sato wa aredomo Okimi no shikimasu toki wa 
miyako to nannu 

Amaotome tananashiobune kogizurashi tabi no yadori ni 
kaji no to kikoyu 


Nakisumi no Funase yu miyuru Awajishnna Matsuho no ura m 
asanagi ni tamamo karitsutsu yunagi ni moshio yakitsutsu 
amaotome antowa kikedo mi m yukan yoshi no nakereba 
masurao no kokoro wa nashini tawayame no omoitawamite 
tamotohori ware wazo kouru funekaji wo nami 

Tamamo karu amaotomedomo mi m yukan funekaji mogamo 
nami takakutomo 

Yukimeguri mitomo akameya Nakisumi no Funase no hama ni 
shikiru sliiranami 


Tamadasuki kakenu toki naku ikinoo ni waga mou kimi wa 
utsusemi no mikoto kashikomi yu sareba tazu ga tsuma yobu 


Namwagata Mitsu no saki yori obune m makaji shiji nuki 
shiranami no takaki arumi wo shimazutai lwakareyukaba 
todomareru ware wa nusa tori iwaitsutsu kimi woba yaran 
haya kaenmase 

Nami no tie yu miyuru kojima no kumogakun ana ikizukashi 

Tamakiharu mochi m mukai kom-yuwa kimi ga mifune no 
kajitsuka nimoga 

306 -7 

Obune ni makaji shiji nuki Okimi no mikoto kashikomi 
isomi surukamo 

Mononofu no omi no otoko wa Okimi no make no mammam 
kiku toumono zo 


Azusayumi te m tonmochite masurao no satsuya tabasami 
tachimukau Takamadoyama ni liarunu yaku nubi to mirumade 
moyuru hi wo ikani to toeba tamahoko no michi kuru hito no 
naku namida kosame ni fureba shirotae no koromo hizuchite 
tachitoman ware ni kataraku nani shikamo motona ieru 
kikeba ne nomishi nakayu katareba kokoro zo itaki 
Sumerogi no Kami no Miko no idemashi no tabi no hikan zo 
kokoda teritaru 

Takamado no nube no akihagi itazurani saki ka chiruran 
miru hito nashini 

Mikasayama nube yuku michi wa kokidaku mo shigeku aretaruka 
hisani aranakuni 


Hito to naru koto wa katakiwo wakurabani nareru waga mi wa 


shim mo lki mo kimi ga mamma to omoitsutsu arishi aida ni 
utsusemi no yo no hi to nareba Okimi no rrukoto kashikomi 
amazakaru hina osame nito asaton no asadachi shitsutsu 
muratori no muradachiyukeba tomarnte ware wa koinna 
mizu hisanaraba 

Mi~Koshiji no yuki furu yama wo koen hi wa tomareru ware wo 
kakete shmubase 


Michmoku no Manu no kayahara tokedomo omokage mshite 
miyu toumonowo 


Waga yado no yukagegusa no shiratsuyu no kenu gam motona 


Yaoka yuku hama no masago mo waga koi 111 am masarajika 


Ise no unn no iso mo todorom vosuru nann kashikoki Into ni 


Yu sareba monomoi masaru mishi hi to no kototou sugata 
omokage nishite 

31 * 

Omoumshi shimsuru mono ni aramaseba chitabi zo ware wa 



Tsurugitachi mi ni tonsouto ime ni rnitsu nam no satosln zomo 
kimi m a wan tame 


Ametsucln 110 kann shi korowari nakubakoso waga mou kimi m 
awazu shim seme 


Mmalnto wo neyotono kane wa utsunaredo knm woshi moeba 


Aiomowanu Into wo omouwa odera no gaki no shine m 


Shirotac no sode sashikaete nabikmeshi waga kurokami no 
mashiraga ni naran kiwami aratayo ni tomom aranto 
tamanoo no taejii imo to musubiteshi koto wa hatasazu 
omoenshi kokoro wa togezu shirotae no tamoto wo wakare 
mkibimshi le yumo idetc midorigo no nakuwomo okite 
asagin no ohom liaritsatsu Yamashiro no Sagarakayama no 
yama no 111a wo yukisuginureba lwan subc sen sube shirani 
wagimoko to saneshi tsumaya ni ashita niwa idetachi shmubi 
yube niwa irii nagekai wakibasamu ko no naku go tom 
otokojimono oimi idakimi asaton no ne nomi nakitsutsu 
kouredoino shirushi wo naniito kototowanu mono niwa aredo 
wagimoko ga irimshi yama wo yosuga tozo omou 

Utsusemi no yo no koto nareba yoso m misln yama woya 1111a wa 
yosuga to o mo wan 

Asaton no ne nomiwo nakan wagimoko 111 ima mata saram 
au yoshi wo nami 



Umagon ayam tomoshiku narukami no o to nomi kikishi 
Mi-Yoshmu no maki tatsu yama yu mioroseba kawa no se gotom 
akekureba asagin tachi yu sareba kawazu naku nabe 
himo tokanu tabi mshi areba a nomishite kiyoki kawara wo 
mirakushi oshimo 

Taki no ue no Mifune no yama wa kashikokedo omoiwasururu 
toki mo hi mo nashi 


Isanatori haniabe wo kiyomi uchinabiki ouru tamamo m 
asanagi ni chienami yon yunagi m ioenami yoru 
hctsunami no lya shikushikum tsukmi keni hibi m mirutomo 
ima nomim akitarameyamo shiranami no isakimegureru 
Suminoe no hama 

Shiranami no chie ni kiyosuru Suminoe no kishi no hamu ni 
nioite yukana 


Samtsurau kinn ga mikoto to tamazusa no tsukai mo koneba 
omoiyamu waga mi hitotsu zo chihayaburu kami nimo na-ose 
urabe sue kamc mo na-yakiso koishikuni itaki waga mi zo 
ichijiroku mi ni shimit5n murakimo no kokoro kudakete 
shman inochi niwakani narinu imasaram kimi ka wa wo yobu 
tarachinc no haha no mikoto ka momotarazu yaso no chimata 111 
yuke nimo ura nimozo tou slnnubeki waga yuc 

Urabe womo yaso no chimata mo uratoedo kimi wo aimin 
tadoki shirazumo 

Waga inochi wa oshikumo arazu sanitsurau kimi ni yoritezo 
nagaku horiseshi 



Unabara no toki watan wo miyabio no asobu wo minto 
nazusai zo koshi 


Kono hana no hi toy o no uchi m momokusa no koto zo komoreru 
ohorokam suna 

Kono hana no hitoyo no uchi wa momokusa no koto mochikanete 


Amagumo no sokic no kiwami waga moeru knm m wakaren 
In chikaku nannu 


Tcradera no megaki m 5 saku Omiwa no ogaki tabante 
sono ko umawan 

Hotcke tsukuru masoho tarazuba mizu tamaru Ikeda no aso ga 
hana no e wo horc 


Kinii ga yuku michi no nagate wo kuritatane yakihorobosan 
ame no hi mo gam o 

Wagimoko ga katami no koromo nakanseba n am mono moteka 
inoclii tsugamashi 

Hitoguni wa sumiashitozo iu sumuyakeku hay a kaenmase 
koishinanu to m 

Ametsuchi no sokohi no ura ni aga gotoku kimi ni kouran 
hito wa sane araji 

A wan I11 no katami ni seyoto tawayame no omoimidarete 


nueru koromo zo 

Sasurake no omiyabito wa ima mokamo hitonaburi nomi 

Tamashu wa ashita yube m tamafuredo aga mune itashi 
koi no shigekini 

Kaenkeru hiro kitarerito lishikaba hotohoto sbimki 
kimi kato omoite 

Waga seko ga kaenkimasan toki no tame inochi nokosan 

Kyo mokamo miyako nariseba nnmaku hori mshi no mimaya no 
to ni tateramashi 


Imasaram nam wok a o mo wan uchinabiki kokoro wa kimi ni 

Waga seko wa mono na-omohoshi koto shi araba hi nimo mizu nimo 
waga nakenakuni 

35 1 

Waga seko ga keseru koromo no harime ochizu irinikerashi 
waga kokoro sae 


Yorozuyo ni kokoro wa tokete waga seko ga tsumishi te mitsutsu 

Matsu no hana hanakazu nishimo waga seko ga omoeranakuni 
motona sakitsutsu 



Mi-Yoshmu no Yoshinu no miya wa yamakara shi totoku arashi 
kawakara shi sayakeka arashi ametsachi to nagaku hisashiku 
yorozuyo m kawarazu aran ldemashi no miya 

Mukashi mishi Kisa no ogawa wo ima nnreba lyoyo sayakeku 


Waga sakan mata ochimeyamo hotohotom Nara no miyako wo 
mizuka naritian 


Shirushi naki mono wo mowazuwa hitotsuki no nigorern sake wo 
nomabeku arurashi 

Sake no na wo hijiri to oseshi imshie no oki hijin no 
koto no yoroshisa 

Imshie no nana no sakashiki hitodomo mo horiseshi mono wa 
sake mshi arurashi 

Sakashimito mono luyonwa sake nomite emaki surushi 

I wan sube sen sube shiram kiwamante totoki mono wa 
sake mshi arurashi 

Nakanakani hito to arazuwa sakatsubo ni nanteshigamo 
sake ni shimman 

Ana mimku sakashira wo suto sake nomanu hito wo yoku mircba 
saru nikamo mru 

Atai naki takara to iutomo hitotsuki no nigoreru sake 111 
ani masarameya 


Yoru hikaru tama to lutomo sake nomite kokoro wo varum 
ani shikameyamo 

Yononaka no asobi no michi m suzushikiwa einaki surum 

Kono yo mshi tanushiku araba kon yo mwa mushi m ton mmo 
ware wa narinan 

Ikeru mono tsumi mo shmuru mono m areba kono yo naru ma wa 
tanushikuwo arana 

Moda orite sakashira suruwa sake nomite emaki surum 
nao shikazukeri 


Uruwashiki hito no makiteshi shikitae no waga tamakura wo 
maku hito arameya 


Miyako naru aretaru le ni hiton neba tabi ni masaritc 


Wagimoko ga nnshi Tomo no ura no muro no ki wa tokoyo ni aredo 
mishi hito zo naki 

Iso no ue m nebau muro no ki mishi hito wo izura to towaba 

Imo to koshi Mmume no saki wo kaerusa 111 hiton shite mireba 

Yukusa niwa futari waga mishi kono saki wo hiton sugureba 


Hito mo naki munashiki ic wa kusamakura cabi m masante 

Imo to shite futari tsukunslu waga slnma wa kodakaku slugeku 

Wagimoko ga ueshi ume no ki miru gotoni kokoro musetsntsu 
namida shi nagaru 


Kimi ga tame kamishi machizake Yasu no nu ni hitori ya noman 
tomo nashimshxte 

3 So 

Yononaka wa munashiki mono to shiru toki shi iyoyo masumasu 


Yasunnshishi waga Okimi no osukum wa Yamato mo koko mo 
onajitozo omou 


Masurao to omoeru ware ya mizuguki no Mizuki no ue m 
namida nogowan 


Nubatama no kurokami shiroku kawaritemo itaki koi 111 wa 
au toki ariken 

Koko ni ante Tsukushi ya izuku shirakumo no tanabiku yama no 
kata nishi arurashi 


Uchihisasu miya ni yuku ko wo maganashimi tomureba kurus hi 

varuwa sube nashi 


Hisakata no Anianohara yori arekitaru Kami no Mikoto 
okuyama no sakaki no eda ni shiraka tsuke yu tontsukete 
lwaibe wo iwai horisue takatama wo shijini nukitare 
shishijimono lnza orifuse tawayame no osuhi torikake 
kaku danimo ware wa koinan kimi ni awajikamo 

Yudatami te ni torimochite kaku danimo ware wa koinan 
kimi 111 awajikamo 


Takuzunu no Shiragi no kum yu hitogoto wo yoslnto kikashite 
toisakuru ukara harakara naki kuni ni watarikiniashite 
Okimi no shikimasu kuni ni uchihisasu miyako shimimmi 
sato ie wa sawani aredomo ikasamani omoikemekamo 
tsure mo naki Saho no yamabe m naku ko nasu shitaikimashite 
slnkitae 110 ie womo tsukuri aratama no toshmoo nagaku 
sumaitsutsu imashishimonowo ikeru mono shinu tou koto ni 
manukarenu mono nishi areba tanomenshi hito no kotogoto 
kusamakura tabi naru hodo ni Sahogawa wo asakawa watan 
Kasuganu wo sogai ni mitsutsu ashihiki no yamabe wo sashite 
yuyami to kakunmashinure lwan sube sen sube shirani 
tamotohori tada hitori sliite shirotae no koromode hosazu 
nagekitsutsu waga naku namida Arimayama kumoi tanabiki 
ame ni furikiya 

Todomeenu inochi nishi areba shikitae no ie yuwa idete 


Konto iumo konu toki aruwo kojito iuwo kontowa mataji 
kojito iumonowo 



Oshiccru NaniYt a no sugc no ncmokoroni kimi ga kikoshirc 
toshi fukaku nagakushi leba masokagami togisln kokoro wo 
\urushiteshi sono hi no kiwami nami no muta nabiku tamamo no 
kamkakuni kokoro wa mocazu obune no tanomcru roki in 
clnhayaburu kann va sakcken utsuscmi no Into ka sauran 
kayowashishi kinn mo kiniasazu tamazusa no tsukai mo nnezu 
nannurcba ita mo sube nann nubatama no yoru wa sugaram 
akarahiku hi mo kururumade nagekedomo slnrushi wonami 
omocdomo tazuki wo shirani tawayame to lwakumo shiruku 
rawarawa no ne norm nakitsutsu tamotohon kimi ga tsukai wo 
machi ya kanctcn 

Hajime yon nagaku utsutsu tanomezuba kakaru omoi m 
awamashi mono ka 


Hisakata no amc no tsu\ ujimo okimkeri le naru hi to mo 


Tamamori ni tama wa saziikcrc katsugatsu mo makura to ware wa 
iza futari ncn 


Koikoite aeru toki dam uruwashiki koto tsukushiteyo 
nagakuto mowaba 

39 $ 

Aoyama wo yokogiru kumo no ichijiroku ware to emashite 
Into ni shirayuna 


Tokoyo nito waga yukanakum okanato ni monoganashiram 


omoerishi waga ko no toji wo nobatama no yoru hiru ro iwazu 
omoumshi waga mi wa yasenu nagekunishi sodc sae nurenu 
kakubakari motona shi koiba furusaro nj kono rsukieoro mo 

Asakami no omoinndarctc kakubakari nane ga kourezo 
ime m miekeru 


Waga seko ga keru kinu usushi Sahokaze wa itaku na-fukiso 
le ni itarumade 


Kaku shirsutsu asobi nomikoso kusaki sura haru wa oitsutsu 
aki wa chiriyuku 


Natsu no nu 110 shigemi m sakeru himeyun no shiraenu koi wa 


Watatsumi no kami no mikoro no mikushige m rakuwai okirc 
itsuku tou tama ni masante omoerishi aga ko mshi arcdo 
utsusemi no yo no koto wan to masurao no hiki no manimam 
shinazakaru Koshiji wo sashitc hau tsuta no wakare mshi yori 
okitsunami toomu mayobiki 5 bune no yukurayukuram 
omokage ni motona mietsutsu kaku koiba oizuku aga mi 
kedashi aenkamo 

Kakubakari koishikushi araba masokagami minu In toki naku 


Sakazuki ni ume no liana ukabe omou do chi nomiteno nochi wa 
chirinutomo yoshi 


Tsukasa mmo yuruslntamaeri koyoi nomi noman sake kamo 
clnrikosuna yume 


Kataomoi wo uma m futsuma m 5se mote Koshibe m yaraba 
hito katawankamo 

Tsuneno koi imada yamanum miyako yon uma m koikoba 


Waga yado no aki no hagi saku yukage m ima mo nuteshiga 
imo ga sugata wo 


Ima yoriwa akikaze samuku fukmanwo ikam ka hitori 
nagaki yo wo nen 


Aki saraba mitsutsu shinubeto imo ga ueshi yado no nadeshiko 


Utsusemi no yo wa tsune nashito shirumonowo akikaze samumi 


Waga yado m liana zo sakitaru so wo miredo kokoro mo yukazu 
hashikiyashi imo ga ariseba mikamo nasu futari narabii 
taoritemo misemashimonowo utsusemi no kareru mi nareba 
tsuyujimo no kenuruga gotoku ashihiki no yamaji wo sashite 
irthi nasu kakunnishikaba soko mouni mune koso itame 
ii mo ezu nazuke mo shirazu ato mo naki yononaka nareba 
sen sube mo nashi 


Tola washimo itsu mo aranwo kokoro ltaku lyuku wagimo ka 
midongo wo okite 

Idete yuku michi shiramaseba arakajime lmo wo todomen 
seki mo okamashiwo 

lmo ga mishi yado ni hana saki toki wa henu waga naku nanuda 
imada hinakuni 


Kaku nommi ankerumonowo imo mo ware mo chitose no gotoku 


Mukashi koso yoso nimo mishika wagimoko ga okutsuki to moeba 
hashiki Sahoyama 


Kakemakumo ayani kashikoshi iwamakumo yuyushikikamo 
waga 5kimi Miko no Mikoto yorozuyo m meshitamawamashi 
O-Yamato Kuni no miyako wa uchinabiku haru sarmureba 
yamabe niwa hana sakioori kawase niwa ayuko sabashm 
iya hi keni sakayuru toki m oyozure no tawakoto tokamo 
shirotae ni toneri yosoite Wazukayama mikoshi tatashite 
hisakata no ame shirashinure koimarobi hizuchinakedomo 
sen sabe mo nashi 

Waga 5kimi ame shirasanto omowaneba ohoni zo mikeru 
W azukasomayama 

Ashihiki no yama sae hikari saku hana no chirinurugotoki 
waga 5kimi kamo 


Kakemakumo ayani kashikoshi waga 5kimi Miko no Mikoto 
mononofu no yasotomonoo wo meshitsudoe adomoitamai 


asagari in shishi fumioboshi yugari ni ton fumitate 
5 nnma no kucln osaetomc mikokoro wo mcshiakiramcsln 
Ikujiyama kodachi no singe m saku liana mo utsuroimken 
yononaka \va kaku nomi narashi masurao no kokoro furiokosln 
tsurugitacln kosln in tonliaki azusayumi yugi tonoite 
ametsucln to iya tonagam yorozuyo ni kaku shiniogamoto 
tanomcnshi Miko no mikado no sabae nasu sawagu toneri \va 
slnrotae ni koromo tonkite tsuncnarisln emai furumai 
iya hi keni kawarau mireba kanaslnkirokamo 

HasInL : ;i no Miko no Mikoto no arigayoi meslnsln Ikuji no 
nncni \\a arcmken 

Otomo no na ni ou yugi obite yorozuyo m tanonushi kokoro 
izuku ka yosen 


Chidon naku Saho no kawato no kiyoki se wo uma uchiwatashi 
itsu ka kayowan 

Omowanum imo ga emai wo nne ni mite kokoro no uchi 111 
moetsutsuzo oru 

Masurao to omoeru ware wo kakubakan niitsure ni nntsure 
katamoi wo sen 


Kakubakari koitsutsu arazuwa nvaki mmo naramashimonowo 
mono mowazushite 


Hito mo naki kuni mo aranuka wagimoko to tazusaiyukite 
taguite oran 


Ime no ai wa kurushikanken odorokite kakisaguredomo 
te nimo fureneba 


Funsakete lmkazuki mireba hitomc mish? hi to no mavobiki 


Komon nomi oreba lbusenn nagusamuto idetachi kikeba 
kinaku higurashi 


Natsuyama no konure no shiji m hototogisu nakitoyomuiiarii 
koe no harukesa 


Ika to lka to aru waga mwa 111 momoc sashi ouru tachibana 
tama m nuku satsuki wo chikami aenu gani hana sakimkcn 
asamkeni idemiru gotoni ikinoo ni waga mou lino ni 
masokagami kiyoki tsukuyo ni tada hitome misenmademwa 
chirikosuna yumc to litsutsu kokodaku mo waga morumonowo 
uretakiya shikohototogisu akatoki no uraganashikmi 
oedo oedo nao shi kinakite itazurani tsuchi m chiraseba 
sube wo nami yojite taoritsu mimase wagimoko 

Mochi kudachi kiyoki tsukuyo ni w r agimoko m lmsento moishi 
mwa no tachibana 

Imo ga mite nochi mo nakanan hototogisu hanatachibana wo 
tsuchi ni chirashitsu 


Waga yado no obana ga ue no shiratsuyu wo ketazute tama m 
nuku mono nnnoga 


tsumagoi ni ka naku yamabe ni 

Yamabiko no aitoyomumade 
hitori nomislute 



Nemokorom mono wo omoeba lwan sube sen sube mo nasln 
rnio to ware te tazusawaritc ashita mwa mwa ni idetachi 
yube mwa toko uchiharai shirotae no sode sashikaete 
saneshi yo ya tsuneni ankeru aslnhiki no yamadon kosowa 
omukai m tsumadoi suto le utsusemi no hito naru ware ya 
nam sutoka hitohi hitoyo mo sakariite nagekikouran 
koko moeba mune koso itame soko yuem kokoro naguyato 
Takamado no yama nimo nu mmo uchiyukite asobiarukedo 
liana nomi moite areba miru go tom mashite omohoyu 
lkam shite wasuren monozo kou toumonowo 

Takamado no nube no kaobana omokage ni mietsutsu imo wa 


Iwamaro m ware mono mosu natsuyase ni yoshito iu mono zo 
munagi torimese 

Yasuyasu mo ikeraba aranwo hata ya hata munagi wo toruto 
kawa ni nagaruna 


Okimi no make no lnammam masurao no kokoro furiokoshi 
ashihiki no yama saka koete amazakaru Inna ni kudanki 
iki dammo imada yasumezu toshitsuki mo lkura mo aranum 
utsusemi no yo no Into nareba uclnnabiki toko m koifushi 
itakekuno hi m keni masaru tarachuie no haha no mikoto no 
5bune no yukurayukurani shitagoi ni itsu kamo konto 
matasuran kokoro sabushiku hashikiyoshi tsuma no nnkoto mo 
akekureba kado ni yoritachi koromode wo orikaesliitsutsu 
yu sareba toko uchiharai nubatama no kurokami shikite 
itsu shikato nagekasuranzo imo mo se mo wakaki kodomo wa 
ochikochi 111 sawaginakuran tamahoko no michi wo tad5mi 
mazukai mo yaru yoshi mo naslii omohoshiki koto tsuteyarazu 
kourunishi kokoro wa moenu tamakiharu inocln osliikedo 


sen sube no tadoki wo shirani kaku shiteya arashio suram 

Yononaka wa kazu naki mono ka harubana no chiri no magai m 
shinubeki omoeba 

Yama kawa no sokie wo tomi hashikiyoshi lmo wo aimizu 
kaku ya nagekan 


Haru no hana ima wa sakari ni mouran onte kazasan 
tajikara mogamo 

Usruisu no nakichirasuran haru no hana itsu shika kmu to 


Okimi no make no manimam shinazakaru Koshi wo osame m 
idete koshi masura ware sura yononaka no tsune shi nakereba 
uchmabiki toko ni koifushi itakekuno hi ni kem maseba 
kanashikeku koko ni omoide iranakeku soko ni omoide 
nageku sora yasukenakuni omou sora kurushikimonowo 
ashihiki no yama kihenarite tamahoko no michi no tokeba 
mazukai mo yaru yoshi mo nami omohoshiki koto mo kayowazu 
tamakiharu inochi oshikedo sen sube no tadoki wo shirani 
komorntc omoinagekai nagusamuru kokoro wa nashim 
harubana no sakeru sakari ni omou dochi taonkazasazu 
haru no nu no shigemi tobikuku uguisu no koe dam kikazu 
otomera ga haruna tsmnasuto kurenai no akamo no suso no 
harusame ni nioihizuchite kayouran toki no sakari wo 
itazurani sugushiyantsure shinubaseru kuni ga kokoro wo 
uruwashimi kono yo sugarani i mo nezuni kyo mo shimeram 
koitsutsuzo oru 

Ashihiki no yamasakurabana hitome dam kimi toshi miteba 
are koimeyamo 


Yamabuki no shigemi tobikuku uguisu no koe wo kikuran 
kinn wa tomoshimo 

Idctatan chikara wo naimto komomte kimi ni kourum 
kokorodo mo nasln 


Imo mo ware mo kokoro wa oyaji tagucredo lya natsukashiku 
aimireba tokohatsuhana m kokorogushi megushi mo nashim 
haslnkeyashi aga okuzuma Okimi no nnkoto kashikomi 
aslnlnki no yama koe nu yuki amazakaru hina osanie into 
wakarekosln sono hi no kiwami aratama no tosln yukigaen 
harubana no utsuroumadem amnneba ita mo sube nami 
shikitae no sode kaeshitsutsu nuru yo ochizu ime mwa miredo 
utsutsu mshi tadam araneba koishikeku cine ni tsumorinu 
clnkakaraba kaeri mdanimo uchiyukite imo ga tamakura 
sashikaete netemo komashiwo tamahoko no michi washi toku 
seki saem henante arekoso yoshieyashi yoshi wa aranzo 
hototogisu kinakan tsuki m itsu shikamo hayaku narinan 
unohana no moeru yama wo yoso nomimo furisakemitsutsu 
Omiji m iyuki noritachi aoniyosln Nara no wagie ni 
nucdori no uranake shitsutsu shitagoi ni omoiurabure 
kado in taclii yuke toitsutsu a wo matsuto nasuran imo wo 
aite haya mm 

Aratama no toshi kaerumade amnneba kokoro mo shinum 

Nubatama no line mwa niotona aimiredo tadam araneba 
koi yamazuken 

Ashiliiki no yama kihcnarire t5kedomo kokoro shi yukeba 
ime m mieken 

Harubana no utsuroumadeni aimineba tsukiln yomitsutsu 
imo matsuranzo 



Imizugawa lyukunegureru tamakushige Furagainiyama wa 
harubana no sakeru sakari m aki no ha no moeru roki m 
idetachite furisakennreba kamukara ya sokoba cotoki 
yamakara ya migahoshikaran sumegaini no susomi no yama no 
Shibutam no saki no ariso m asanagi m yosuru shiranami 
yunagi ni michikuru slno no lyamashmi rayuru koto naku 
inishie yu ima no ocsutsu in kaku shikoso mini Into gotoni 
kakete shmubame 

Shibutam no saki no ariso ni yosuru nami lya shikushikuni 
inishie omohoyu 

Tamakushige Futagamiyama ni naku ton no koe no koishiki 
toki wa kinikeri 


Kakikazou Futagamiyama m kamusabitc rater u tsuga no ki 
moto mo e mo oyaji tokiwa m hashikiyoshi waga se no kimi wo 
asa sarazu aite kotodoi yu sareba te tazusawante 
Imizugawa kiyoki kochi ni idetachite waga tachimireba 
ayu no kaze itaku slu fukeba mmato niwa shiranami takanii 
tsuma yobuto sudori wa sawagu ashi karuto ama no obune wa 
irie kogu kaji no oto takashi soko woshimo ayani tomoshimi 
shinubitsutsu asobu sakari wo Sumerogi no osukum nareba 
mikoto mochi tachiwakarenaba okuretaru kimi wa aredomo 
tamahoko no michi yuku ware wa slnrakumo no tanabiku yama wo 
lwane fumi koehenarinaba koishikeku ke no nagakenzo 
soko moeba kokoro shi itaslii hototogisu koe ni aenuku 
tama nimoga te ni makimochite asa yoi ni mitsutsu yukanwo 
okite lkaba oshi 

Waga seko wa tama mmogamona hototogisu koe m aenuki 
te m makite yukan 


4 * 1-5 

Okirm no to no mikado zo nnyuki furu Koshi to na ni oeru 
amazakaru liina nxshi areba yama takami kawa toshiroshi 
nu wo hiromi kusa koso shigeki ayu liashiru natsu no sakan to 
shimatsuton ukai ga tomo wa yuku kawa no kivoki se gotoni 
kagari sashi nazusamoboru tsuyujimo no aki ni itareba 
nu mo sawam ton sudakento masurao no tomo izanaite 
taka washnno amata aredomo yagatao no aga Okuro m 
shiranun no suzu tontsukete asagari m lotsutori tate 
yugari m chidon fumitate ou gotoni yurusu koto naku 
tabanare mo oclii moka yasuki kore wo okite mata wa arigatashi 
sanaraberu taka wa nakento kokoro mwa omoihokorite 
emaitsutsu wataru aida ni taburetaru shikotsuokina no 
koto danimo ware mwa tsugezu tonogumon ame no furu hi wo 
togari suto na nomiwo norite Mishimanu wo sogai ni mitsutsu 
Futagami no yama tobikoete kumogakuri kakenimkito 
kaerikite shiwabure tsugure oku yoshi no soko ni nakereba 
iu sube no tadoki wo shiram kokoro mwa hi sae moetsutsu 
omoikoi ikizukiamari kedashiku mo au koto ariyato 
ashihiki no otemokonomo ni tonami han monbe wo suete 
cluhayaburu kami no yashiro ni teru kagami shizu ni tonsoe 
komomite aga matsu toki m otomera ga ime ni tsuguraku 
na ga kouru sono hotsutaka wa Matsudae no hama yukigurashi 
tsunashi toru Hum no e sugite Tako no shima tobitamotohon 
ashigamo no sudaku Furue m ototsui mo kin5 mo aritsu 
chikaku araba ima futsuka dami t5ku araba nanuka no uchi wa 
sugimeyamo kinan waga seko nemokoroni na-koisoyotozo 
ime ni tsugetsuru 

Yakatao no taka wo te m sue Mishimanu ni karanu hi maneku 
tsuki zo henikeru 

Futagami no otemokonomo ni ami sashite aga matsu taka wo 
ime ni tsugetsumo 

Matsugaen shii mte arekamo Sa-Yamada no oji ga sono In ni 
motome awazuken 


Kokoro niwa yurubu koto naku Suga no yama suga naku nomiya 


Suzu no umi ni asabiraki shite kogikureba Nagahama no ura m 
tsuki terimkeri 


Aburahi no hikari m miyuru waga kazura sayun no hana no 


Ashihara no Mizuho no Kurd wo amakudari shirashimeslnkeru 
Sumerogi no Kami no Mikoto no miyo kasane Ama no Hitsugi to 
shirashikuru Kimi no miyo miyo shikimaseru yomo no kuni niwa 
yama kawa wo hiromi atsumito tatematsuru mitsuki takara wa 
kazoeezu tsukushi mo kanetsu shikaredomo waga Okimi no 
morobito wo izanaitamai yoki koto wo hajimetamaite 
kugane kamo tashikeku aranto omohoshite shitanayamasum 
tori ga naku Azuma no kuni no Michinoku no Oda naru yama ni 
kugane arito mdshitamaere mikokoro wo akirametamar 
ametsuchi no kami aiuzunai Sumerogi no mitama tasukete 
toki yo ni kakarishi koto wo aga miyo ni arawashite areba 
osukuni wa sakaen mono to kamunagara omohoshimeshite 
mononofu no yasotomonoo wo matsuroe no muke no manimani 
oibito mo omina warawa mo shiga negau kokorodarai ni 
nadetamai osametamaeba koko woshimo ayani t5tomi 
ureshikeku iyoyo omoite Otomo no t5tsukamuoya no 
son o na woba Okumenushi to oimochite tsukaeshi tsukasa 
umi yukaba mizuku kabane yama yukaba kusamusu kabane 
Okimi no he nikoso sliiname kaerimi wa sejito kotodate 
masurao no kiyoki sono na wo inishie yo ima no otsutsu ni 
nagasaeru oya no kodomo zo Otomo to Saheki no uji wa 
hito no oya no tatsuru kotodate hito no ko wa oya no na tatazu 
Okimi ni marsurou mono to iitsugeru koto no tsukasa zo 


azusayumi te m tonmochite tsurugitachi koshi ni torihaki 
asamamori yu no mamon m Okimi no mikado no mamori 
ware wo okite mata Into wa arajito lya tate omoi shi masaru 
Okimi no nnkoto no saki no kikeba totonn 

Masurao no kokoro omohoyu Okimi no nnkoto no saki wo 
kikeba totomi 

Otomo no totsukamuoya no okutsuki wa shiruku shime tatc 
hito no shirubeku 

Sumerogi no miyo sakaento Azuma naru Michinoku-yama m 
kugane liana saku 


Suzu 110 ama no okitsumikami ni iwatante kazukitoruto iu 
awabitama iochi mogamo hashikiyoshi tsuma no mikoto no 
koromode no wakareshi toki yo nubatama no yodoko katasari 
asanegami kaki mo kezurazu idete koshi tsukihi yomitsutsu 
nagekuran kokoronagusa m hototogisu kinaku satsuki no 
ayamegusa hanatachibana ni nukimajie kazura ni scyoto 
tsutsumite yaran 

Sliiratama wo tsutsumite yaraba ayamegusa hanatachibana ni 
ae mo nuku gane 

Okitsushima lyukiwatarite kazuku chiu awabitama moga 
tsutsumite yaran 

Wagimoko ga kokoronagusa m yaran tame okitsushima naru 
shiratama mogamo 

Shiratania no lotsutsudoi wo te 111 musubi okosen ama wa 
mukashikumo aruka 


Onamuchi Sukunahikona no kamiyo yon iitsugikerashi 


chichiliaha wo mireba tdcoku meko mireba kanashiku mcgushi 
utsusemi no yo no kotowan to kakusamam nkerumonowo 
yo no hi to no tatsuru kotodate chisa no hana sakcru sakan ni 
hashikiyoshi sono tsuma no ko to asa yoi ni emimi cmazumo 
uchinagcki katankemakuwa tokoslncm kaku shnno aramcya 
ametsucln no kami kotovosete harubana no sakan mo aranto 
matashiken toki no sakari zo hanareite nagekasu imo ga 
itsu shikamo tsukai no konto matasuran kokoro sabushiku 
minami fuki yukige masarite Imizugawa nagaru minawa no 
yorube nami Saburu sono ko ni hnno no o no itsuganaite 
niodori no futari narabii Nago no umi no oki wo fukamete 
sadowaseru kimi ga kokoro no sube mo sube nasa 

Aomyoshi Nara ni aru imo ga takadakani matsuran kokoro 
shika niwa arajika 

Satobito no miru me hazukashi Saburu ko m sadowasu kimi ga 

Kurenai v/a utsurou mono zo tsurubami no naremshi kmu m 
nao shikameyamo 


Saburu ko ga itsukishi tono ni suzu kakenu hayuma kudareri 
saro mo todoroni 


Kakemakumo ayani kasliikoshi Sumerogi no Kami no 5miyo ni 
Tajimamon Tokoyo m watan yahoko mochi maidekoshi 
tokijiku no kagu no konomi wo kashikokumo nokosliitamaere 
kuni mo se ni oitachi sakae haru sareba hikoe moitsutsu 
hototogisu naku satsuki niwa hatsuhana wo eda ni taorite 
otomera ni tsuto nimo yarimi shirotae no sode nimo kokire 
kaguwashimi okite karashimi ayuru mi wa tama ni nukitsutsu 
te ni makite miredomo akazu akizukeba shigure no ame furi 
ashihiki no yama no konure wa kurenai ni nioi chiredomo 


tachibana no nareru sono mi wa hitateri ni lya mxgahoshiku 
miyuki furu fuyu ni icareba shimo okedomo sono ha mo karezu 
tokiwa nasu xya sakabaeni shikarekoso kami no miyo yori 
yoroshinabe kono tachxbana wo tokijikuno kagu no konomi to 

Tachibana wa hana mmo mi mmo mitsuredomo lya tokijikum 
nao shi migahoslii 


Okimi no to no mikado to makitamau tsukasa no mamma 
miyukx furu Koshi ni kudariki aratama no toshi no itsutose 
shikitae no tamakura makazu himo tokazu marone wo sureba 
ibusemito kokoronagusa ni nadeshiko wo yado ni makioshi 
natsu no no no sayuri hikiuete saku hana wo idemiru gotoni 
nadeshiko ga sono hanazuma ni sayunbana yuri mo awanto 
nagusamuru kokoro shi nakuba amazakaru hina nx hitohi mo 
arubekumo areya 

Nadeshiko ga hana miru gotom otomera ga emax no moi 

Sayunbana yuri mo awanto shxtabauru kokoro shi nakuba 
ky5 mo hemeyamo 


Sumerogi no shikxmasu kuni no amenoshita yomo no michi niwa 
uma no tsume itsukusu kiwami funanohe no ihatsurumadeni 
inishie yo ima no otsutsu ni yorozutsuki matsuru tsukasa to 
tsuk untar u sono nariwax wo ame furazu hi no kasanareba 
ueshi ta mo makishi hatake mo asa gotoni shibomi kareyuku 
so wo mireba kokoro wo itami midongo no chi kouga gotoku 
amatsumizu aogitezo matsu ashihiki no yama no taori ni 
kono miyuru ama no shirakumo Watatsumi no okitsumiyabe ni 
tachiwatari tonogumoriaite ame mo tamawane 

Kono miyuru kumo hobikorite tonogumori ame mo furanuka 

3 8z 

kokorodarai m 


Waga horishi ame wa funkinu kaka shi araba kotoagc sezutomo 
toshi wa sakaen 


Haru no sono kurenai rnou momo no hana shirateru michi m 
idetatsu otome 

Waga sono no sumomo no hana ka nnva m chiru hadare no imada 


Asadoko m lakeba harukeshi Imizugawa asakogi shitsutsu 
utau funabito 


Karabito mo ikada ukabete asobu tou kyo zo waga seko 
hanakazura seyo 


Ashihiki no yama saka koete yukikawaru toshinoo nagaku 
shinazakaru Koshi mshi sumeba Okimi no shikimasu kum wa 
miyako womo koko mo oyajito kokoro mwa omou monokara 
katarisake misakuru hitome tomoshimito omoi shi shigeshi 
soko yueni kokoro naguyato akizukeba hagi sakiniou 
hvasenu ni umadakiyukite ochikochi ni ton fumitatete 
shiranuri no osuzu mo yurani awaseyari furisakemitsutsu 
ikidoru kokoro no uchi wo omoinobe ureshibi nagara 
makurazuku tsumaya no uchi ni tokura yui suetezo waga kau 
mashirafu no taka 

Yakatao no mashiro no raka wo yado ni sue kakinade mitsutsu 
kawakushi yoshimo 



Amazakaru lima osame mto Oknni no make no manimam 
idetc kosln ware wo okuruto aoniyoshi Narayama sugite 
Izunngawa kiyoki kawara ni uma todome wakarcsln toki in 
masakikute are kaerikon tairakeku lwaite mateto 
kataraitc koshi In no kiwann tamahoko no nnchi wo tadonn 
yama kawa no henaritc areba koishikeku kenagakimonowo 
mimaku hon omou aida ni tamazusa no tsukai no kereba 
ureshimito aga machi toum oyozure no tawakoto tokamo 
hashikiyoshi naoto no mikoto nani slnkamo toki slnwa aranwo 
hatasusuki ho m zuru aki no hagi no hana nioeru yado wo 
asamwa m idetachi narashi yuniwa ni fumitairagezu 
Saho no uchi no sato wo yukisugi ashihiki no yama no konure m 
shirakumo ni tacliitanabikuto are m tsugetsuru 

Masakikuto liteshimonowo shirakumo ni tachitanabikuto 
kikeba kanashimo 

Kakaranto kanete shinseba Koshi no umi no anso no nami mo 


Ametsuchi no toki hajime yo yononaka wa tsune naki mono to 

katantsugi nagaraekitare Amanohara furisakemireba 

teru tsuki mo miclnkake shikeri ashihiki no yama no konure mo 

ham sareba hana sakinioi akizukeba tsuyujimo oite 

kaze majin momiji chirikeri utsusemi mo kaku nomi narasln 

kurenai no iro mo utsuroi nubatama no kurokami kawari 

asa no emi yube kawarai fuku kaze no mienuga gotoku 

yuku mizu no tomaranugotoku tsune mo naku utsurou mireba 

niwatazumi nagaruru namida todomekanetsumo 

Koto towanu ki sura haru saki akizukeba momiji chirakuwa 
tsune wo namikoso 

Utsusemi no tsune naki mireba yononaka m kokoro tsukezute 
omou hi zo oki 


Chichinomi no chichi no mikoro hahasoba no haha no imkoto 
ohorokani kokoro tsukushitc omouran sono ko nareyamo 
masurao ya munashiku arubeki azusayumi sue funokoshi 
naguva mo chi clnhiro iwatashi tsurugitachi koshi m torihaki 
ashihila no yatsuo fumikoe sashimakuru kokoro sayarazu 
nochi no yo no kataritsugubeku na wo tatsubeshimo 

Masurao wa na woshi tatsubeshi nochi no yo m kilatsugu hito mo 
kataritsugu gane 


Toki gotoni lya mezurashiku yachikusa ni kusaki hana saki 
naku tori no koe mo kawarau nnmi ni kiki me m nnru gotoni 
uchmageki shmae urabure shmubitsutsu ankuru hashi ni 
konokure no uzuki shi tateba yogomon ni naku hototogisu 
lrushie yu kataritsugitsuru uguisu no utsushimako kamo 
ayamegusa hanatachibana wo otomera ga tama nukumadeni 
akanesasu lnru wa shimerani ashilnki no yatsuo tobikoe 
nubatama no yoru wa sugarani akatoki no tsuki ni mukaite 
yukigaen nakitoyomuredo nani ka akitaran 

Toki gotoni lya mezurashiku saku hana wo ori mo orazumo 
mirakushi yoshimo 

Toshinoha ni kinaku monoyue hototogisu kikeba shinubaku 
awanu hi wo omi 

5 07-8 

Hototogisu kinaku satsuki ni sakiniou hanatachibana no 
kaguwashiki oya no mikoto asa yoi m kikauu In maneku 
amazakaru hina mshi oreba ashilnki no yama no taon ni 
tatsu kumo wo yoso nomi mitsutsu nageku sora yasukenakum 
omou sora kurushikimonowo Nago no ama no kazukitoru tou 
shiratama no nngahoshi miomowa tada mukai mm toki madewa 
matsu kae no sakaeimasane t5toki aga kimi 


Shiratama no migahoshi kimi wo mizu hisarn hina mshi oreba 
ikerutomo nashi 

5 09 

Fujmami no kage naru umi no soko kiyomi shizuku ishi womo 
tama tozo waga miru 

5 10 

Shibutam wo saslnte waga yuku kono hama m tsukuyo akicen 
uma shimashi tome 


Imshie ni ankeru waza no kusuwashiki koto to utsugu 
Chmuotoko Unaiotoko no utsusemi no na wo arasouto 
tamakiharu mochi mo sutete arasoi m tsumadoi shikeru 
otomera ga kikeba kanashisa harubana no moesakaete 
aki no ha no moi m tereru atarashiki mi no sakari sura 
masurao no koto itawashmu chichihaha ni moshiwakarete 
ie sakari unnbe m ldetachi asa yoi ni michikuru shio no 
yaenami m nabiku tamamo no fushi no ma mo oshiki inochi wo 
tsuyujimo no sugimashimkere okutsuki wo koko to sadamete 
no chi no yo no kikitsugu hito mo lya tom shinubi ni seyoto 
tsugeogushi shika sashikerashi oite nabikeri 

Otomera ga nochi no shirushi to tsugeogushi oikawari oite 


Ametsuchi no hajime no toki yu utsusemi no yasotomonoo wa 
Okimi ni matsurou mono to sadamareru tsukasa nishi areba 
Okimi no mikoto kashikomi hmazakaru kuni wo osamuto 
ashihiki no yama kawa hedate kaze kumo m koto wa kayoedo 
tadani awazu hi no kasanareba omoikoi ikizukiorum 
tamahoko no michi kuru hito no tsutegoto m ware m kataraku 
hashikiyoshi kum wa konogoro urasabite nagekaiimasu 


yononaka no ukeku tsurakeku saku hana mo coki m utsurou 
utsusemi mo tsune naku ankeri taraclnne no mihaha no mikoto 
nani slnkamo toki shiwa aranwo masokagami nnredomo akazu 
tamanoo no oshiki sakari m tatsu kiri no usenurugotoku 
oku tsuyu no kenuruga gotoku tamamo nasu nabiki koifushi 
vuku mizu no todomekanetsuto tawakoto ya Into no litsuru 
oyozure ka hito no tsugetsuru azusayumi tsumahiku yoto no 
toto nimo kikeba kanashimi niwatazumi nagaruru namida 

T5to nimo kxmi ga nagekuto kikitsureba ne nomislii nakayu 
aiomou ware wa 

Yononaka no tsune naki koto wa shiruranwo kokoro tsukusuna 
masurao nishite 


Akitsushima Yamato no kuni wo amagumo ni lwafune ukabe 
tomo ni he m makai shiji nuki ikogitsutsu kunimi shi seshite 
amonmashi harai tairage chiyo kasane lya tsugitsugini 
shirashikuru Araa no Hitsugi to kamunagara waga Okimi no 
amenoshita osametamaeba mononofu no yasotomonoo wo 
nadetamai totonoetamai osukuni no yomo no hito womo 
atesawazu megumitamaeba inishie yu nakarishi shirushi 
tabi maneku m5shitamainu tamudakite koto naki miyo to 
ametsuchi hitsuki to tomoni yorozuyo m shirushi tsuganzo 
yasumishishi waga Okimi aki no hana shiga iroiro m 
meshitamai akirametamai sakamizuki sakayuru ky5 no 
ayani totosa 

Aki no toki hana kusanaredo iro gotoni meshi akiramuru 
kyo no totosa 


Ashihiki no yatsuo no ue no tsuga no ki no iya tsugitsugini 
matsu ga ne no tayuru koto naku aoniyoshi Nara no miyako ni 


yorozuyo m kuni shirasanto yasunnshishi waga Okimi no 
kamunagara omohoshimeshite toyo no akari mesu ky5 no hi wa 
mononofu no yasotomonoo no shimayama m akaru tachibana 
uzu m saslii hnno tokisakete chitose hogi hogitoyomoshi 
eraerani tsukaematsuruwo miruga totosa 

Sumerogi no miyo yorozuyo ni kaku shikoso meshi akirameme 
ratsu toshinoha m 


Ametsuchi ni tarawashitente waga Okimi shikimasebakamo 
tanushiki osato 

5 21-2 

Haru no nu m kasumi tanabiki uraganashi kono yukage ni 
uguisu nakumo 

Waga yado no isasamuratake fuku kaze no oto no kasokcki 
kono yube kamo 


Urauram tereru harubi ni hibari agan kokoroganashimo 
hitori shi omoeba 


Okimi no to no mikado to shiranuhi Tsukushi no kuni wa 
ata mamoru osae no ki zoto kikoshiosu yomo no kuni niwa 
hito sawani michitewa aredo ton ga naku Azumaonoko wa 
idemukai kaerimi sezute isamitaru takeki ikusa to 
negitamai make no mammam tarachine no haha ga me karete 
wakakusa no tsuma womo makazu aratama no tsukihi yomitsutsu 
ashi ga chiru Naniwa no Mitsu ni obune ni makai sliiji nuki 
asanagi ni kako totonoe yushio ni kaji hikiori 
adomoite kogiyuku kimi wa nami no ma wo iyukisagukumi 
masakiku mo hayaku itarite Okimi no mikoto no mamma 


masurao no kokoro wo moclnte arimeguri koto shi owaraba 
tsutsumawazu kaerikimaseto lwaibe wo tokobe ni suctc 
slnrotae no sode orikaeshi nubatama no kurokann shikitc 
nagaki ke wo machi kamo koin hashiki tsumara wa 

Masurao no yugi tonoitc idete ikeba wakare wo oslumi 
nagekiken tsuma 

Ton ga naku Azumaotoko no tsuma wakare kanaslnku ariken 
toshmoo nagami 

$ 27-9 

Sumerogi no toki miyo mmo oshiteru Namwa no kum ni 
amenoshita sluraslnmeslnkito ima no yo ni taezu iitsutsu 
kakemakumo ayani kaslukoshi kamunagara waga Okimi no 
uchmabiku liaru no liajime wa yachikusa m liana sakmioi 
yama nnreba mi no tomoshiku kawa mireba mi no sayakeku 
mono gotom sakayuru toki to meshitamai akirametamai 
shikimaseru Namwa no miya wa kikoslnmesu yomo no kum yon 
tatematsuru nutsuki no fune wa hone yori miobiki shitsutsu 
asanagi ni kaji hikmobon yushio ni sao sashikudari 
ajimura no sawagikioite hama m idete unabara mireba 
shiranami no yae oruga ue ni amaobune hararani ukite 
5m ike ni tsukaematsuruto ochikochi ni izari tsunkeri 
sokidaku mo ogiro nakikamo kokibaku mo yutakekikamo 
koko mireba ube sin kamiyo yu hajinickerashimo 

Sakurabana mia sakan nan Namwa no umi osbteru miya ni 
kikoshimesu nabe 

Unabara no yutakeki mitsutsu as hi ga chiru Namwa ni tosln wa 
henubeku omohoyu 


Okimi no mikoto kashikomi tsuma wakare kanashikuwa aredo 
masurao no kokoro furiokoshi toriyosoi kadode wo sureba 


tarachme no haha kakinade wakakusa no tsuma toritsuki 
tairakeku ware wa iwawan masakikute haya kaenkoto 
masode mochi namida wo nogoi musebitsutsu kotodoi sureba 
muratori no idetachigateni todokon kaerimi shitsutsu 
lya tom kum wo kihanare iya takani yama wo koesugi 
ashi ga chiru Namwa m knte yushio m fune wo ukesue 
asanagi ni he muke koganto samorauto waga oru toki ni 
harugasumi shimami m tachite tazu ga ne no kanashiku nakeba 
harobaroni le wo omoide oisoya no soyo to narumade 

Unabara ni kasumi tanabiki tazu ga ne no kanashiki yoi wa 
kumbe sin omohoyu 

Ie omouto 1 wo nezu oreba tazu ga naku ashibe mo rrnezu 
haru no kasumi ni 


Okimi no make no mammam sakimori 111 waga tachikureba 
hahasoba no haha no mikoto wa mimo no suso tsumiage kakinade 
chichmomi no chichi no mikoto wa takuzunu no shirahige no ue yu 
namida tari nageki notabaku kakojimono tada hitori shite 
asatode no kanashiki waga ko aratama no toshinoo nagaku 
aimizuba koishiku arubeshi ky5 danimo kotodoi sento 
oshimitsutsu kanashibnmase wakakusa no tsuma mo kodomo mo 
ochikocln m sawani kakumii harutori no koe no samayoi 
shirotae no sode nakinurashi tazusawari wakaregatemto 
Inkitodome shitaishimonowo Okimi no mikoto kashikonn 
tamahoko no michi m idetachi oka no saki itamuru gotoni 
yorozutabi kaerimi shitsutsu harobaroni wakare shi kureba 
omou sora yasukumo arazu kouru sora kurushikimonowo 
utsusemi no yo no hito nareba tamakiharu inochi mo shirazu 
unabara no kashikoki michi wo shimazutai ikogiwatante 
anmegun waga kurumadeni tairakeku oya wa imasane 
tsutsumi naku tsuma wa mataseto Suminoe no aga sumegami ni 
nusa matsuri inorimSshite Naniwazu ni fune wo ukesue 


yasoka nuki kako rotonoere asabiraki wa \va kogidcnuro 
ic m tsugekoso 

Icbito no iwae nika aran tairakeku funade wa shinuro 
ova ni mdsane 

Misora yuku kumo mo tsukai to hito wa ledo lezuto yaran 
tazuki shirazumo 

lezuto m kai zo hineru hamanami wa lya shikushikuni 
takaku yosuredo 

Shimakage ni waga fune hatetc tsugeyaran tsukai wo namiya 
koitsutsu yukan 

5 38-40 

Hisakata no Amanoto lnraki Takaclnho no take m amonshi 
Sumerogi no Kami no miyo yon hajiyunn wo taniginmotashi 
makagoya wo tabasamisoetc Okume no masuratakeo wo 
saki ni tate yugi tori 5 se yama kawa wo lwane sakumite 
fumitdn kunimagi shitsutsu chihayaburu kami wo kotomuke 
matsurowanu hito womo yawashi hakikiyomc tsukae mats unt e 
Akitsushima Yamato no kum no Kaslnhara no Unebi no miya ni 
miyabashira futoslnritatcte amenoshita shirashimeshikcru 
Sumerogi no Ama no Hxtsugi to tsugite kuru Kimi no miyo miyo 
kakusawanu akaki kokoro wo Sumera-be m kiwametsukushite 
tsukaekuru oya no tsukasa to kotodatete sazuketamaeru 
umi no ko no iya tsugitsugini miru hito no kataritsugitete 
kiku hito no kagann ni sen wo atarashiki kiyoki son o na zo 
ohorokani kokoro omoite munakoto mo oya no na tatsuna 
Otomo no uji ro na ni oeru masurao no tomo 

Shikislnma no Yamato no kuni ni akirakeki na ni ou tomonoo 
kokoro tsutomeyo 

Tsurugitachi iyoyo togubeshi mishic yu sayakeku 01 te 
kinishi sono na zo 

39 1 


Utsusemi wa kazu naki mi nari yama kawa no sayakeki mitsutsu 
michi wo tazuncna 

Wataru In no kage m kioite tazunetena kiyoki sono michi 
mata mo awan tame 

5 43 

Mitsubo nasu kareru mi zotowa shireredomo nao shi negaitsu 
chitose no mochi wo 


Aounabara kaze nami nabiki yukusa kusa tsutsumu koto naku 
fune wa hayaken 


Aratashiki toshi no hajnne no hatsuharu no kyd furu yuki no 
lya shike yogoto 

S 4 6~ 9 

Wake ga tame waga te mo sumam haru no nu m nnkeru tsubana zo 
meshite koemase 

Hiru wa saki yoru wa koinuru nebu no hana kimi no mi mimeya 
wake sacm miyo 

Waga kimi m wake wa kourasln tabantaru tsubana wo hamedo 
lya yase ni yasu 

Wagimoko ga katami no nebu wa hana nomini sakite kedashiku 
mi ni narajikamo 


Amazakaru liina ni na kakasu Koshi no naka kunuchi koto go to 
yama washimo shijim aredomo kawa washimo sawam yukedomo 

39 2 

sumegami no ushihakiimasu Nnkawa no sono Tachiyama m 
tokonatsu ni yuki furishikite obaseru Katakaigawa no 
kiyoki se m asa yoi gotom tatsu kiri no omoisugimeya 
angayoi iya toshmoha ni yoso nomimo funsakemitsutsu 
yorozuyo no kataraigusa to imada minu hito mmo tsugen 
oto nomimo na nomimo kikite tomoshiburu gane 

Tachiyama ni furiokeru yuki wo tokonatsu ni miredomo akazu 
kamukara narashi 

Katakai no kawa no se kiyoku yuku mizu no tayuru koto naku 
angayoi mm 


Asahi sashi sogai m miyuru kamunagara mina m owaseru 
shirakumo no chic wo oshiwake amasosori takaki Tachiyama 
fuyu natsu to waku koto mo naku shirotae ni yuki wa furiokite 
imshie yu arikinikereba kogoshikamo iwa no kamusabi 
tamakibaru ikuyo heniken tachite ite miredomo ayashi 
mine takami tani wo fukamito ochitagitsu kiyoki k5chi ni 
asa sarazu kiri tachiwatari yu sareba kumoi tanabiki 
kumoi nasu kokoro mo shinuni tatsu kiri no onioisugusazu 
yuku nnzu no oto mo sayakeku yorozuyo ni litsugiyukan 
kawa shi taezuba 

Tachiyama ni furiokeru yuki no tokonatsu m kezute wataruwa 
kamunagara tozo 

Ochitagitsu Katakaigawa no taenu goto ima miru hito mo 
yamazu kayo wan 


Inishie yu hito no iikuru oibito no otsu tou mizu zo 
na ni ou taki no se 



Waga na wamo china no lona ni tachmutomo kimi ga na rataba 
oshimikoso nake 


Yasumishishi waga Okimi no shikimaseru kum no naka nnva 
mivako shi omohoyu 

Fujmami no hana wa sakari ni nanmken Nara no miyako wo 
omohosuva kimi 

5 60 

Tsukuyo yoshi kawa no to kiyoshi 12a koko ni yukumo yukanumO' 
asobitc yukan 


Amagumo no mukabusu kum no mononofu to iwareshi hito wa 
Sumerogi no Kami no mikado ni to no he ni tachisamorai 
uchi no he 111 tsukaematsurite tamakazura lya t 5 nagaku 
oya no na mo tsugiyuku mono to omochichi m tsuma ni kodomo ni 
kataraite tachinishi H yori tarachine no haha no nnkoto w 7 a 
lwaibe w 7 o mae ni sueokite hitote mwa yu tonmochite 
hitote mwa nigitae matsuri tairakeku masakiku maseto 
ametsuchi no kami 111 koinomi lkanaran toshitsukihi nika 
tsutsujibana nioeru kimi ga kurotori no nazusaikonto 
tachite ite machiken hito wa Okimi no mikoto kashikonn 
oshiteru Namwa no kum ni aratama no toshi furumadem 
shirotae no koromode hosazu asa yoi ni aritsuru kimi wa 
lkasamam omoimaseka utsusemi no oshiki kono yo wo 
tsuyujimo no okite miken toki narazushite 

Kino koso kimi wa anshika omowanuni hamamatsu no ue ni 
kumo to tanabiku 

Itsu shikato matsuran imo m tamazusa no koto dam tsugezu 
mishi kimi kamo 



Koto mo naku oikoshimonowo oinami ni kakaru koi mmo 
ware wa aerukamo 

Koishinan nochi wa nani sen ikeru hi no tame koso lmo wo 
mimaku horisure 


Wagimoko wa tokoyo no kum m sumikerashi mukashi mishiyon 


Ametsuchi no wakareshi toki yu kamusabite takaku totoki 
Suruga naru Fuji no takane wo Amanohara funsakemireba 
wataru lii no kage mo kakuroi teru tsoki no hikari mo miezu 
shirakumo mo lyukihabakari tokijikuzo yuki wa funkeru 
katantsugi iitsugiyukan Fuji no takane wa 

Tago no ura yu uchndetc mireba mashirom zo Fuji no takane m 
yuki wa funkeru 


Sumerogi no Kami no Mikoto no shikimasu kuni no kotogoto 
yu washimo sawani aredonio shimayama no yorosliiki kuni to 
kogoshikamo lyo no takane no Isaniwa no oka ni tatashite 
uta omoi koto omowashishi miyu no ue no komura wo mireba 
omi no ki mo oitsugmikeri naku ton no koe mo kawarazu 
toki yo ni kamusabiyukan ideniashidokoro 

Momoshiki no 5miyabito no Nigitazu m funanori shiken 
toshi no shiranaku 


Mimoro no Kamunabiyama m loe sashi shijirn oitaru 
tsuga no ki no lya tsugitsugim tamakazura tayuru koto naku 


antsutsumo yamazu kayo wan Asuka no furuki miyako wa 
yama takami kawa toshiroshi haru no In wa yama shi migahoshi 
aki no yo wa kawa shi sayakeshi asagumo m tazu wa midare 
yugiri m kawazu wa sawagu miru go tom ne nomislu nakayu 
mishie omoeba 

Asukagawa kawayodo sarazu tats a kiri no omoisugubeki 
koi ni aranakuni 


Harubi wo Kasuga no yama no takakura no Mikasa no yama m 
asa sarazu kumoi tanabiki *kaodori no manaku shiba naku 
kumoi nasu kokoro isayoi sono ton no katakoi nomini 
hiru wamo hi no kotogoto yoru wamo yono kotogoto 
tachite ite omoi zo waga suru awanu ko yuem 

Takakura no Mikasa no yama ni naku tori no yameba tsugaruru 
koi mo surukamo 

5 75-7 

Imshie m ariken hito no shizuhata no obi tokikaete 

fuseya tate tsumadoi shiken Katsushika no Mama no Tekona no 

okutsuki wo koko towa kike do maki no ha ya shigeritaruran 

matsu ga ne ya t5ku hisashiki koto nomimo na nomimo ware wa 


Ware mo mitsu hito nimo tsugen Katsushika no Mama no Tekona : 

Katsushika no Mama no trie m uclunabiku taniamo kanken 
Tekona shi omohoyu 

5 78-80 

Yasunushishi wago Okimi no tokonuya to tsukaematsureru 
Saiganu yu sogai ni miyuru okitsushima kiyoki nagisa ni 
kaze fukeba shiranami sawagi shio hireba tamamo karitsutsu 

kamiyo yori shika zo totoki Tamatsushimayama 

Okitsushima ariso no tamamo shiohi michite kakuroiyukaba 

Waka no ura ni shio michikureba kata wo nami asliibe wo sashite 
tazu nakiwataru 

5 S1-3 

Yasumishishi wago Okimi no takashirasu Yoshinu no miya w T a 
tatanazuku aogakigomori kawanami no kiyoki k5chi zo 
harube wa hana sakioon aki sareba kin tachiwataru 
sono yama no iya masumasum kono kawa no tayuru koto naku 
momoshiki no 5miyabito wa tsuneni kayowan 

Mi-Yoshinu no Kisayama no ma no konure mwa kokoda mo sawagu 
ton no koe kamo 

Nubatama no yo no fukeyukeba hisagi ouru kiyoki kaw r ara ni 
chidon shiba naku 


Yasumishishi wago Okimi wa Mi-Yoshinu no Akitsu no onu no 
nu no he niwa tomi sueokite miyama niwa ime tatewatashi 
asagan ni shishi fumiokoshi yugari ni tori fumitate 
uma namete mikari zo tatasu haru no shigenu ni 

Asliihiki no yama 111 m o nu mmo mikaribito satsuva tabasami 
midaritan miyu 

Ametsuchi no t5kiga gotoku 
oshiteru Namwa no miya ni 
miketsukuni hi no mitsuki to 
wata no soko okitsu ikuri ni 
fune namete tsukaematsurushi 


hitsuki no nagakiga gotoku 
wago Okimi kuni shirasurashi 
Awaji no Nujima no araa no 
awabitama sawani kazukide 
t5toshi mireba 


Asanagi m kaji no to kikoyu imketsukuni Nujima no ama no 
fune mshi arurashi 

5 88~gi 

Yasumishishi waga Okimi no kamunagara takashiraseru 
Inaminu no Onn no hara no aratae no Fuju no ura ni 
shibi tsuruto amabune midan shio yakuto hito zo sawanaru 
ura wo yomi ube mo tsun wa su llama wo yonn ube mo shio yaku 
angavoi mimasumo slnrushi kiyoki shirahama 

Okitsunami hcnami yasukemi izari suto Fujie no ura m 
fune zo toyomeru 

Inaminu no asaji oshmabe sanuru yo no kenagaku areba 
le shi shinubayu 

Akashigata shiolu no michi wo asu yonwa shita-emashiken 
le chikazukeba 


Ajisahatu imo ga me karetc shikitae no niakura mo makazu 
kaniwa maki tsukureru fune ni makaji nuki waga kogikureba 
Awaji no Nujima mo sugi Inamizuma Karani no shima no 
shima no ma yu wagie wo mireba aoyania no soko tomo miezu 
shirakumo mo chie ni narikinu kogitamuru ura no kotogoto 
yukikakuru shima no sakizaki kuma mo okazu omoi zo waga kuru 
tabi no ke nagami 

Tamamo karu Karani no shima ni shimami suru u nishimo areya 
le mowazaran 

Shimagakuri waga kogikureba tomoshikamo Yamato e noboru 
Ma-Kumanu no tune 

Kaze tukeba nami ka tatanto samorai m Tsuta no hosoe m 
uragakuri ori 



Masurao wa mikari ni tatashi otomera wa akamo susobiku 
kiyoki hamabi wo 


Yasumishisln waga Okinn no meshitamau Yoshmu no miya wa 
yama takann kumo zo tanabiku kawa havami se no to zo kiyoki 
kamusabite rrureba t5toku yoroshmabe mireba sayakeshi 
kono yama no tsukibanomikoso kono kawa no taebanomikoso 
momoshiki no omiyadokoro yamu toki mo arame 

Kamiyo yori Yoshmu no miya ni angayoi takashiraseruwa 
yama kawa wo yomi 


Haru no nu ni sumire tsunu mco koshi ware zo nu wo natsukashimi 
hitoyo nenikeru 


Asu yonwa haruna tsumanto shimeshi nu til kin5 1110 ky5 mo 
yuki wa furitsutsu 


Obune wo kogi no susumi ni iwa ni furi kaeraba kaere 
imo ni yontewa 


Mitami ware ikeru shirushi an ametsuchi no sakayuru toki m 
aeraku omoeba 


Iza kodomo hayaku Yamaco e Otomo no Mitsu no hamamatsu 



Okurara wa ima wa makaran ko nakuran sono kano haha mo 
wa wo matsuranzo 


Okimi no to no mikado to slnranuhi Tsukushi no kum m 
naku ko nasu shitaikimashite lki dammo imada yasumezu 
toshitsuki mo imada araneba kokoro yumo omowanu aida in 
uchmabiki koyashmure iwan sube sen sube shiram 
uvaki womo toisake shirazu le naraba katachi wa aranwo 
urameshiki imo no imkoto no are wobamo lkam seyotoka 
modon no futari narabu kataraishi kokoro somukite 
le sakarumasu 

le m yukite lkam ka aga sen makurazuku tsumaya sabushiku 

Hashikiyoshi kaku no mi karani shitaikoshi imo ga kokoro no 
sube mo sube nasa 

Kuyashikamo kaku slnramaseba aomyoshi kunuchi kotogoto 

Imo ga nnshi ochi no liana wa chirinubesln waga naku namida 
imada hinakum 

Onuyama kiri taclnwatarn waga nageku okiso no kaze ni 
kiri tachiwataru 


Chichihaha wo mireba totoshi meko mireba megushi utsukushi 
yononaka wa kaku zo kotowari mochidori no kakarawasliimoyo 
yukue shiraneba ugegutsu wo nugitsurugotoku 
fuminugite yuku chiu Into wa iwaki yori narideshi Into ka 
naga na norasane ame e yukaba naga manimani 
tsuchi naraba Okimi unasu kono terasu hitsuki no shita wa 


amagumo no mukabusu kiwamx tamguku no sawataro kxwami 
kxkoslnosu kum no mahora zo kamkakum hoshiki manimani 
shika nxwa arajika 

Hisakata no amaji wa toshi naonaom le m kaente 
nari wo shxmasanx 


Uri hameba kodonio omohoyu knn hameba mashite slnnubayu 
izuku yorx kitarishi mono zo manakai ni motona kakarite 
yasui shi nasanu 

Shirogane mo kugane mo tama mo nani senm masareru cakara 
ko ni shxkameyamo 

6 i $-6 

Yononaka no sube nakx mono wa toshitsuki wa nagarurugotoshi 
tontsuzuki oikuru mono wa momokusa m semeyorikxtaru 
otomera ga otomesabi suto karatama wo tamoto ni makasln 
yochikora to te tazusawarite asobxken toki no sakari wo 
todomikane sugushiyarxtsure minanowata kaguroki kami ni 
itsu no ma ka shimo no furiken kurenai no omote no tie ni 
xzuku yuka shiwa kakitarishi masurao no otokosabx suto 
tsurugitachi koshi ni torxhaki satsuyumi wo tanxgirimochxte 
akagoma ni shizukura uchioki hainorite asobiarukishi 
yononaka ya tsunem arxkeru otomera ga sanasu itado wo 
oshihirakx itadonyorite matamade no tamade sashikae 
saneshx yo no ikuda mo araneba tazukazue koshi m taganete 
ka yukeba hito m itowae kaku yukeba hito m nikumae 
oyoshio wa kaku nomi narashi tamakiharu inochi oshikedo 
sen sube mo nashi 

Tokiwa nasu kaku shimogamoto omoedomo yo no koto nareba 


6 1 y-8 

Kakemakuwa ayani kashikoshi Tarashihime Kami no Mikoto 
Karakum wo muketairagete mikokoro wo shizumetamauto 
itorashite lwaitamaishi matama nasu futatsu no ishi wo 
yo no hito m shimeshitamaite yorozuyo ni ntsugu gane to 
wata no soko okitsu-Fukae no unakami no Kofu no hara m 
mitezukara okashitamaite kamunagara kamusabnmasu 
kushimitama ima no otsutsu ni t5tokirokamo 

Ametsuchi no tomoni hisashiku utsugeto kono kushimitama 
shika shikerashimo 


Amazakaru hina ni itsutose sumaitsutsu miyako no teburi 


Uchihisasu miya e noboruto tarachishi ya haha ga te hanare 
tsune shiranu kuni no okuka wo momoeyama koete sugiyuki 
itsu shikamo miyako wo minto omoitsutsu kataraioredo 
onoga mi shi ltawaslnkereba tamahoko no michi no kumami ni 
kusa taori shiba tonshikite tokejimono uchikoifushite 
omoitsutsu nageki fuseraku kuni ni araba chichi torimimashi 
ie ni araba haha torimimashi yononaka w r a kaku nomi narashi 
inujimono michi ni fushiteya mochi suginan 

Tarachishi no haha ga me mizute obohoshiku izuchi mukiteka 
aga wakaruran 

Tsune shiranu michi no nagate wo kurekure to ikani ka yukan 
karite wa nashini 

Ie ni ante haha ga torimiba nagusamuru kokoro wa aramashi 
shinaba shinutomo 

Idete yukishi hi wo kazoetsutsu ky5kyo to a wo matasuran 


chichihahara wamo 

Hitoyo niwa futarabi mienu chichihaha wo okiteya nagaku 
aga wakarenan 


Kaze majin ame furu yo no ame majiri yuki furu yo wa 
sube mo naku samukushi areba katashio wo roritsuzushiroi 
kasuyuzake uchisusuroite shiwabukai hana hishibishim 
shika to aranu hige kakmadete are wo okite Into wa arajito 
hokoroedo samukushi areba asabusuma hikika^afuri 
nunokatagmu ari no kotogoto kisoedomo samuki yo surawo 
ware yorimo mazushiki hito no chichihaha wa ue samukaran 
mekodomo wa koite nakuran kono toki wa lkam shitsutsuka 
naga yo wa wataru ametsuchi wa hiroshito iedo 
aga tame wa sakuya narinuru hitsuki wa akashito iedo 
aga tame wa ten ya tamawanu hito rmna ka are nomiya shikaru 
wakurabani Into towa aruwo hitonami m are mo nareruwo 
wata mo naki nunokataginu no miru no goto wawakesagareru 
kakafu nomi kata ni uchikake fuseio no mageio no uchi ni 
hitatsuchi ni wara tokishikite chichi haha wa makura no kata m 
mekodomo wa ato no kata ni kakumiite urei samayoi 
kamado niwa keburi fukitatezu koshiki niwa kumo no su kakite 
ii kashigu koto mo wasurete nuedori no nodoyohioruni 
itonokite mijikaki mono wo hashi kiruto ieruga gotoku 
shimoto toru satoosa ga koe wa neyado made kitachi yobainu 
kakubakari sube naki mono ka yononaka no michi 

Yononaka wo ushito yasashito omoedomo tobitachikanetsu 
tori nishi araneba 


Kamiyo yori iitsutekuraku soramitsu Yamato no kuni wa 
Sumegami no itsukushiki kuni kotodama no sakihau kuni to 
kataritsugi iitsugaikeri ima no yo no hito mo kotogoto 
me no mae ni mitari shiritari hito sawani michitewa aredomo 

takahikaru Hi no Mikado kamunagara mede no sakan ni 
amenoshita moshitamaishi ie no ko to erabitamaite 
omikoto itadakimochite Morokoshi no toki sakai ni 
tsukawasare makammase unabara no he ni mo old nimo 
kamuzuman usliihaknmasu moromoro no 5mikamitachi 
funanohe ni michibikimoshi ametsuchi no omikamitachi 
Yamato no Okumtama hisakata no ama no misora yu 
amagaken miwatashitamai koto owan kaeran hi wa 
mata sarani omikamitachi funanohe ni mite uchikakete 
suminawa wo haetarugotoku achikaoshi Chika no saki yon 
Otomo no Mitsu no hamabi ni tadahate ni mifune wa haten 
tsutsumi naku sakiku imashite haya kaerimase 

Otomo no Mitsu no matsubara - kakihakite ware tachimatan 
haya kaenmase 

Namwazu m mifune hatenuto kikoekoba himo tokisakete 
tachihashiri sen 


Tamakiharu uchi no kagm wa tairakeku yasukumo aranwo 
koto mo naku mo mo naku aranwo yononaka no ukeku tsurakeku 
itonokite itaki kizu mwa karashio wo sosogu chiu ga gotoku 
masumasu mo omoki umani ni uwani utsuto iu koto no goto 
omite aru waga mi no ue ni yamai wo to kuwaete areba 
hiru wamo nagekaikurashi yoru wamo ikizukiakashi 
toshi nagaku yami shi watareba tsuki kasane urei samayoi 
kotogoto wa shmanato moedo sabae nasu sawagu kodomo wo 
utsutetewa shim wa shirazu mitsutsu areba kokoro wa moenu 
kamkakum omoiwazurai ne nomishi nakayu 

Nagusamuru kokoro wa nashini kumogakuri nakiyuku tori no 
ne nomishi nakayu 

Sube mo naku kurushiku areba idehashiri inanato moedo 
kora ni sayarinu 


Tomibito no le no kodomo no kiru mi nami kutashi sutsuran 
kmuwatara wamo 

Aratac no nunogmu wo dam kiscgatcni kaku ya nagekan 
sen sube wonami 

Minawa nasu moroki mo chi mo takunawa no chihiro mmogato 

Shizutamaki kazu mmo aranu mi mwa aredo chitose mmogato 


Yo no hito no t 5 tomi negau nanakusa no takara mo ware wa 
nani senni waga naka no umareidetaru 

slnratama no waga ko Furuhi wa akaboshi no akuru aslnta wa 
shikitae no toko no he sarazu tateredomo oredomo 
tomoni tawabure yuzutsu no yube m nareba 
iza neyoto te wo tazusawari cluchihaha mo ue wa na-sakari 
sakikusa 110 naka mwo nento utsukushiku shiga kataraeba 
itsu shikamo hito to narndete ashikekumo yokekumo minto 
obune 110 omoitanomum omowanuni yokoshimakaze no 
nifubukam ooikmureba sen sube no tadoki wo shirani 
shirotae no tasuki wo kake masokagami te ni torimochite 
amatsukami aogi koinonn kumtsukami fushite nukazuki 
kakarazumo kakarimo kann no manimani to 
tachiazari ware komomedo slnmashiku mo yokekuwa nashim 
yayayayani katachi tsukuhon asanasana iu koto yann 
tamakiharu mochi taenurc tachiodori ashizuri sakebi 
fushi aogi mune uchi nageki te m motaru aga ko tobashitsu 
yononaka no michi 

Wakakereba michiyuki shiraji mai wa sen shitabc no tsukai 
oite torase 

Fuse okite ware wa koinomu azamukazu tadani lyukitc 
amaji shirashime 



Onoko yamo munashikarubeki yorozuyo ni kataritsugubeki 
na wa tatezushite 


Hikoboshi wa Tanabatatsume to ametsuchi no wakareshi toki yu 
maushiro kaw T a m mukitachi omou sora yasukaranakum 
nageku sora yasukaranakum aonami ni nozomi wa taenu 
shirakumo ni namida wa tsukinu kaku nomiya ikizukioran 
kaku nomiya koitsutsu aran samnuri no obune mogamo 
tamamaki no makai mogamo asanagi ni lkakiwatari 
yushio m ikogiwatari hisakata no Amanokawara ni 
amatobuya lure katashiki matamade no tamade sashikae 
amata i mo neteshigamo aki ni arazutomo 

Kaze kumo wa futatsu no kishi ni kayoedomo waga tSzuma no 
koto zo kayowanu 

Tabute nimo nagekoshitsubcki Amanogawa hedaterebakamo 
amata sube nami 


Aki no nu ni sakitaru hana wo oyobi ori kakikazoureba 
nanakusa no hana 

Hagi ga hana obaua kuzubana nadeshiko no hana 
ommaeslii mata fujibakama asagao no hana 


Araora wo konka kojikato ii morite kado ni idetachi 
matedo kimasazu 

Araora wa meko no nan woba omowazuro toshi no yatose wo 
matedo kimasazu 



Shirakumo no Tatsuta no yama no tsuyujimo m irozuku toki m 
uchikocte rabi yuku kimi wa loeyama lyukisakumi 
aca mamoru Tsukushi ni itan yama no soki nu no soki miyoto 
tomonobe wo agachi tsukawashi yamabiko no kotaen kiwami 
caniguku no sawataru kiwami kumgata wo meshitamaice 
fuyugomori haru sanyukaba tobu tori no hayaku kimasane 
Tatsutaji no okabe no michi ni mtsutsuji no niowan toki no 
sakurabana sakman toki ni yamatazu no mukae maiden 
kimi ga kimasaba 

Chiyorozu no lkusa nantomo kotoage sezu tonte kmubcki 
onoko tozo omou 


Namayomi no Kai no kuni uchiyosuru Suruga no kum to 
kochigochi no kuni no minaka yu idetateru Fuji no takane wa 
amagumo mo iyukihabakari tobu ton mo tobi mo noborazu 
moyuru hi wo yuki mote kechi furu yuki wo hi mote kechitsutsu 
11 mo ezu nazuke mo shirazu kusushikumo imasu kami kamo 
Se no umi to nazukete arumo sono yama no tsutsumeru umi zo 
Fujigawa to hito no watarumo sono yama no mizu no tagichi zo 
hmomoto no Yamato no kuni no shizume tomo imasu kami kamo 
takara tomo nareru yama kamo Suruga naru Fuji no takane wa 
miredo akanukamo 

Fuji no ne ni furiokeru yuki wa mmazuki no mo chi ni kenureba 
sono yo funkeri 

Fuji no ne wo takami kashikomi amagumo mo lyukihabakan 


Shinagadori Awa ni tsugitaru azusayumi Sue no Tamana wa 
munawake no hiroki wagimo koshiboso no sugaruotome no 
sono kao no kirakirashikini hana no goto emite tatereba 


tamahoko no michi yuku hito wa onoga yuku michi wa yukazute 
yobanakum kado m ltarmu sashmarabu tonan no knni wa 
arakajimc onozuma karece kowanakum kagi sae matsuru 
Into mina no kaku madoereba uchishinai yoritezo imo wa 
tawarete anker u 

Kanato mshi hito no kitateba yonaka nnno mi wa tanas In razu 
idetezo aikeru 

( 55 ( 5-7 

Haru no hi no kasumeru toki ni Suminoe no kishi ni ideite 
tsunbune no toorau rnireba inishie no koto zo omohoyuru 
Mizunoe no Urashima no ko ga katsuo tsuri tai tsunhokori 
nanuka made le mmo kozute unasaka wo sugite kogiyukuni 
Watatsumi no kami no omina ni tamasakani lkogimukai 
aitoburai koto nanslnkaba kakimusubi Tokoyo ni itari 
Watatsumi no kami no miya no uchi no he no taenaru tono ni 
tazusawari futari mite 01 mo sezu shini mo sezu shite 
nagaki yo m arikerumonowo yononaka no orokabito no 
wagimoko ni norite kataraku slnmashiku wa ie ni kaente 
chiclnhaha m koto mo norai asu no goto ware wa kmanto 
iikereba imo ga leraku Tokoyo-be ni mata kaenkite 
ima no goto awanto naraba kono kushige hirakuna yume to 
sokoraku ni katameshi koto wo Suminoe ni kaenkitarite 
ie nnredo le mo mikanete sato miredo sato mo mikanete 
ayaslnmito soko ni omowaku ie yu idete mitose no hodo m 
kaki mo naku ie usemeyato kono hako wo hirakite miteba 
moto no goto ie wa aranto tamakuslnge sukoshi hirakuni 
shirakumo no hako yori idete Tokoyo-be ni tanabikinureba 
tachihashm sakebi sode furi koimarobi ashizuri shits utsu 
tachimachim kokoro keusenu wakakarishi had a mo shiwatninu 
kurokarishi kami mo shirakenu yunayuna wa iki sae taete 
nochi tsuinl inochi shinikeru Mizunoe no Urashima no ko ga 
iedokoro miyu 

Tokoyo-be ni sumubekimonowo tsurugitachi shiga kokoro kara 
ozo ya kono kimi 


Shinateru Katashiwagawa no saninun no 5hashi no uc yu 
kurenai no akamo susobiki yamaai mochi sureru kinu kite 
tada hitori lwatarasu ko wa wakakusa no tsuma ka aruran 
kashi no mi no hitori ka nuran towamakuno hoshiki wagimo ga 
ie no shiranaku 

Ohashi no tsume ni ie araba uraganashiku hicon yuku ko ni 
yado kasamashiwo 


Shirakumo no Tatsuta no yama no taki no ue no Oguia no mine ni 
sakiooru sakura no hana wa yama takami kaze shi yamaneba 
harusame no tsugiteshi fureba hotsue wa chins ugimkeri 
shizue ni nokoreru hana wa shimashiku wa chiri na-midariso 
kusamakura tabi yuku kimi ga kaerikurumade 

Waga yuki wa nanuka wa sugiji Tatsutahiko yume kono hana wo 
kaze ni na-chirashi 

Koromode Hitachi no kuni 
mimaku hon kimi kimaserito 
konone tori usobuki nobori 
o no kami mo yurushiramai 
toki to naku kumo i ame furu 
ibukarishi kuni no mahora wo 
ureshimito himo no wo tokite 
uchinabiku haru mimashiyuwa 
kyo no tanushisa 

Ky5 no hi ni ikani ka shikan 
kiken sono hi mo 


futanarabu Tsukuba no yama wo 
atsukekuni ase kakmage 
o no ue wo kimi ni misureba 
me no kami mo chihaitamaite 
Tsukubane wo sayani tcraslnte 
tsubarakani shimeshitamaeba 
ie no goto toketezo asobu 
natsukusa no shigekuwa aredo 

Tsukubane ni mukashi no hito no 


Uguisu no kaiko no naka ni ho to togisu hitori umarete 


naga chichi ni nitewa nakazu naga haha ni nitewa nakazu 
unohana no sakitaru nube yu tobikakeri kmakitoyomoshi 
tachibana no liana wo ichirashi hinemosu ni nakedo kikiyoshi 
mai wa sen t5ku na-yukiso waga yado no hanatachibana ni 
sumiwatarc ton 

Kakikirashi ame no furu yo wo hototogisu nakite yukunari 
aware sono ton 


Kusamakura tabi no urei wo nagusamoru koto mo aranto 
Tsukubane ni nobontc nnreba obana chiru Shizuku no tai ni 
kangane mo samuku kmakinu Niihari no Toba no omi mo 
akikaze ni shiranami tachmu Tsukubane no yokekuwo mireba 
nagaki ke ni omoi tsumikoshi urei wa yaminu 

Tsukubane no susomi no tai ni akita karu imogari yaran 
momiji taorana 

668- 9 

Washi no sumu Tsukuba no yama no Mohakitsu no sono tsu no ue ni 
adomoite otome otoko no yukitsudoi kagau kagai ni 
hitozuma ni ware mo majiran waga tsuma ni hito mo koto toe 
kono yama wo ushihaku kami no mukashi yori isamenu waza zo 
kyo nomiwa megushimo na-miso koto mo togamuna 

O no kami m kumo tachmobori shigure furi nuret5rutomo 
ware kaerameya 


Kotohiushi no Miyake no saki ni sashimukau Kashima no saki ni 
saninuri no obune wo make tamamaki no okaji shiji nuki 
yushio no michi no todomi ni mifunako wo adomoitatete 
yobitatete mifune idenaba hama mo seni okure namiite 
koimarobi koi kamo oran ashizurishi ne nomiya nakan 
Unakami no sono tsu wo sashite kimi ga kogiyukaba 


Unutsuji no naginan toki mo wataranan kaku tatsu nami m 
funade subeshiya 


Tori ga naku Azuma no kuni ni inishie ni anker u koto to 
ima madeni taezu iikuru Katsushika no Mama no Tekona ga 
asaginu m aoeri tsuke hitasao wo mo mwa onkite 
kami danimo kaki wa kezurazu kutsu wodani hakazu yukcdomo 
nishiki ay a no naka ni tsutsumeru iwaigo mo imo ni shikameya 
mochizuki no miteru omowa ni hana no goto cmite tatereba 
natsumushi no hi ni iruga goto mmatoiri ni fune kogugotoku 
yukikagure hi to no iu toki ikubaku mo ikerajimonowo 
nani sutoka mi wo tanashinte nami no to no sawagu minato no 
okutsuki ni imo ga koyaseru toki yo ni arikeru koto wo 
kino shimo mikenga gotomo omohoyurukamo 

Katsushika no Mama no i mireba tachmarashi mizu kumashiken 
Tekona sin omohoyu 


Ashinoya no Unaiotome no yatosego no kataoi no toki yu 
obanari ni kami takumadeni narabioru ie nimo miezu 
utsuyu no komonte maseba miteshigato lbusemu toki no 
kakiho nasu hi to no tou toki Chinuotoko Unaiotoko no 
fuseya taki susushikioi aiyobai shikeru toki wa 
yakidachi no tagami oshineri shiramayumi yugi torioite 
mizu ni iri hi nimo iranto tachimukai kioishi toki ni 
wagimoko ga haha ni kataraku shizutamaki iyashiki wag a yue 
masurao no arasou mireba ikeritomo aiibeku areya 
shishikushiro yomi ni matanto komorinu no shitabaeokite 
uchinageki imo ga inureba Chinuotoko sono yo ime ni mi 
toritsuzuki oiyukikereba okuretaru Unaiotoko i 
ame aogi sakebi orabi tsuchi ni fushi kigami takebite 
mokoroo ni maketewa arajito kakihaki no odachi torihaki 
tokorozura tomeyukikereba yakaradomo iyukitsudoi 
nagaki yo ni shirushi ni sento toki yo ni kataritsuganto 

otomezuka naka m tsukurioki otokozaka konatakanata m 
tsukunokera yueyoshi kikite shirancdomo nnmo no goto mo 

Ashinoya no Unaiotome no okutsuki wo yukiku to nnreba 
ne nonushi nakayu 

Tsuka no e no ko no e nabiken kikishi goto Chinuotoko nisbi 


Haruyama no saki no oori 111 haruna tsumu imo ga shiralumo 
mirakushi yoshimo 


Amoritsuku Ame-no-Kaguyama kasumi tatsu haru ni itareba 
matsukaze m ikenami tachite sakurabana konokure shijmi 
okibe mwa kamo tsuma yobai hetsube m ajimura sawagi 
momoshiki no 5 miyabito no makaridete asobu fane mwa 
kaji sao mo nakute sabushimo kogu hito nashim 

Hito kogazu arakumo shirushi kazuki suru oshi to takabe to 
fune no e ni sumu 

Itsu no ma mo kamusabikeruka Kaguyama no hokosugi ga mo to ni 
koke musumadem 


Narayama no konotegashiwa no futaomo ni lea nimo kaku mmo 
nejikebito no tomo 


Tamahoko no michi ni idetachi ashihiki no nu yuki yama yuki 
niwatazumi kawa yukiwatan isanatori unuji ni idete 
fuku kaze mo ohoni wa fukazu tatsu nami mo nodoni wa tatanu 
kashikokiya kami no watari no shikinami no yosuru hamabe ni 


takayama wo hedate m okite lnbuchi wo makura ni makice 

ura mo naku koyaseru kixni wa 
wakakusa no tsuma mo aranto 
na wo toedo na danimo norazu 
takanami no kashikoki umi wo 

omochichi no manago nimo aran 
le toedo ieji mo lwazu 
taga koto wo itooshimikamo 
tada watariken 

Omocliichi mo tsuma mo kodomo mo takadakam konto matsuran 
hito no kanashisa 

Iebito no matsuranmonowo tsure mo naki anso wo makite 
fuseru kimi kamo 

lnbuchi ni koyaseru kimi wo kyokyo to konto matsuran 
tsuma shi kanashimo 

Uranami no kiyosuru hama ni tsure mo naku koyaseru kimi ga 
ieji shirazumo 


Yasumishishi waga Okimi no takashikasu Yamato no kuni wa 
Sumerogi no Kami no miyo yori shikimaseru kuni mshi areba 
aremasan miko no tsugitsugi amenoshita shirashimasanto 
yaoyorozu chitose wo kanete sadameken Nara no miyako wa 
kagiroi no haru mshi nareba Kasugayama Mikasa no nube 111 
sakurabana konokuregakuri kaodori wa ma naku shiba naku 
tsuyujimo no aki sankureba Ikomayama Tobuhi ga oka m 
hagi no e wo shigarami chirashi saoshika wa tsuma yobitoyomu 
yama mireba yama mo migahoshi sato mireba sato mo sumiyoshi 
mononofu no yasotomonoo no uchihaete sato namishikeba 
ametsuchi no yoriai no kagiri yorozuyo ni sakaeyukanto 
omoiirishi omiya surawo tanomerishi Nara no miyako wo 
aratayo no koto nishi areba Okimi no hiki no mammani 
harubana no utsuroi kawari muratori no asadachiyukeba 
sasutake no omiyabito no fuminarashi kayoishi michi wa 
uma mo yukazu hito mo yukaneba aremkerukamo 

Tachikawari furuki miyako to narinureba michi no shibakusa 


nagaku omikeri 

Natsukmishi Nara no miyako no areyukeba idetatsu gotoni 
nageki shi masaru 

6 go - 2 

Akitsukami waga Okimi no amenoshita Yashima no uchi m 
kuni washimo oku aredomo sato washimo sawani aredomo 
yamanami no yoroshiki kuni to kawanami no tachiau sato to 
Yamashiro no Kaseyama no ma ni miyabashira futoshikimatsuri 
takashirasu Futagi no miya wa kawa chikami se no to zo kiyoki 
yama chikami tori ga ne toyomu aki sareba yama mo todoroni 
saoshika wa tsuma yobitoyome haru sareba okabe mo shijini 
iwao niwa liana sakioori ana omoshiro Futagi no liara 
ito t5to omiyadokoro ube shikoso waga Okimi wa 
kuni no mani kikashitamaite sasutake no 5miya koko to 

Mikanohara Futagi no nube wo kiyomikoso 5miyadokoro 

Yama takaku kawa no se kiyoshi momoyo made kamishimiyukan 


Waga Okimi Kami no Mikoto no takashirasu Futagi no miya wa 
momoki nasu yama wa kodakashi ochitagitsu se no to mo kiyoshi 
uguisu no kinaku harube wa iwao niwa yamashita liikari 
nishiki nasu hana sakioori saoshika no tsuma yobu aki wa 
amagirau shigure wo itami sanitsurau momiji chiritsutsu 
yachitose ni aretsugasliitsutsu amenoshita shirashimesanto 
momoyo nimo kawarubekaranu omiyadokoro 

Izumigawa yuku se no mizu no taebakoso 5miyadokoro 

Futagiyama yamanami mireba momoyo nimo kawarubekaranu 



Otomera ga umio kaku toil Kase no yama toki shi yukereba 
miyako to nannu 

Kase no yama kodachi wo shigemi asa sarazu kmakitoyomosu 
uguisu no koe 

Komayama ni naku hototogisu Izumigawa watan wo tomi 
koko ni kayowazu 


Yasumishishi waga Okimi no angayou Naniwa no miya wa 
isanatori umi katatsukite tama hiriu hamabe wo chikami 
asahafuru nami no to sawagi yunagi m kaji no to kikoyu 
akatoki no nezame ni kikeba watatsumi no shiohi no muta 
urasu niwa chidon tsuma yobi ashibe mwa tazu ga ne toyomu 
miru hito no katari ni sureba kiku Into no mimaku horisuru 
mikemukau Ajifu no miya wa miredo akanukamo 

Arigayou Naniwa 110 miya wa umi chikami amaotomera ga 
noreru fune miyu 

Shio Inreba ashibe ni sawagu ashitazu no tsuma yobu koe wa 
miya mo todorom 


Yachihoko no Kami no miyo yon momofune no hatsuru tomari to 
Yashimaguni momofunabito no sadameteshi Mmume no ura wa 
asakaze ni uranami sawagi yunami ni tamamo wa kiyoru 
shiramanago kiyoki hamabe wa yukigaeri miredomo akazu 
ube shikoso miru hito gotoni katantsugi shinubikerashiki 
momoyo hete shinubaeyukan kiyoki shirahama 

Masokagami Minume no ura wa momofune no sugite yukubeki 
hama naranakuni 


Hama kiyomi ura uruwashimi kanuyo yon chifune no tomaru 
Owada no hama 


Okakitsu no asa wo hikihoshi imo nane ga tsukuri kiseken 
shirotae no himo womo tokazu hiroe yuu obi wo mie yui 
kurushikmi tsukaematsunte mia dammo kum ni makarite 
chichihaha mo tsuma womo minto omoitsutsu yukiken kimi wa 
tori ga naku Azuma no kuni no kaslnkokiya kami no misaka m 
mgitama no koromo samura ni nubatama no kami wa midarete 
kum toedo kum womo norazu ie toedo le womo iwazu 
masurao no yuki no susumi ni koko ni koyaseru 


Imshie no masuraonoko no aikioi tsumadoi shiken 
Ashinoya no Unaiotome no okutsuki wo waga tachimireba 
nagaki yo no katan m shits utsu no chi no hito no shinubi ni sen to 
tamahoko no michi no he chikaku iwa kamae tsukureru tsuka wo 
amagumo no sokie no kagiri kono michi wo yuku hito gotoni 
yukiyonte itachi nagekai aru hito wa ne nimo nakitsutsu 
karantsugi shinubitsugi koshi otomera ga okutsukidokoro 
ware saeni mireba kanashimo imshie omoeba 

Inishie no Shinudaotoko no tsumadoishi Unaiotome no 
okutsuki zo kore 

Kataritsugu karani mo kokoda kohoshikiwo tadame ni miken 

709-1 1 

Chichihaha ga nashi no mammani hashimukau oto no mikoto wa 
asatsuyu no keyasuki mochi kami no muta arasoikanete 
Ashihara no Mizuho no Kuni ni ie namiya mata kaerikonu 
totsukuni Yomi no sakai ni hau tsuta no onoga mukimuki 
amagumo no wakare shi yukeba yamiyo nasu omoimadowai 
iyu shishi no kokoro wo itami ashigaki no omoimidarete 


harutori no ne nomi nakitsutsu ajisahafu yoru hiru iwazu 
kagiroi no kokoro moetsutsu nageku wakare wo 

Wakaretemo mata mo aubeku omohoeba kokoro midarcte 
waga koimeyamo 

Ashihiki no arayamanaka m okuriokite kacrau mireba 


Inishie ni yana utsu Into no liakariseba koko mo aramashi 
tsumi no eda wamo 


Kaku nomini arikerumonowo hagi ga hana sakite anyato 
toishi kirni wamo 


Watatsumi no oki m mochiyukite hanatsutomo uremuzo kore ga 


Shiranuhi Tsukushi no wata wa mi ni tsukete imada wa kmedo 
atatakeku miyu 


Yononaka wo nam m tatoen asabiraki kogiinishi fune no 
ato nakigotoshi 


Shiratama wa hito ni shiraezu shirazutomo yoshi 
shirazutomo ware shi shirereba shirazutomo yoshi 


71 * 

Ie omouto kokoro susumuna kazemamon yoku shite imase 
arashi sono michi 


Yuyami wa michi tazutazushi tsuki machite imase waga seko 
sono ma nimo mm 


Misora yuku tsuki no hikan ni tada hitome aimishi hito no 
ime rushi miyuru 


Kamotori no asobu kono ike m konoha ochite ukitaru kokoro 
waga mowanakum 


Niwa ni tatsu asa wo karihoshi shikishinubu Azumaomma wo 


Kimi nakuba na zo mi yosowan kushige naru tsuge no ogushi mo 
torantomo mowazu 


Koko nishite ie yamo izuku shirakumo no tanabiku yama wo 
koete kinikeri 

Waga inochi shi masakiku araba mata mo min Shiga no Otsu m 
yosuru shiranami 


Furu yuki no shirokami madeni Okimi ni tsukaematsureba 
tdtokumo aruka 


Amenoshita sudem ooite furu yuki no hikari wo mircba 
totokumo aruka 

Aratashiki toshi no hajime m toyo no toshi shirusuto narashi 
yuki no fureruwa 

Omiya no uchi nimo to mmo hikarumade furasu shirayuki 
miredo akanukamo 


Ametsuchi to aisakaento 5miya wo tsukaematsureba 
totoku ureshiki 

Ame niwamo iotsutsuna hau yorozuyo ni kuru shirasanto 
iotsutsuna hau 

Mutsuki tachi haru no kitaraba 
tanushxki oeme 

Waga sono ni ume no hana chiru 

Ume no hana sakite chirinaba 
nannite arazuya 

Waga sakari itaku kudachmu 
mata ochimeyamo 

Kumo ni tobu kusuri hamuyowa 
mata oclnnubeshi 

Ume no hana ime ni kataraku 
sake ni ukabekoso 

Muko no ura no irie no sudon 


kaku shikoso ume wo oritsutsu 

hisakata no ame yori yuki no 

sakurabana tsugite sakubeku 
kumo ni tobu kusuri hamutomo 

miyako miba iyashiki aga mi 

miyabitaru hana to are mou 

73 $ 

hagukumoru kimi wo hanarete 


koi m slunubeshi 


Obune ni imo noru mono ni aramaseba hagukumi mochite 


Kimi ga yuku umibe no yado ni kin tataba aga tachmageku 
iki to shirimase 


Aki saraba aiminmonowo nani shikamo kiri ni tatsubeku 
nageki shimasan 


Waga yueni omoi na-yaseso akikaze no fukan sono tsuki 
awan monoyue 


Takubusuma Shiragi e imasu kimi ga me wo kyo ka asu kato 
iwaite matan 


Slno matsuto ankeru fune wo shirazushite kuyashiku imo wo 


Unabara wo yasoshimagakuri kmuredomo Nara no miyako wa 


Waga yueni imo nagekurashi Kazahaya no ura no okibe ni 
kiri tanabikeri 


747 ~$ 

Yama no ha ni tsuki katabukcba izari suru ama no tomoshibi 
oki m nazusau 

Ware nomiya yobune wa koguto omoereba okibe no kata ni 
kaji no oto sunari 


Asa sareba imo ga te m maku kagami nasu Mitsu no hamabi ni 
obune ni makaji shiji nuki Karakum ni watanyukanto 
tadamukau Minume wo sashite shio machite miobikiyukeba 
okibe mwa shiranami takami urami yon kogite watareba 
wagimoko ni Awaji no shima wa yu sareba kumoigakunnu 
sayo fukete yukue wo shirani aga kokoro Akasln no ura ni 
fune to mete ukme wo shitsutsu watatsumi no okibe wo mireba 
izari suru ama no oto me wa obune non tsurarani uken 
akatoki no shio michikureba ashibe niwa tazu nakiwataru 
asanagi m funade wo sento funabito mo kako mo koe yobi 
niodon no nazusaiyukeba Ieslnma wa kumoi ni mienu 
aga moeru kokoro naguyato hayaku kite mmto omoite 
dbunc wo kogi waga yukeba okitsunami takaku tachxkinu 
yoso nommi mitsutsu sugiyuki Tama no ura ni fune wo todomete 
hamabi yori uraiso wo mitsutsu naku ko nasu ne nomishi nakayu 
watatsumi no tamaki no tama wo lezuto ni imo ni yaranto 
hiriitori sode niwa irete kacshiyaru tsukai nakereba 
moteredomo shirushi wo namito mata okitsurukamo 

Tama no ura no okitsushiratama hirieredo mata zo okitsuru 
miru hito wo nami 

Aki saraba waga fune haten wasuregai yosekite okcre 

75 - 

Kore ya kono na ni ou Naruto no uzushio ni tamamo karu tou 



Okimi no mikoto kashikomi obune no yuki no manimam 
yadori surukamo 


Unabara no okibe ni tomoshi izaru hi wa akashite tomose 
Yamatoshima mm 


Yu sareba akikaze samushi wagimoko ga tokiaraigoromo 
yukite haya km 


Tabi ni aredo yoru wa hi tomoshi oru ware wo yami niya imo ga 
koitsutsu aruran 


Ama tobuya kari wo tsukai ni eteshigamo Nara no miyako ni 
koto tsugeyaran 

y 58-60 

Sumerogi no to no mikado to Karakum ni wataru waga se wa 
iebito no iwai mataneka tadami kamo ayamachi shiken 
aki saraba kaerimasanto tarachine no haha m m 6 shite 
toki mo sugi tsuki mo henureba kyo ka kon asu kamo konto 
iebito wa machikouranni to no kuni imada mo tsukazu 
Yamato womo toku sakante lwa ga ne no araki shimane ni 
yadori suru kimi 

Iwatanu ni yadori suru kimi iebito no izura to ware wo 
towaba lkani iwan 

Yononaka wa tsune kaku nomito wakarenuru kimi niya motona 
aga koiyukan 


7^ i-3 

Ametsuchi to tomoni mogamoto omoitsutsu ankenmonowo 
hashikeyashi le wo hanarete nami no ue yu nazusaikmite 
aratama no tsukihi mo ki henu karigane mo tsugite kmakeba 
tarachine no haha mo tsumara mo asatsuyu ni mo no suso hizuchi 
yugiri ni koromode nurete sakiku shimo arurangotoku 
idemitsutsu matsuranmonowo yononaka no hito no nageki wa 
aiomowanu kimi ni areyamo akihagi no chiraeru nube no 
hatsuobana kario ni fukite kumobanare toki kumbe no 
tsuyujimo no samuki yamabe ni yadon seruran 

Hashikeyashi tsuma mo kodomo mo takadakani matsuran kimi shi 

Momijiba no chirman yama m yadorinuru kimi wo matsuran 
hito shi kanasliimo 


Kashikokiya mikoto kagafuri asu yuriya kae ga muta nen 
imu nashinishite 

Waga tsuma wa itaku koirashi nomu mizu ni kago sae miete 
yo ni wasurarezu 

Tokidoki no hana wa sakedomo nani surezo haha tou hana no 

Chichihaha mo hana nimogamoya kusamakura tabi wa yukutomo 
sasagote yukan 

Waga tsuma mo e ni kakitoran itsuma moga tabi yuku are wa 
mitsutsu shinuban 


Okinn no mikoto kashikomi iso ni furi unohara wataru 
chichihaha wo okite 


Namwazu m yosoiyosoite kyo no hi ya idete makaran 
miru haha liashim 


Mizutori no tachi no isogi ni chichihaha m monowazu kenite 
ima zo kuyaslnki 

Makebashira homete tsukureru 
omegawari sezu 

Waro tabi wa tabi to omehodo 
waga mi kanashimo 

Wasuranto nu yuki yama yuki 
was u re sen aka mo 

Chicbihaha ga kashira kakmade 

Ie nishite koitsutsu arazuwa naga hakeru tachi ni nantemo 

Michi no he no umara no ure ni hao mame no karamaru kimi wo 
hakareka yukan 

Ashigaki no kumado ni tachite wagimoko ga sode mo shiohoni 
nakislnzo mohayu 

Okimi no mikoto kashikomi idekureba wa nu toritsukite 
lishi kona wamo 

tono no goto imase hahatoji 
11 nishite ko mechi yasuran 

ware kuredo waga chichihaha wa 

saku arete iishi kotoba zo 


Sakimuri ni tatan sawagi ni ie no unu ga narubeki koto wo 
iwazu kinukamo 

Arare furi Kashima no kami wo inoritsutsu sumeramikusa ni 
ware wa kinishiwo 


Ashigara no misaka tamawari kaenmizu are wa kueyuka 
arashio mo tashi ya habakaru Fuwa no seki kuece wa wa yuku 
muma no tsume Tsukushi no saki m chimarute are wa uvawan 
moromoro wa sakeku to maosu kaerikumadem 

Ky5 yoriwa kaerimi nakute Okimi no shiko no mitate to 
idetatsu ware wa 

Ametsuchi no kami wo inorite satsuya nuki Tsukushi no shima wo 
saslnte iku ware wa 

Matsu no ke no namitaru mireba twabito no ware wo miokuruto 
tatarishi mokoro 

Amotoji mo tama nimogamoya itadakite nuzura no naka ni 

Tsu no kuni no umi no nagisa m funa yosoi taslndemo toki ni 
amo ga me mogamo 

Yuko saki ni naminato erai shiruhe mwa ko woto tsuma woto 
okite tomo kmu 


Chihayaburu kami no misaka ni nusa matsuri lwau inocbi wa 
omochichi ga tame 

79 ° 

Waga iwaro m yukamo hito moga kusamakura tabi wa kurushito 


Akagoma wo yamanu ni hakashi tonkanite Tama no Yokoyama 
kashi yuka yaran 

Kusamakura tabi no marune no himo taeba aga te to tsukero 
kore no liaru moshi 


Asari suru ama no kodomo to hito wa iedo mirum shiraenu 
umabito no ko to 

Tamashima no kono kawakami ni le wa aredo kimi wo yasashimi 
arawasazu ariki 

Matsuragawa kawa no se hikari ayu tsuruto tataseru imo ga 
mo no suso nurenu 

Haru sareba wagie no sato no kawato niwa ayuko sabashiru 
kimi machigateni 


Okimi no mikoto kashikomi nikibinishi te wo okite 
komonku no Hatsuse no kawa ni fune ukete waga yuku kawa no 
kawakuma no yasokuma ochizu yorozutabi kaenmi shitsutsu 
tamahoko no inichi yukikurashi aoniyoshi Nara no miyako no 
Sahogawa ni lyukiitarite waga netaru koromo no ue yu 
asazukuyo sayakani mireba tae no ho ni yoru no shimo furi 
lwadoko to kawa no hi korite samuki yo wo ikou koto naku 
kayoitsutsu tsukureru te ni chiyo madeni kimasan kimi to 
ware mo kayowan 

Aoniyoshi Nara no ie niwa yorozuyo m ware mo kayowan 
wasuruto omouna 


Kazahaya no Miho no uranii no shiratsutsuji miredomo sabushi 
naki hito omoeba 


Yononaka wa munashiki mono to arantozo kono teru tsuki wa 


michikake shikeru 


Ametsuchi no kami mo tasukeyo kusamakura tabi yuku kimi ga 
le ni irarumade 


Totsuhito Matsurasayohime tsumagoi ni hire funshi yori 
oera yama no na 


Makuzu hau Kasuga no yama wa uchinabiku haru sariyukuto 
yamakai m kasumi tanabiki Takamado ni uguisu nakinu 
mononofu no yasotomonoo wa kangane no kitsugu konogoro 
kaku tsugite tsuneni ariseba tomo namete asobanmonowo 
uma namete yukamashi sato wo machigateni waga seshi haru wo 
kakemakumo ayani kashikoshi lwamakumo yuyushikaranto 
arakajime kanete shiriseba chidori naku sono Sahogawa ni 
iwa ni ouru suga no ne torite shinubugusa haraetemashiwo 
yuku mizu ni misogitemashiwo Okimi no mikoto kashikomi 
momoshiki no 5miyabito no tamahoko no michi nimo idezu 
kouru konogoro 

Ume yanagi suguraku oshimi Saho no uchi ni asobishi koto wo 
miya mo todoroni 


Isonokami Furu no mikoto wa tawayame no madoi ni yorite 
umajimono nawa toritsuke shishijimono yumiya kakumite 
Okimi no mikoto kashikomi amazakaru hinabe ni makaru 
furugoromo Matsuchi no yama yu kaerikonukamo 

Okimi no mikoto kashikomi sashinarabu kuni ni idemasuya 
waga se no kimi wo kakemakumo yuyushi kashikoshi 
Suminoe no arahitogami funanohe ni ushihakitamai 

4 Z 7 

tsukitamawan shima no sakizaki yoritamawan iso no sakizaki 
araki nami kaze ni awasezu tsutsumi naku yamai arasezu 
sumuyakeku kaeshitamawane moto no kumbe ni 


Chichigimi m ware wa manago zo liahatoji ni ware wa manago zo 
mamoboru yasoujibito no tamuke suru Kashiko no saka ni 
nusa matsuri ware wazo makaru toki Tosaji wo 

Osaka no kami no obama wa sebakedomo momofunabito mo 
sugu to iwanakum 


Yononaka wo tsune naki mono to ima zo shim Nara no miyako no 
utsurou mireba 


Akihagi wo tsumatou ka koso hitorigo m ko motanto le 
kakojimono waga hitongo no kusamakura tabi nishi yukeba 
takatama wo shijmi nukitan lwaibe ni yu tonshidete 
lwaitsutsu waga omou ako masakiku ankoso 

Tabibito no yadori sen nu ni shimo furaba waga ko hagukume 
ame no tazumura 


Soramitsu Yamato no kuni aoniyoshi Nara no miyako yu 
oshiteru Naniwa ni kudari Suimnoc no Mitsu ni funanori 
tada watari lii no iru kuni ni tsukawasaru waga se no kimi wo 
kakemakumo yuyushi kashikoki Suminoe no waga omikami 
funanohe ni uslnhakiimashi funadomo ni mitatashimashite 
sashiyoran iso no sakizaki kogihaten tomaritoman ni 
araki kaze nami ni awasezu tairakeku ite kaenmase 
moto no mikado m 


Okitsunami henami na-koshiso kimi ga fune kogikaerikite 
tsu m hatsurumade 


Asakayama kage sae miyuru yama no 1 no asaki kokoro wo 
waga mowanakuni 

$ 1 5 

Katsumata no ike wa ware shiru hachisu nashi shika iu kimi ga 
hige nakigotoshi 


Oumi no okuka mo shirazu yuku ware wo itsu kimasanro 
toishi kora wamo 


Hisakata no Amanokawara ni kamitsuse ni tamahashi watashi 
shimotsuse ni fune ukesue ame funte kaze fukazutomo 
kaze fukite ame furazutomo mo nurasazu yamazu kimaseto 
tamahashi watasu 

Amanogawa kiri tachiwataru ky5ky5 to waga matsu kimi ga 
funade surashimo 


Kasuganu ni keburi tatsu miyu otomera shi harunu no uhagi 
tsumite nirashimo 

* * * 


Oumi ni shima mo aranakuni unabara no tayutau nami ni 
tateru shirakumo 


Yasumishishi wago Okimi takaterasu Hi no Miko no 

kikoshiosu miketsukuni kamukaze no Ise no kum \va 

kum rmrebashimo yama mireba takaku totoshi 

kawa mireba sayakeku kiyoshi minato nasu umi mo hiroshi 

miwatasu shima wa nadakashi koko woshimo maguwashimikamo 

kakemakumo ayam kashikoki Yamanobe no Isln no hara ni 

uchihisasu omiyatsukae asahi nasu maguwashimo 

yuhi nasu uraguwashimo haruyama no shinai sakaece 

akiyama no iro natsukashiki momoshiki no omiyabito wa 

ametsuchi hitsuki to tomorn yorozuyo nimoga 

Yamanobe no Ishi no mil wa onozukara nareru mshiki wo 
hareru yama kamo 


Haru saraba kazashi m sento waga moishi sakura no liana wa 

Imo ga na 111 kaketaru sakura hana sakaba tsunem ya koin 
iya toshinoha m 


Komon nomi koureba kurushi yama no ha yu idekuru tsuki no 
arawasaba ikam 


Koto shi araba O hats us ey am a no lwaki nimo komoraba tomoni 
na~omoi waga se 


Akigawari shirasutono minori arabakoso waga shitagoromo 
kaeshi tamawame 



Shoji no futatsu no umi wo itowashimi shiohi no yama wo 


Hashidate no Kumaki no yara ni Shiragiono otoshiire washi 
kakete kakete na-nakashisone ukiizuruyato min waslu 


Kashxmane no Tsukue no shima no shitadami wo ihiroi mochikite 
ishi mochi tsutsuki yaburi hayakawa ni araisusugz 
karashio m kokoto momi takatsuki ni mori tsukue ni tatete 
haha ni matsuritsuya mezuko no toji 
chichi ni matsuritsuya mimezuko no toji 


Itoko nase no kimi oriorite mono ni iyukutowa 
Karakuni no tora tou kami wo ikedori ni yatsu tori mochiki 
sono kawa wo tatami ni sashi yaedatami Heguri no yama ni 
uzuki to satsuki no hodo ni kusurigari tsukauru toki m 
ashihiki no kono katayama ni futatsu tatsu ichihi ga moto ni 
azusayumi yatsu tabasami himekabura yatsu tabasami 
shishi matsuto waga oru toki ni saoshika no fcitachi nagekaku 
tachimachini ware wa shinubeshi Okimi ni ware wa tsukaen 
waga tsunu wa mikasa no hayashi waga mi mi wa misumi no tsubo 
waga mera wa masumi no kagami waga tsume wa miyumi no yuhazu 
waga kera wa mifude no hayashi waga kawa wa mihako no kawa ni 
waga shishi wa minamasu hayashi waga kimo mo minamasu hayashi 
waga migi wa mishio no hayashi oitaru yatsuko waga mi hitotsu ni 
nanae hana saku yae hana sakuto moshi hayasane moshi hayasane 


Oshiteruya Naniwa no oe ni io tsukuri namarite oru 
ashigani wo 5kimi mesuto nani senni wa wo mesurameya 

43 1 

akirakeku waga shim koto wo urabito to wa wo mesurameya 
fuefuki to wa wo mesurameya kotohiki to wa wo mesurameya 
kamokaku mo mikoto ukento kyokyd to Asuka ni itari 
tatedomo Okma ni itan tsukanedomo Tsukunu m itari 
himukaslu no naka no mikado yu mainkite mikoto ukureba 
uma nikoso fumodashi kaku mono usln nikoso hananawa hakure 
ashihiki no kono katayama no momunire wo roe hagitan 
amateruya hi no ke ni hoshi saizuruya karausu in tsuki 
mwa ni tatsu suriusu ni tsuki oshiteruya Naniwa no oe no 
hatsutan wo karaku tankite suebito no tsukureru kame wo 
kyo yukite asu ton moclnki waga mera ni shio nuritamai 
mochihayasumo mochihayasumo 


Ametsuchi no kami wa nakareya uruwashiki waga tsuma sakaru 
lnkaru kami nanhataotome re tazusai tomom aranto 
omoishim kokoro tagamu lwan sube sen sube sirani 
yudasuki kata ni torikake shizunusa wo te ni torimochite 
na-sakesoto ware wa moredo makite neshi imo ga tamoto wa 
kumo ni tanabiku 

Utsutsu nito omoiteshigamo ime uommi tamoto makinuto 
miruwa sube nashi 


Tsukubane no niikuwamayo no kinu wa aredo kimi ga mikeshi shi 
ayam kihoshimo 

Tsukubane ni yuki kamo furaru ina wokamo kanashiki koro ga 
nmu hosarukamo 


Niodon no Katsushikawase wo me sutomo sono kanaslnkiwo 
to ni tatemeyamo 

A no oto sczu yukan koma moga Katsushika no Mama no tsugihashi 

43 * 

yamazu kayo wan 


Tsukubane no otemokonomo m monbe sue haha 1 moredomo 
tama zo aimkeru 


Shinanuji wa ima no hanmichi karibane ni ashi fumashman 
kutsu hake waga se 

Shinanu naru Chikuma no kawa no sazareshi mo kimi shi fumiteba 
tama to hirowan 


Ikahoro no Yasaka no ide ni tatsu nuji no arawaromademo 
sane wo saneteba 

Ikahone m kami na-nansone waga e niwa yue wa nakedomo 
kora ni yontezo 

Ikahokaze fuku hi fukanu hi anto iedo aga koi nomishi 
toki nakarikeri 


Shimotsukenu A so no kawara yo ishi fumazu sora yuto kinuyo 
naga kokoro nore 


Tsumuganu ni suzu ga oto kikoyu Kamushida no tono no nakachi shi 
togan surashimo 


Suzu ga ne no hayuma umaya no tsutsumii no mizu wo tamaena 
imo ga tadate yo 

43 3 


Kono kawa m asana arau ko nare mo ware mo yochi wozo moteru 
ide ko tabarmi 


Omoshiroki nu woba na-yakiso furukusa m mikusa majin 
oiba ouru gam 


Ine tsukeba kagaru aga te wo koyoi moka tono no wakugo ga 
torite nagekan 

Tare zo kono ya no to osoburu niunami ni waga se wo yarite 
iwau kono to wo 

8$ 2 

Okirrn no mikoto kashikonii kanashiimo ga tamakura hanare 
yodaclii kinukamo 


Misora yuku kumo nimogamona ky5 yukite imo ni kotodoi 
asu kaerikon 


Takaki ne ni kumo no tsuku nosu ware saeni kimi ni tsukinana 
takane to moite 


Haru no nu ni kusa hamu koma no kuchi yamazu a wo shinuburan 
ie no koro wamo 



Aoyagx no hararo kawato ni na wo matsuto semido wa kumazu 
tachido narasumo 

^ 57 “^ 

Okite ikaba imo wa maganashi mochite yuku azusa no yumi no 
yuzuka mmogamo 

Okureite koiba kurushimo asagari no kimi ga yumi nimo 
naramashmiono wo 


Sakimori ni tachishi asake no kanatode m tabanare osbimi 
nakishi kora wamo 

Ashi no ha m yugiri tachite kamo ga ne no samuki yube shi 
na woba shinuban 


Sakimori m yukuwa taga se to tou hito wo miruga tomoshisa 
monomoi mo sezu 

Sasa ga ha no sayagu shimoyo ni nanae karu koromo m maseru 
kora ga hada wamo 


Omou hito konto shiriseba yaemugura ooeru niwa ni 
tama shikamashiwo 

Tama shikeru ie mo nani sen yaemugura ooeru oya mo 
imo to oriteba 



Kado tatete to mo sashitaruwo izuku yuka imo ga mkite 
ime m mietsuru 

Kado tatete to wa sashitaredo nusubito no horeru ana yori 
irite mxeken 


Monomowazu michi yukinanmo aoyama wo furisakemireba 
tsutsujibana moeotome sakurabana sakaeotome 
na wozomo wa ni yosu tou wa wozomo na ni yosu tou 
arayama mo hito shi yosureba yosorutozo iu naga kokoro yume 

Ikani shite koi yaman mono zo anietsuchi no kami wo inoredo 
wa wa omoi masu 


Shikarekoso toshi no yatose wo kiru kami no yochiko wo sugi 
tachibana no hotsue wo sugite kono kawa no sliita nimo nagaku 
naga kokoro mate 

Ametsuchi no kami womo ware wa moriteki koi tou mono wa 
katsute yamazukeri 


Tsuginefu Yamashiroji wo hitozuma no uma yori yukuni 
onozuma shi kachi yori yukeba miru gotoni ne nomishi nakayu 
soko mouni kokoro shi itashi tarachine no haha ga katami to 
waga moteru masomikagami ni akitsuhire oinamemochite 
uma kae waga se 

Izumigawa watanse fukami waga seko ga tabiyukigoromo 

Masokagami moteredo ware wa shirushi nashi kimi ga kachi yori 
nazumiyuku mireba 


Lima kawaba imo kachi naran yoshieyashi ishi wa fumutomo 
wa wa futari yukan 


Ki no kuni no hama ni yoru tou awabitama hiriwanto lite 
Imo no yama Se no yama koete yukishi kimi itsu kimasanto 
tamahoko no michi ni idetachi yuura wo waga toishikaba 
yuura no ware ni noraku wagimoko ya naga matsu kimi wa 
okitsunami kiyoru shiratama hetsunami no yosuru shiratama 
motomutozo kimi ga kimasanu liiriutozo kimi wa kimasanu 
hisanaraba ima nanuka bakari hayakaraba ima futsuka bakan 
arantozo kimi wa kikoshishi na-koiso wagimo 

Tsue tsukimo tsukazumo ware wa yukamedomo kimi ga kixnasan 
michi no shiranaku 

Tadani yukazu ko yu Koseji kara iwase fumi tomezo waga koshi 
koite sube nami 

Sayo fukete ima wa akenuto to wo akete Ki e yukishi kimi wo 
itsu toka matan 

Kado ni ishi otome wa uchi ni itarutomo itaku shi koiba 
ima kaenkon 


Hoshira ga hige no sorigui uma tsunagi itaku na-hikiso 
hoshi wa nakan 

Dan-ochi ya shika mo na-iiso satoosa ga etsuki hataraba 
imaslii mo nakan 


Oumi no nami wa kashikoshi shikaredomo kami wo iwaite 
funade seba ikani 



Nami takashi ikani kajitori mizutori no ukine ya subeki 
nao ya kogubeki 


Akatoki to yogarasu nakedo kono oka no konure no ue wa 
imada shizukeshi 


Nishi no ichi ni tada hiton dete menarabezu kainishi kmu no 
akijikon kamo 


Kotoshi yuku niisakimon ga asagoromo kata no mayoi wa 
tare ka torimin 


Tamadare no osu no sukeki ni irikayoikone 
tarachine no haha ga towasaba kaze to m5san 

Masurao no idetachi mukau 
akekureba tsumi no saeda ni 
satobito no kikikourumadeni 
hototogisu tsumagoi surashi 

Tabi nishite tsumagoi surashi 
sayo fukete naku 


furusato no Kamunabiyama ni 
yu sareba komatsu ga ure ni 
yamabiko no aitoyomumadeni 
sayonaka ni naku 

hototogisu Kamunabiyama ni 


Watatsumi wa kusushiki mono ka Awajishima naka ni tateokite 
shiranami wo Iyo ni megurashi imachizuki Akashi no to yuwa 
yu sareba shio wo mitashime akesareba shio wo hishimu 
shiosai no nami wo kashikomi Awajishima isogakuriite 


itsu shikamo kono yo no akenco samorauni i no negateneba 
rah no ue no Asanu no kigishi akenutoshi tachitoyomurashi 
iza kodomo aete kogiden mwa mo shizukesln 

Shimazutai Mmume no saki wo kogitameba Yamato koishiku 
tazu sawani naku 


Mmasoko no tama sae sayani mitsubekumo teru tsukuyo kamo 
yo no fukcyukeba 

Yugi kakuru tomonoo hiroki Otomo ni kum sakaento 
rsuh wa terurashi 


T5rubeku ame wa na-furiso wagimoko ga katami no koromo 
ware shita ni kitari 


Inishie no koto wa shiranuwo ware mitemo hisashiku narinu 


Imoragan waga kayoiji no shinususuki ware shi kayowaba 
nabike shinuhara 


Koto toreba nageki sakidatsu kedashiku mo koto no shitahi ni 
tsuma ya komoreru 

89 8 

Ujigawa wo fune watasewoto yobaedomo kikoezarurashi 
kaji no to mo sezu 



Ame wa furu kario wa tsukuru icsu no ma ni Ago no shiohi m 
tama wa hiriwan 


Ie sakari tabi mshi areba akikaze no samuki yube ni 
kan nakiwataru 


Amaobune ho kamo hareruto mirumadeni Tomo no urami m 
nami taten miyu 


Kasuga naru Mikasa no yama ni tsuki no fune izu 
miyabio no nomu sakazuki m kage ni mietsutsu 

Wata no soko shizuku shiratama kaze fukite ami wa arutomo 
torazawa yamaji 


Fuyugomon haru no 5nu wo yaku hito wa yakitaranekamo 
waga kokoro yaku 


Amagumo ni chikaku hikarite naru kami no mireba kashikoshi 
mineba kanashimo 


Sakihai no lkanaru hito ka kurokami no shiroku narumade 
imo ga koe wo kiku 



Harugasumi nagaruru nabeni aoyagi no eda kuimochite 
uguisu nakumo 


Uchinabiku haru sarikureba shmu no ure ni 0 ha uchifurite 
uguisu nakumo 


Ume ga e ni nakite utsurou uguisu no hane shirotae ni 
awayuki zo furu 


Sakurabana toki wa suginedo miru hito no koi no sakan to 
ima shi chiruran 


Itsu shikamo kono yo no aken uguisu no kozutai chirasu 
ume no hana mm 


Momoshiki no 5miyabito wa itoma areya ume wo kazashite 
koko ni tsudoeru 


Fuyu sugite haru shi kitareba toshitsuki wa aratanaredomo 
hito wa funyuku 

Mono mina wa aratashiki yoshi tada hito wa furinurunomishi 

9 1 S 

Harusame ni koromo wa itaku torameya nanuka shi furaba 
nanayo kojitoya 



Konogoro no koi no shigckeku natsukusa no kanharaedomo 

9*7 . 

Ware kosowa nikukumo arame waga mwa no hanatachibana wo 
mi mwa kojitoya 


Minazuki no tsuchi sae sakete teru hi nimo waga sode himeya 
kimi 111 awazushite 


Akikaze no fukitadayowasu shirakumo wa Tanabatatsume no 
amatsuhire kamo 


Kono yube funkuru ame wa Hikoboshi no haya kogu fune no 
kai no chin kamo 


Ashidama mo radama mo yurani oru hata wo kimi ga mikeshi ni 


Ametsuchi no liajime no toki yu Amanogawa imukaiorite 
hitotose ni futatabi awanu rsumagoi ni mono omou hito 
Amanogawa Yasu no kawara no arigayou toslii no watari ni 
sohofune no to mo nimo he nimo funayosoi makaji shiji nuki 
hatasusuki mo to ha mo soyoni akikaze no fukikuru yoi ni 
Amanogawa shiranami shinugi ochitagitsu hayase watarite 
wakakusa no tsuma ga te makan to obune no omoitanomite 
kogikuran sono tsuma no ko ga aratama no toshinoo nagaku 


omoikoshi koi tsukusuran fumitsuki no nanuka no yoi wa 
ware mo kanashimo 

Komanishiki himo toki kawashi Amebito no tsumatou yoi 20 
ware mo shmuban 

Hikoboshi no kawase wo wataru saobune no yukiyukite haten 
kawazu shi omohoyu 


Niwakusa m murasame furite korogi no naku koe kikeba 


Haru wa moe natsu wa midori ni kurenai no madarani miyuru 
aki no yama kamo 


Kimi m koi shmaeurabure waga oreba akikaze fukite 
tsuki katabukinu 


Aki no yo wo nagashito iedo tsumorinishi koi wo tsukuseba 


K 5 rogi 110 wa ga toko no be ni nakitsutsu motona 
okiitsutsu kimi ni kouruni inegatenakuni 


Hanahada mo yo fukete na-yuki michi no he no yuzasa ga ue ni 
shimo no furu yo wo 



line no goto kimi wo aimite amagirashi furikuru yuki no 
kenubeku omohoyu 

93 ? 

Taraclnne no haha m sawaraba itazuram imashi mo ware mo 
koto narubeshiya 


Matsuranm itaraba imo ga ureshimito eman sugata wo 
yukite haya mm 


Waga seko ga sono na noraj ito tamakiharu inochi wa sutetsu 


Omowanum itaraba imo ga ureshimito eman mayobiki 


Aimitewa omo kakusaruru monokaram tsugite mimakuno 
hoshiki kimi kamo 


Itsuwari mo nitsukitezo suru itsu yorika mmu hi to kouni 
hito no shim seshi 


Omowasure danimo e suyato tanigirite utedomo korizu 
koi to iu yatsuko 



Asanegann ware wa kezuraji uruwashiki kimi ga tamakura 


Ametsuchi ni sukoshi itaranu masurao to omoisln ware ya 
ogokoro mo naki 


Tachite ite tadoki mo shirazu waga kokoro amatsusora nari 
tsuchi wa fumedomo 


Hito no mite kototogame senu ime ni ware koyoi itaran 
yado sasuna yumc 


Tokimori no uchmasu tsuzumi yomimireba toki niwa narrnu 
awanakumo ayashi 


Tomoshibi no kage ni kagayou utsusemi no imo ga emai slii 
omokage ni miyu 


Oharida no Itada no hashi no kuzurenaba keta yori yukan 
na-koiso wagimo 


Miyaki hiku Izumi no soma ni tatsu tami no yasumu toki naku 



Namwabito ashibi taku ya no sushite aredo onoga tsuma koso 


Uma no to no todoto mo sureba matsukage m idetezo mitsuru 
kedashi kimi kato 


Tamachihau kami mo ware woba utsutekoso shieya inochi no 
oshikekumo nashi 


Mas ode mochi toko uchiharai kimi matsuto onshi aida ni 
tsuki katabukmu 


Wagimoko m au yoshi wo nami Suruga naru Fuji no takane no 
moetsutsuka aran 


Minatoin no ashiwakeobune sawari omi ima kon ware wo 
yodomuto mouna 


Hisakata no amatsu misora m teru tsuki no usenan hi koso 
waga koi yamame 


Oumi no soko wo fukamete musubiteshi imo ga kokoro wa 
utagai mo nashi 


9 55 

Imo ga kado yukisugikanete kusa musubu kaze fuki tokuna 
mata kaeri min 


Umasegoshi m mugi hamu koma no norayuredo naoshi kouraku 


Kawakami m arau wakana no nagarekite imo ga atari no 
se mkoso yorame 


Mimoro wa hito no moru yama motobe wa ashibi hana saki 
suebe wa tsubaki hana saku uraguwashiyama zo nakuko moru yama 


Narukami no hikaoru sora no nagatsuki no shigure no fureba 
kangane mo imada kinakazu Kamunabi no kiyoki mitaya no 
kakitsuta no ike no tsutsumi no momotarazu itsuki ga eda ni 
mizue sasu aki no momijiba makimotaru osuzu mo yurani 
tawayame ni ware wa aredomo hikiyojite eda mo tooni 
uchitaori a wa mochite yuku kimi ga kazashi ni 

Hitori nomi mireba koishimi Kamunabi no yama no momijiba 
taonkeri kimi 


Ashihara no Mizuho no Kuni ni tamuke suto amorimashiken 
ioyorozu chiyorozu kami no kamiyo yori iitsugikitaru 
Kamunabi no Mimoro no yama wa haru sareba harugasumi tachi 
aki yukeba kurenai niou Kamunabi no Mimoro no kami no 
obi ni seru Asuka no kawa no mio hayami oitamegataki 
lwamakura koke musumadeni aratayo no sakiku kayowan 


koro hakan ime ni misekoso tsurugitachi lwaimatsurcru 
kami mshi maseba 

Kamunabi no Mimoro no yama ni iwau sugi omoisugimeya 
koke musumadcm 

Igushi tate miwa suematsuru kamunuslu no uzu no tamakage 
mireba romoshimo 


Ono ronte Nio no hiyama no ki korikite ikada m tsokun 
makaji nuki iso kogitamitsursu shimazutai miredomo akazu 
Mi-Yoshmu no taki mo todoroni otsuru shiranami 

Mi-Yoshmu no raki mo todoroni otsuru shiranami 
tomannishi imo ni misemaku hoshiki shiranami 


Omi no mi toman yaso ari yasoshima no shima no sakizaki 
antateru hanatachibana wo hotsue ni mochi hikikake 
nakatsue 111 ikaruga kake shizue ni hime wo kake 
naga haha wo torakuwo shirani naga chichi wo torakuwo shiram 
isobaioruyo ikaruga to hime to 

Okimi no mikoto kashikomi miredo akanu Narayama koete 
maki tsumu Izumi no kawa no hayaki se wo sao sashiwatari 
chihayaburu Uji no watari no tagitsuse wo mitsutsu watante 
Omiji no Osakayama m tamuke shite waga koeyukeba 
Sasanami no Shiga no Karasaki sakiku araba mata kaeri min 
michi 110 kuma yasokuma gotoni nagekitsutsu waga sugiyukeba 
lya tom sato sakankinu lya takani yama mo koekmu 
tsurugitachi saya yu nukidete Ikagoyama lkani ka waga sen 
yukue shirazute 

Ametsuchi wo nageki koinomi sakiku araba mata kaeri min 


Shiga no Karasaki 

Momokme Minu no kuni no Takakita no Kukuri no miya m 
himukashi ni yukinan miya wo anto kikite waga kayoyi no 
Okisoyama Minu no yama nabike to hito wa fumedomo 
kaku yoreto Into wa tsukedomo kokoro naki yama no 
Okisoyama Mmu no yama 


Amahashi mo nagakumogamo takayama mo takakumogamo 
tsukuyonn no motaru ochimizu itonkite kimi m matsurite 
ochi eshimu mono 

Ame naruya tsukihi no gotoku waga moeru kimi ga hi m keni 
oyuraku oshimo 


Shikishima no Yamato no kuni ni hito sawam nnchite aredomo 
fujmami no omoimatsuwari wakakusa no omoitsukmishi 
kimi ga me ni koi ya akasan nagaki kono yo wo 

Shikishima no Yamato no kuni ni hito futari aritoshi mowaba 
nani ka nagekan 


Akitsushima Yamato no kuni wa kamukara to kotoage senu kuni 
shikaredomo a wa kotoage su ametsuchi no kami mo hanahada 
waga omou kokoro shirazuya yuku kage no tsuki mo heyukeba 
tama kagiru hi mo kasanarite omoekamo mune yasukaranu 
kourekamo kokoro no itaki sue tsuini kimi ni awazuba 
waga mochi no ikeran kiwami koitsutsumo ware wa wataran 
masokagami tadame ni kimi w t o amutebakoso waga koi yamame 

Obune no omoitanomeru kimi yuem tsukusu kokoro wa 
oshikekumo nashi 


Hisakata no miyako wo okite kusamakura tabi yuku kimi wq 
itsu toka matan 


Imshiye yu litsugikuraku koi sureba yasukaranu mono to 
tamanoo no tsugitewa ledo otomera ga kokoro wo shiram 
sowo shiran yoshi no nakereba natsusobiku inochi katamake 
kangomo no kokoro mo shinum Into slurezu motona zo kouru 
ikinoo nishite 

Shikushikum omowazu hito wa aramedomo shimashi mo ware wa 


Oharida no Ayuchi no mizu wo ma nakuzo hito wa kumu tou 

tokijikuzo Into wa nomu tou 
nomu hito no tokijikiga goto 
yamu tob mo nashi 

Omoiyaru sube no tazuki mo 
toshi no henureba 

kumu hito no ma nakiga goto 
wagimoko ni waga kourakuwa 

ima wa nashi kimi ni awazute 


Sashiyakan oya no shikiya ni kakiuten yaregomo wo shikite 
uchioran sliiko no shikite wo sashikaete nuran Hmi yue 
akanesasu liiru wa shimiram nubatama no yoru wa sugarani 
kono toko no hislhto narumade nagekitsurukamo 

Waga kokoro yakumo ware nari hashikiyashi kimi ni kourumo 
waga kokoro kara 


Uchihaete omoishi onu wa tokaranu sono satobito no 
shime yuto bbteshi hi yori taterakuno tazub mo shirazu 
oramakuno okuka mo shirazu nikibinishi waga ie surawo 


kusamakura tabine no gotoku omou sora yasukaranumonowo 
nageku sora sugushienumonowo amagumo no yuki no makumaku 
ashxgaki no omoimudarete midareo no tsukasa wo namito 
waga kouru chie no hitoe mo hito shirezu motona ya kom 
lkinoo mshite 

Futatsu naki koi woshi sureba tsune no obi wo mie musububeku 
waga mi wa narinu 


Waga seko wa matedo kimasazu Amanohara funsakemireba 
nubatama no yo mo fukenikeri sayo fukete arashi no fukeba 
tachitomari matsu waga sode ni furu yuki wa k5riwatannu 
imasarani kimi kimasameya sanakazura nochi mo awanto 
nagusamuru kokoro wo mochite misode mochi toko uchiharai 
utsutsu niwa kimi mwa awazu ime mdani auto miekoso 
ame no tariyo ni 


Uchihisatsu Miyake no hara yu hitatsuchi ni ashi fummuki 
natsukusa wo koshi ni nazumi ikanaruya hito no ko yue zo 
kayowasu mo ago 

ube na ube na haha wa shiraji ube na ube na chichi wa shiraji 
mma no wata kaguroki kami ni mayu mochi asasa yuitan 
Yamato no tsuge no ogushi wo osaesasu uraguwashiko 
sore zo waga tsuma 

Chichihaha ni shirasenu ko yue Miyakeji no natsunu no kusa wo 


Miwatashi ni imora wa tatashi kono kata ni ware wa tachite 
omou sora yasukaranakuni nageku sora yasukaranakuni 
sanmuri no obune mogamo tamamaki no okai mogamo 
kogiwataritsutsumo aikataramewo 



Satobito no ware m tsuguraku naga kouru utsukushizuma wa 
momijiba no chinmidaretaru Kamunabi no kono yamabe kara 
nubatama no kuroma m norite kawa no se wo nanase watante 
uraburete tsuma wa aikito hito zo tsugetsuru 

Kikazushite moda aramaslnwo nani shikamo kimi ga tadaka wo 
hito no tsugetsuru 


Shirakumo no tanabiku kuni no aogumo no mukabusu kuni no 
amagumo no shita naru hito wa a nomikamo kimi m kouran 
a nomikamo kimi ni koureba ametsuchi ni koto wo mitete 
kourekamo mune no yameru omoekamo kokoro no itaki 
waga koi zo hi ni keni masaru itsu washimo koinu toki towa 
aranedomo kono nagatsuki wo waga seko ga shinubi m seyoto 
chiyo nimo shmubiwatareto yorozuyo ni kataritsugaeto 
hajimeteshi kono nagatsuki no sugimakuwo ita mo sube nami 
aratama no tsuki no kawareba sen sube no tadoki wo shirani 
iwagane no kogoshiki michi no iwadoko no nehaeru kado ni 
ashita mwa ideite nageki yube mwa irn koitsutsu 
nubatama no kurokami shikite hito no nuru umai wa nezuni 
obune no yukurayukurani omoitsutsu waga nuru yora wa 
yomi mo aenukamo 


Komonku no Hatsuse no yama aohata no Osaka no yama wa 
hashiride no yoroshiki yama no idetachi no kuwashiki yama zo 
atarashiki yama no aremaku oshimo 


Takayama to umi kosowa yama nagara kaku mo utsushiku 
umi nagara shika tadanarame hito wa hanamono zo 
utsusemi yohito wa 



Kono tsuki wa kimi kimasanto obune no omoitanomite 
itsu shikato waga machioreba momijiba no sugite yukinuto 
tamazusa no tsukai no ieba hotaru nasu honokani kikite 
otsuchi wo honoho to fumi taclnte ite yukue mo shirazu 
asagiri no omoimadoite tsuetarazu yasaka no nageki 
nagekedomo shirushi wo namito izuku nika kimi ga masanto 
amagumo no yuki no mammani lyu shishi no yuk mo shinanto 
omoedomo michi shi shiraneba hiton ite kimi ni kourum 
ne nomishi nakayu 

Ashibe yuku kari no tsubasa wo miru gotoni bmi ga obashishi 
naguya shi omohoyu 

99 ^ 

Kokoro woshi Mukau no sato m obte araba Hakoya no yama wo 
mimaku chikaken 


Isanaton umi ya sbimsuru yama ya shimsuru 
shinurekoso umi wa sliio hite yama wa karesure 

Konogoro no waga koijikara 
goi no kagafun 

Konogoro no waga koijikara 
idete utaen 


shirusbtsume ku ni mosaba 
tabarazuba misatozukasa 111 


Hitodama no saonaru kimi ga tada hitori aerishi amayo wa 
hisashiku omohoyu 




PRE-OMI AND OMI PERIODS ( -667) (667-73) 

Emperor Yuryaku (418-79) The 21st Sovereign (456-79) ; 
celebrated for his valour and his predilection for poetry. Besides 
the one long poem contained in the Manydsbu , a number of his 
verses are preserved in the Kojiki and the Nibonsboku The 
Emperor is also remembered as a patron of sericulture. 

Emperor Jomei (593-641) The 34th Sovereign (629-41). 
Immediately after his accession to the throne he despatched an 
embassy to China ; he devoted his attention also to internal 
administration, pacifying the eastern provinces and encouraging 

Empress Kogyoku (594-661) The 35th Sovereign (641-45) ; 
Empress-consort of the Emperor Jomei and mother of the Em- 
perors Tenji and Temmu. Upon the death of her imperial 
husband, she ascended the throne as Empress-regnant. After 
four years she abdicated in favour of the Emperor Kotoku, upon 
whose death, however, she re-ascended the throne as Empress- 
regnant Saimei. She died in 661 at her temporary palace in 
Kyushu while on a military expedition in western Japan. 

Empress Saimei The 37th Sovereign (655-661). See above 
under Empress Kogyoku . 

Emperor Tenji (626-71) The 38th Sovereign (661-71) ; son 
of the Emperor Jomei. The Emperor Tenji, while he was still 
Crown Prince under the successive reigns of the Emperor Kotoku 
and the Empress Saimei, assisted in effecting a thorough centrali- 
zation of power through the famous Reform of Taika. His own 
rule, with the capital at Otsu in Omi Province, lasted for ten years, 
during which he perfected the various organs of government by 
introducing continental institutions and systems and laid down 
what became the prototypes of many of the laws, rituals, and 
governmental regulations of Japan. 

Empress Iwa-no-hime ( ? -347) Empress-consort of the 
1 6th Sovereign, the Emperor Nintoku ; proclaimed Empress in 
314, and died in 347. Both the Kojiki and the Nibonshoki contain 
various legends woven about the poems exchanged between the 
Emperor and the Empress. 


Empress Yamato-hime Empress-consort of the Emperor 
Tenji, and granddaughter of the Emperor Jomei ; she conducted 
the affairs of government for a time following the death of the 
Emperor in 671. 

Prince Shotoku (573-622) Second son of the 31st Sovereign, 
the Emperor Yomei ; endowed with extraordinary intellectual 
power and perspicuity* As Crown Prince under the Empress- 
regnant Suiko, his aunt, he administered the affairs of the state on 
her behalf. He inaugurated the system of court caps and ranks, 
promulgated a constitution, and compiled a national history. 
Being an ardent follower of Buddhism, he erected temples in 
various provinces and extended relief to the poor. For his 
cultural and religious works as well as for his benevolent rule he 
has long been an object of national adoration and worship. 

Prince Arima (640-58) Son of the 36th Sovereign, the 
Emperor Kotoku. In 65 8, after the death of his father, the young 
prince, then only 19 years old, was involved in a certain affair 
and condemned to death. 

Prince Ikusa No biographical data. Lived in the reign of 
the Emperor Jomei. 

Princess Nukada Daughter of Prince Kagami and younger 
sister of Fujiwara Kamatari’s wife. As a favourite of the Em- 
peror Temmu, Princess Nukada bore him Princess Toochi 
( ? -678) and lived for a while at the Imperial Palace of Otsu, 
but passed her later life in Yamato. The dates of her birth and 
death are unknown, but her life roughly coincides with the latter 
half of the 7th century. She was the greatest of the women 
poets of her time. The Manjoshu contains 3 long poems and 10 
tanka> which bear witness to the abundant genius of the beautiful 

Princess Kagami (Omi Period) Sister of Princess Nukada and 
wife of Fujiwara Kamatari. 

Fujiwara Kamatari (614-69) Lineal descendant of a hero 
prominent in the building of the empire, and founder of the great 
family of Fujiwara, which has prospered through all the ages 
down to the present. Kamatari assisted the Emperor Tenji in 
carrying out the Reform of Taika. He was appointed Prime 
Minister and granted the highest court rank of ‘ Taishokkan/ 

Toneri Kine Presumably a court lady in the reign of the 
Emperor Tenji. 

A Lady of the Court Waited upon the Emperor Tenji. 


ASUKA AND FUJIWARA PERIODS (673-86) (686-710) 

Emperor Temmu (622-86) The 40th Sovereign ; son of the 
Emperor Jomei, and younger brother of the Emperor Tenji. He 
established the capital at Asuka in Yamato Province. A brave 
and gifted ruler, he initiated the work of compiling a national 
history, which culminated in the completion of the Kojiki and the 
Nzbonsbokz in the Nara Period. 

Lady Fujiwara (Asuka Period) Daughter of Fujiwara Kama- 
tan, who became a consort of the Emperor Temmu. Prince 
Niitabe was her son. 

Empress Jito (645-702) The 41st Sovereign, and Empress- 
consort of the Emperor Temmu, to whom she bore Prince Kusa- 
kabe. Upon the death of the Emperor Temmu in 686 she ascend- 
ed the throne and abdicated ten years later in favour of her 
grandson, who became the Emperor Mommu. 

Shihi, Old Lady (Fujiwara Period) No biographical data. 

Prince Otsu (663-86) Son of the Emperor Temmu, and 
younger brother of Princess Oku. In 686, at the age of 24, the 
prince was condemned to death. An accomplished scholar and 
poet, adept in writing both Japanese and Chinese verses, he was 
also skilled in martial arts. 

Lady Ishikawa (Asuka-Fujiwara Period) No biographical 
data. All the ladies bearing the surname of Ishikawa remain 

Prince Yuge ( ? -699) 6th son of the Emperor Temmu. 

Prince Shiki (Fujiwara Period) In the Fujiwara Period there 
were two princes of the same name, one a son of the Emperor 
Tenji, and the other that of the Emperor Temmu ; there is no 
way of establishing the authorship of the six poems under 
that name contained in the Manydsbu . According to history, 
Prince Shiki, son of the Emperor Tenji, was father of the 49th 
Sovereign, the Emperor Konin, and died in 716. 

Princess Oku (661-701) Daughter of the Emperor Temmu. 
At the age of fourteen she became the Imperial Deputy to the 
Great Shrine of Ise, and served for thirteen years. Her poems 
are an outpouring of her tender love for her brother, the ill- 
fated Prince Otsu. 

Princess Tajima ( ? -708) Daughter of the Emperor Temmu. 

Prince Omi (Asuka Period) Nothing is known of his lineage. 
In 676 he was sentenced to banishment. 


Prince Yamakuma ( ? -723) Grandson of the Emperor 
Temmu, and son of Prince Osakabe. 

Prince Niu (Fujiwara-Nara Period) No biographical data ; 
possibly identical with Princess Niu, who, it is recorded, was 
granted court rank in the reign of the Emperor Shomu. 

Princess Tamochi (Fujiwara Period) Possibly consort, or 
a relative, of Prince Kauchi who died in 689 in Kyushu, where 
he was Governor-General of the Dazaifu. 

Wife of Tagima Maro (Fujiwara Period) No biographical data. 

Kakinomoto Hitomaro (Fujiwara Period) Nothing is known 
of his life, save what may be gathered from the Manyoshii — 
namely that he was an official of low rank and died in Iwami, 
where he had spent his last years. It is presumed that his death 
occurred late in the Fujiwara Period or early in the Nara Period, 
and that he was then less than fifty years old. The Manyoshii con- 
tains scores of long poems and several hundred tanka by him, of 
which the one lamenting the death of Prince Takechi is at once the 
longest and the most powerful in the whole collection. Skilled 
in all kinds of composition, narrative, descriptive or lyrical, and 
unsurpassed in the beauty and vigour of language and loftiness 
of spirit, Hitomaro was indisputably the greatest of the Manyo 
poets ; he has been known to posterity as kasei, or c Saint of 

Yosami, Wife of Hitomaro Probably a village girl of Tsunu 
in Iwami. 

Otomo Tanushi (Fujiwara Period) Second son of Yasumaro, 
and younger brother of Tabito. It seems that he died young. 

Otomo Miyuki (?-yoi) Elder brother of Yasumaro; dis- 
tinguished himself in the war of 672. 

Furu Tamuke (Fujiwara Period) No biographical data. 

Naga Okimaro (Fujiwara Period) A poet of wit and humour, 
of whose life little is known. His poems include those composed 
on the occasion of the progress of the Dowager Empress Jito to 
the province of Mikawa. 

Takechi Furuhito (Fujiwara Period) No biographical data. 
It is possible he was no other than Takechi Kurohito listed below. 

Takechi Kurohito (Fujiwara Period) Served under the Em- 
press Jito and the Emperor Mommu. Besides accompanying 
his Sovereigns in their progresses, he journeyed far and wide over 
the country, and has left some excellent travel poems, by virtue of 
which he occupies an important place in the history of Japanese 


Okisome Azumabito (Fujiwara Period) No biographical 
data. _ 

Osakabe Otomaro (Fujiwara Period) No biographical data. 
The Manyoshu contains only one poem by him, which was com- 
posed on the occasion of the journey of the Emperor Mommu 
to Naniwa. 

Mikata Shami (Fujiwara-Early Nara Period) Sham being 
a title for a Buddhist monk of lower rank the name is sometimes 
believed to have been that of one Yamada Mikata during the 
period of his religious vocation. He studied in Korea and 
was later appointed, together with Yamanoe Okura and others, 
Tutor to the Crown Prince. Some Chinese poems by him are also 

Daughter of Sono Ikuha (Fujiwara-Early Nara Period) No 
biographical data. 

Wife of Go Dan-ochi (Fujiwara Period) No biographical data. 

Lady Fuki Attended upon Princess Toochi, daughter of the 
Emperor Temmu. No biographical data. 

Workman of the Fujiwara Palace An unidentified work- 
man employed in the construction of the new Imperial Palace at 
Fujiwara, to which the capital was transferred from Asuka in 694. 
It is, however, believed by some commentators that the actual 
author of the poem ascribed to the workman was one of the 

Palace-Guards of the Crown Prince Hinamishi The Crown 
Prince Hinamishi was no other than Prince Kusakabe, son of the 
Emperor Temmu. It is conjectured that Kakinomoto Hitomaro 
might have been one of the composers of the notable group of 23 
elegiac tanka on the death of the prince. 

NARA PERIOD (710-84) 

Empress Gemmyo (661-721) The 43rd Sovereign. The 4th 
daughter of the Emperor Tenji, she became consort of Prince 
Kusakabe and bore him the Emperor Mommu, upon whose 
untimely death she succeeded to the throne. In 710 the Em- 
press transferred the capital to Nara, which was to remain the 
Imperial City for the next seventy-five years. It was the Em- 
press who ordered the compilation of the Kojiki and also 
caused the Fudoki (Topographical Records) to be presented to the 
court from various provinces. 


Princess Minabe (Fujiwara-Early Nara Period) Daughter 
of the Emperor Tenji, and elder sister of the Empress Gemmyo. 

Empress Gensho (680-748) The 44th Sovereign. Grand- 
daughter of the Emperor Temmu and daughter of Prince Kusa- 
kabe, and elder sister of the Emperor Mommu. She ascended 
the throne in 715, and abdicated nine years later in favour of the 
Emperor Shomu. 

Emperor Shdmu (701-56) The 45 th Sovereign. Son of the 
Emperor Mommu, he was enthroned m 724. An ardent Bud- 
dhist, the Emperor constructed at Nara the Todai-ji Temple 
with its Great Buddha, and established monasteries m various 
provinces. The Tempyo Era covering the twenty-five years of 
his reign marks the golden age of culture and enlightenment in 
the history of ancient Japan. 

Empress K 5 ken (718-70) The 46th Sovereign. Daughter 
of the Emperor Shomu and the Empress Komyo ; was enthroned 
in 749. In 758 she abdicated in favour of the Emperor Junnin, 
but re-ascended the throne in 764 as the Empress Shotoku and 
reigned till death. Like her father she was an earnest believer 
in Buddhism. 

Emperor Junnin (733-65) The 47th Sovereign. Grandson 
of the Emperor Temmu, and son of Prince Toneri ; was enthroned 
in 758. After six years on the throne he abdicated and went to 
live on the Island of Awaji, where he died. 

Empress Komyo (701-60) Consort of the Emperor Shomu, 
and mother of the Empress-regnant Koken. She was installed 
Crown Princess at the age of sixteen and became Empress in 
729. As a devoted follower of Buddhism she extended her 
benevolence to the poor, the sick and the old. She was also a 
scholar of Chinese literature and a skilled calligrapher. 

Prince Toneri ( ? -735) The third son of the Emperor Tem- 
mu. The prince early displayed extraordinary intelligence and 
wisdom ; compiled the Nihonshoki by imperial command; became 
Acting Prime Minister in 729. 

Prince Hozumi ( ? —71 5) The fifth son of the Emperor 
Temmu; was appointed Acting Prime Minister in 705, and re- 
mained in his post until his death. 

Princess Ki Daughter of the Emperor Temmu and younger 
sister of Prince Hozumi. 

Prince Yuhara (Middle Nara Period) Grandson of the 
Emperor Tenji and son of Prince Shiki. He is a notable poet of 
the late Manyo style. 


Prince Aki (Middle Nara Period) Great-grandson of the 
Emperor Tenji, gransdon of Prince Shiki, and son of Prince 

Prince Ichihara (Middle-Late Nara Period) Son of Prince 
Aki, he inherited the poetic aptitude that had marked his family 
for generations. In 765 the Prince was made Chief Super- 
intendent for the construction of the Todai-ji Temple. An 
autograph letter of his is preserved in the Shoso-in Treasury. 

Prince Nagaya (676-729) Grandson of the Emperor Tem- 
mu, and son of Prince Takechi. Appoinred Minister of the Left 
in 724, but condemned to death through false accusation. Fond 
of Chinese poetry, he often invited makers of Chinese verse 
to his mansion. Chinese poems of his own composition are 

Prince Funado (? -757) Grandson of the Emperor Temmu, 
and son of Prince Niitabe. Another reading of the Chinese 
characters for the name is c Michinoya/ 

Prince Kadobe (P-745) Great-grandson of the Emperor 
Temmu, and son of Prince Kauchi. He was made Mayor of 
Nara, the capital, in 737. Two years later he assumed the status 
of a subject. At the time of his death in 745 he was Super- 
intendent of the Imperial Property, though at one time he is 
known to have occupied the post of Governor of Izumo Prov- 
ince. It is said that there was another Prince Kadobe — a 
descendant in the fourth generation of the Emperor Jomei. 

Prince Atsumi (Late Nara Period) Nothing is known of his 

Prince Odai Descended to the status of a subject. There are 
two poems by him, which, it is said, he was fond of singing at 
banquets to the accompaniment of the koto . 

Prince Takamiya (Middle Nara Period) Nothing is known 
of the Prince save that from one of his poems referring to the 
Brahmin Prelate we may infer roughly the period in which he 

Princess Takata (Late Nara Period) Great-granddaughter of 
Prince Naga who was a son of the Emperor Temmu. 

Princess Hirokawa (Late Nara Period) Granddaughter of 
Prince Hozumi, who was a son of the Emperor Temmu. 

Tajihi Kunihito (Middle Nara Period) In 783 he was an 
official concerned with tax affairs. 

Tajihi Kasamaro (Early Nara Period) No biographical data. 
His poems were composed during his travels in Kii and Kyushu. 


Tajihi Yanushi (Middle Nara Period) At one time he was an 
official in the Bureau of Imperial Property. 

Tajihi — (Middle Nara Period) No biographical data. 

Tajihi Takanushi (Late Nara Period) Little is known of 
his life. 

Ishikawa Kimiko (Early Nara Period) In 721 he was relieved 
of his office as Governor of Harima Province and called back to 
the court to serve as a chamberlain. 

Taguchi Masuhito (Early Nara Period) Governor of Kami- 
tsuke Province m 708 ; was appointed a captain of the Imperial 
Guards in the following year. 

Ono Oyu ( ? -738) In the early years of the Tempyo Era he 
was in Kyushu, serving under Otomo Tabito as a third rank 
official of the Dazaifu. Later he became the Vice Governor- 

Kasa Kanamura (Early Nara Period) One of the members 
of the same family group to which the other notable Manyo 
poets such as Monk Manzei (or Kasamaro) belonged. The Man- 
joshil contains nearly fifty poems by him composed between 715 
and 733. He was a contemporary of Yamabe Akahito, and ac- 
companied his Sovereign on various j ourneys. Many of his poems 
are panegyrics of the imperial rule. 

Isonokami — (Early Nara Period) Possibly to be identified 
as Isonokami Otomaro, listed elsewhere. 

Lady Kasa (Late Nara Period) Probably a member of the 
family of Kasa Kanamura, or of Kasamaro (Monk Manzei). 
Her 29 tanka addressed to Otomo Yakamochi are preserved in 
the Manjoshu. 

Takahashi — (Middle Nara Period) No biographical data. 
The poem mourning his wife was written in 744. 

Kuramochi Chitose (Early Nara Peiod) No biographical data. 
His poems were composed between 723 and 725 on the occasions 
of the imperial progresses which he accompanied. 

Kose Sukunamaro (Middle Nara Period) Sashoben (chief of 
a section in the government) in 737. 

Fujiwara Hirotsugu ( ? -740) The eldest son of Umakai ; 
appointed official of the third rank in the Dazaifu in 738. In 
740 he memorialized the Throne, criticizing the government, and 
raised an army of rebellion. He was soon captured and put to 

Abe Okina No biographical data. Even the period in which 
he lived is not known. 


Ikeda — It is believed by some that this was Ikeda Mahira, 
who was the second in command of the expeditionary force sent 
to eastern Japan in 787. Defeated in battle, he was dismissed 
from office, but in consideration of his meritorious act of rescuing 
the troops from drowning during a battle he was allowed to 
retain his court rank, 

Omiwa Okimori (Late Nara Period) No biographical data. 

Nakatomi Yakamori (Middle Nara Period) For having 
clandestinely married, contrary to rule, Sanu Chigami, a court 
attendant of low rank, he was banished to the province of Echi- 
zen. He did not share in the Amnesty of 740, but was pardoned 
afterwards and made a government official. There are a number 
of tanka which were exchanged between Yakamori and Chigami. 

Sanu Chigami (Middle Nara Period) Served in the Bureau 
of the Princess Imperial Deputy at the Great Shrine of Ise. All 
communication with men was under a ban at the Bureau. Her 
relations with Nakatomi Yakamori led to the latter’s banishment. 
An intensity of feeling, characteristically feminine, pervades her 

Lady Abe (Early-Middle Nara Period) No biographical data. 

Lady Heguri (Late Nara Period) No biographical data. 
Her poems are addressed to Otomo YakamochL 

Otomo Tabito (665-731) The ancestry of the illustrious 
house of Otomo is traced back to a military leader in the mytho- 
logical age, whose grandson was also a distinguished general 
under the Emperor Jimmu, the founder of the empire. Tabito 
himself was appointed, in 720, commander-in-chief of an expedi- 
tionary force which was despatched to subjugate a fierce tribe in 
Kyushu. In 728 he became Governor-General of the Dazaifu 
and went to live in Kyushu, where he lost his wife. In 730 he 
returned to Nara as Grand Councillor of State, and died in the 
following year. With a few exceptions all his poems included 
m the Manjoshu are the works of the years subsequent to his ap- 
pointment to the Governor-Generalship of the Dazaifu. The 
1 3 poems in praise of sake are noted for their distinctly Chinese 
flavour and touch of melancholy, while those on his bereave- 
ment and solitude in old age are considered masterpieces that 
give him an exalted place as a poet. 

Manzei (Early-Middle Nara Period) While still a layman 
he was called Kasamaro. Appointed Governor of Mino Pro- 
vince in 706 ; received an increase in fee in recognition of his 
service in constructing the Kiso Highway in 7x4 ; and appointed 


concurrently Governor of Owari Province in 715 ; he enjoyed 
a high reputation as a good administrator. In 719 he was made 
Inspector-General over the three provinces of Owari, Mikawa 
and Shmano, and promoted in the following year to an important 
post in the Central Government. In 721 he became a monk and 
assumed the name of Manzei. He became the Chief Commis- 
sioner for the construction of the Kwanzeon-ji Temple in Kyu- 
shu in 723. 

Otomo Sukunamaro (Early-Middle Nara Period) The 3rd 
son of Yasumaro, and younger brother of Tabito and Tanushi. 
Inspector-General of Aki and Suho Provinces in 819; he was 
also Udaiben , a court official of high rank. 

Lady Otomo of Sakanoe (Middle-Late Nara Period) 
Daughter of Yasumaro ; younger sister of Tabito, Tanushi and 
Sukunamaro and an aunt of Yakamochi. She married Otomo 
Sukunamaro and bore him ‘Lady Otomo of Sakanoe’s Elder 
Daughter/ and other children. She was an outstanding poetess 
of the Tempyo Era, who adorned the declining period of the 
Otomo family. Her poems reveal a keen intellect and tender 
maternal love. 

Otomo Yakamochi (718-85) The eldest son of Tabito. At 
the age of twenty-three he was appointed a court official in charge 
of palace-guards, and at twenty-nine Governor of Etchu Prov- 
ince, whence he returned to Nara in 751 as Junior Councillor of 
State. In 754 he entered the Department of War as an official 
of the 3rd rank. He was soon promoted to the post of Vice- 
Minister of War and then to Uchuben (bureau-chief in the Central 
Government) ; but relegated to Inaba Province as Governor 
in 758. Thenceforward he led a chequered career, marked, 
however, by frequent promotions and demotions. Finally he 
was appointed Senior Councillor of State and Steward to the 
Crown Prince, and was concurrently made Commander-in-chief 
of the Eastern Expeditionary Force. He died in 785. Shortly 
afterwards, because of a crime committed by a distant relative 
of his, not only was he posthumously deprived of his office 
and rank, but the great and ancient family of Otomo was 
broken up. Thus, the stormy vicissitudes of fortune that had 
attended his life, followed him even beyond the grave. The 
large number of his poems in the Manydshu , totalling about 500, 
were all composed before 759 when he was forty-two years old. 
It is supposed that his later works were all lost, though there 
might well have been many excellent verses emanating from a 


mind matured with age and experience. Nevertheless, Yaka- 
mochi who followed in the footsteps of Hitomaro, Akahito, and 
Okura, has left scores of good poems revealing his love of nature, 
tenderness, and loyalty, and profound insight into human affairs. 
His rare genius is manifested in the several tanka composed in 753 
which represent the fine lyricism that characterized the poetry of 
the closing years of the Nara Period. 

Lady Otomo of Tamura Daughter of Sukunamaro. So 
called because she lived in the village of Tamura. 

Lady Ki (Middle-Late Nara Period) Ojika was her given 
name. She became consort of Prince Aki, a great-grandson of 
the Emperor Tenji. 

Otomo Ikenushi (Late Nara Period) Genealogy unknown, 
though he belonged to the same family as Yakamochi. While 
the latter was Governor of Etchu Province, he served under him 
as a third-rank official. Later, he held a similar post in the 
province of Echizen. We find him back in Nara in 75 3 as an 
official of the city. 

Otomo Azumabito (Late Nara Period) Assistant Chief of 
the Metropolitan Police Board in 775. 

Lady Otomo of Sakanoe’s Elder Daughter (Late Nara 
Period) Daughter of Sukunamaro and Lady Sakanoe. She was 
married to Yakamochi and lived awhile in Etchu Province, 
where her husband was Governor. 

Otomo Yotsuna (Middle Nara Period) A member of the 
Otomo clan. While Tabito was Governor-General of the Da- 
zaifu, Yotsuna held under him an office connected wfith the affairs 
of the frontier-guards. 

Otomo Minaka (Middle Nara Period) Vice- Ambassador to 
Shiragi in 736 ; official of the third rank in the Dazaifu in 745. 

Otomo Momoyo (Middle Nara Period) In the beginning of 
the Tempyo Era he was under Tabito at the Dazaifu, as an of- 
ficial of the fourth rank. In 743 he became second in command 
of the garrison in Kyushu, and occupied various provincial posts 
at later times. 

Otomo Miyori (?-774) In 730 he was made Governor of 
Bungo under Tabito, and later was appointed Vice-Minister of 
Justice, and also Governor of other provinces. 

Yamabe Akahito (Early-Middle Nara Period) Little is 
know T n of the poet save that, accompanying the Emperor Shomu, 
he travelled over various provinces, and died probably in 736. 
He is unsurpassed in tanka, his long poems being comparatively 


brief. In contrast to Hitomaro, the poet of passion, Akahito 
wrote nature poems marked with limpidity and grace of style. 
His poem on Mount Fuji is one of the best known of his works. 
With Hitomaro, he has been known as a ‘ Saint of Poetry/ 

Hanishi Mit5shi Otherwise known as Shibimaro. A court 
official connected with the palace night watch and imperial retinue. 

Ama-no-Inukai Okamaro (Middle Nara Period) No bio- 
graphical data. At the command of the Emperor Shomu he 
composed the celebrated poem in praise of his Sovereign’s rule, 

Yamanoe Okura (Fujiwara-Middle Nara Period) In 701 
he journeyed to China as a member of the embassy headed by 
Awata Mahito, and returned with newly acquired knowledge 
and learning. In 721 he was made Tutor to the Crown Prince, 
and later Governor of Chikuzen Province, under Tabito. It 
appears that he died in 733 at the age of seventy-four. His works 
include a few Chinese compositions in verse and prose. They are 
notable for their philosophic and ethical strains. The poems on 
his children and on the sufferings of the poor are especially 
famous. He is also believed to be the compiler of the Ruiju-Karin 
(Forest of Classified Verses) which is no longer extant, but which 
is often mentioned in the Original Notes of the Manyoshu. 

Takahashi Mushimaro (Early Nara Period) It is known 
that during the years 717-23, he was in the service of the provincial 
government of Hitachi, under Governor Fujiwara Umakai. Most 
likely he contributed not a little towards the making of the Hitachi 
Fudoki (Topographical Record of Hitachi), which was completed 
at that time. Specializing in legendary subjects such as Ura- 
shima, he possessed a distinctive style of his own. 

Owari — (Early Nara Period) No biographical data. 

Kamo Taruhito (Fujiwara-Early Nara Period) No bio- 
graphical data. 

Sena Gyomon (Early Nara Period) Of Korean descent, he 
held an official post as Professor of Chinese Classics and was the 
recipient of imperial gifts, which were granted for the encourage- 
ment of learning. He also wrote Chinese poems, some of which 
are extant. 

Tsuki — (Fujiwara Period) No biographical data. 

Tanabe Sakimaro (Middle Nara Period) In 748 he went to 
Etchu as a messenger from the Minister of the Left, Tachibana 
Moro£, to the Governor of the Province, Otomo Yakamochi. 
He was then a court official connected with the imperial sake- 


Wakamiya Ayumaro (Middle Kara Period) No biographical 

Kon Mydgun (Middle Nara Period) The name is sometimes 
written Yo Myogun. Kon Myogun was a man of Korean des- 
cent, and a retainer of Otomo Tabito. 

Tsukan (Middle Nata Period) A priest. No biographical 

Monk of the Gango-ji Temple The Gango-ji was one of 
the £ Seven Great Temples of Nara/ and also one of the first 
Buddhist temples ever built in Japan, having been completed in 
588. Originally it stood on Makami Plain of Asuka, but was 
moved to Nara in 718. The name of the monk is not known. 

Kojima, a Young Woman of Tsukushi (Early Nara 
Period) Evidently she lived in the city of the Dazaifu when 
Tabito was stationed there as Governor-General. 

Oyakeme, a Young Woman of Buzen (Late Nara Period) 
No biographical data. 

Ato Tobira, a Young Woman (Late Nara Period) No bio- 
graphical data. 

Taniha Ome, a Young Woman (Late Nara Period) No 
biographical data. 

Young Woman of Hitachi (Early Nara Period) No bio- 
graphical data. 

Young Woman of Harima (Early Nara Period) No bio- 
graphical data. 

Hozumi Oyu (Early Nara Period) Assistant Director of the 
Board of Ceremonies in 718. For some offence he was banished 
to the Island of Sado in 734, but allowed to return to Nara in 740. 
In 744 he was Assistant Director of the Imperial Property Bureau, 
and had in his charge the Kuni Palace during the Sovereign’s 

Tachibana Moroe (684-757) Descendant of the 30th Sover- 
eign, the Emperor Bitatsu, he assumed the status of a subject and 
w r as given the surname of Tachibana in 736. Minister of the 
Left in 743 ; and Governor-General of the Dazaifu in 746. 

Ki Kiyohito (? -753) At imperial command he compiled a 
national history of Japan in 714. Together with Yamada Mikata 
and Yamanoe Okura he was made Tutor to the Crown Prince in 
72 1 . Assistant Director of the Board of Palace Rites and Peerages 
and concurrently Professor of Literature in 741. 

Fujii Moroai (Middle Nara Period) Governor of Sagami 
in 747. 


Kose Natemaro (P- 753) In 737 he was made the director 
of the office in charge of making Buddhist images. Grand 
Councillor of State m 749. 

Ishikawa Toshitari (688-762) Descended from Takeshiuchi 
Sukune. A great-grandson of Soga Murashi, Prime Minister. 
In 735 he became Governor of Izumo, and was awarded honours 
for his meritorious services. Appointed Governor-General of 
the Dazaifu in 753. A mortuary tablet, describing his career, 
was excavated in 1820. 

Lord Ki (Middle Nara Period) In 730 he was Vice Governor- 
General of the Dazaifu under Otomo Tabito. His given name 
is not known, though he is sometimes identified as Ki Obito. 

Sakiko of the Ch5 Family (Middle Nara Period) In 730 he 
was a government physician attached to the Dazaifu. 

Tanabe Akiniwa (Middle Nara Period) A member of the 
suite of the embassy despatched to Shiragi m 736. 

Yuki Yakamaro (Middle Nara Period) A member of the 
suite of the embassy despatched to Shiragi in 736. Died of the 
plague on the way. 

Mibu Utamaro (Middle Nara Period) A member — third in 
rank — of the embassy despatched to Shiragi in the summer of 
736. After a difficult voyage he returned to Nara in the autumn 
of the following year. Governor of Tajima in 750 ; and Director 
of the Bureau of Foreign Affairs and Buddhist Temples. 

Fujii Kooyu (Middle Nara Period) A member of the em- 
bassy despatched to Shiragi in 736. 

Frontier-Guards and Family (Late Nara Period) : — 
Mononobe Akimochi from Totomi Mononobe was the 
name of a clan in which military service was a hereditary pro- 

Wakayamatobe Mumaro from Totomi Sent from the 
family of a clerk in the provincial government. 

Hasetsukabe Mamaro from Totomi 
Hasetsukabe Kuromasa from Totomi 
Mononobe Komaro from Totomi 
Hasetsukabe Hitomaro from Sagami 
Mariko Omaro from Sagami 
Udobe Ushimaro from Suruga 
Sakatabe Obitomaro from Suruga 
Tamatsukuribe Hirome from Suruga 
Akino Osamaro from Suruga 


Hasetsukabe Inamaro from Suruga 
Father of Kusakabe Minaka from Ka^usa 
Hasetsukabe Tori from Ka^usa 
Osakabe Chikuni from Ka^usa 
Mononobe Tatsu from Ka^usa 
Wakatoneribe Hirotari from Hitachi 
Otoneribe Chifumi from Hitachi 
Shidoribe Karamaro from Hitachi 

Imamatsuribe Yosofu from Shimousa A minor officer 
at the head of ten men. 

Otabe Aramimi from Shimotsuke A minor officer at the 
head of ten men. 

Mononobe Mashima from Shimotsuke A minor officer at 
the head of ten men. 

Tsumori Okurusu from Shimotsuke 
Hasetsukabe Taruhito from Shimotsuke 
Kisakibe Isoshima from Shimousa 
Kamutobe Kooshio from Shinano 
Otomobe Fushimaro from Kamitsuke 
Ujibe Kurome Wife of a frontier-guard from Musashi . 
Kurahashibe Otome Wife of Mononobe Mane from 
Musashi . 

Isonokami Otomaro ( ? -750) Son of Isonokami Maro, Min- 
ister of the Left. In 738 he was promoted to a high post in the 
government, but in the following year he was banished to Tosa 
Province because of a love affair. Later, he received a pardon, and 
was appointed Senior Councillor of State and concurrently chief 
of administrative affairs of the court. He was also a writer of 
Chinese verse, and it is said that there existed a collection in two 
books of his Chinese poems composed during his banishment. 

Wife of Isonokami Otomaro Presumably Kume Wakame 
who, it appears, was a lady attendant at the court. 





Year of Reign 



2 3 

Death of Emperor Yuryaku. 




Gango-ji Temple completed. 




Prince Shotoku named Regent. 
Shitenno-ji at Naniwa built. 



Constitution established by Prince 




Embassy, including students and 
monks, despatched to Sui Court. 
H6ryu~ji Temple built by Prince 




Embassy from Sul Court arrives; 

embassy to Sui Court despatched. 



Embassy to Sui Court despatched. 



A National History compiled by 

Prince Shotoku. 



Death of Prince Shotoku. 


5 <S 

Death of Empress Suiko. 




Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 



Embassy from T’ang Court arrives ; 

monks return. 



Monks return. 



Students return. 



Death of Emperor Jomei. 

Year of Era 



Taika 1 

Abdication of Empress Kogyoku. 
Soga Emishi and his son Iruka killed. 
Taika era : for the first time the era 

is named. 

* Empress 




Year of Era 

Reform of Taika. 



Court removed from Asuka to Nani- 
wa m Settsu. 


Byakuchi 4 

Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 



Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 
Death of Emperor Kotoku. 

Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 




Accession of Empress Saimei at the 
Palace of Asuka. 



Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 

66 1 


Imperial fleet despatched to save 
Kudara ; the Empress visits 

Death of Empress Saimei. 




Frontier-guards posted in Tsushima, 
Iki and Tsukushi. 



Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 
Many people from Kudara nat- 



Court removed to the Palace of 
Otsu in Omi. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Death of Fujiwara Kamatari. 
Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Death of Emperor Tenji. 




War of Jinshin. 

Death of Emperor Kobun. 




Court removed to the Palace of 
Kiyomihara at Asuka. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



A National History compiled by im- 
perial order. 




Year of Era 

Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 




Death of Emperor Temmu. 
Rebellion and death of Prince Otsu. 




Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Death of Crown Prince Kusakabe. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Court removed to the Palace of 




Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Death of Prince Takechi. 




Abdication of Empress Jito. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 




Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 
Code of Taiho promulgated. 



Death of ex- Empress Jito. 

7° 3 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 




Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Death of Emperor Mommu. 

710 1 

Gemmyo* i 



Court removed to Nara. 

7 11 



Kojiki (Records of Ancient Matters) 

Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Fudoki (Topographical Records) or- 

dered to be compiled by provinces. 

7*5 ’ 



Death of Prince Hozumi. 
Abdication of Empress Gemmyo. 


Gensho* : 


Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 
Death of Prince Shlki. 




Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 
Gango-ji Temple removed to Nara. 
Code of Taiho revised by Fujiwara 

Fubito and others by imperial order. 





Year of Era 



Embassy to Shiragl despatched. 

7 2 ° 


Nzhonshokz (Chronicles of Japan) 




Death of ex-Empress Gemmyo. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Death of Prince Yamakuma. 

The monk Manzel despatched to 

Tsukushi to build the Kanzeon-ji 





Abdication of Empress Gensho. 
Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Embassy from Po-hai arrives for the 

first time. 


Temp y 6 


Fujiwara Komyo-shi proclaimed 

Prince Nagaya put to death by 

imperial order. 



Death of Otomo Tabito. 



Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 

73 5 



Death of Prince Toneri. 
c Brahmin Prelate 7 arrives. 





Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 
Prince Kazuraki granted the 

surname of Tachibana. 



Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 


' i 


Court removed to the Palace of 



Rebellion of Fujiwara Hirotsugu. 
Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 





Kokubun-ji (provincial temples) 


ordered to be built in provinces. 



Death of Prince Azumi. 



Court removed to Nara. 




Year of Era 



Construction begun of the Great 
Buddha at the Todai-ji Temple. 
Death of Prince Kadobe. 

Death of ex-Empress Gensho. 



Temp vo- 

75 1 

Shoho 1 


Great Buddha completed at the 
Todai-ji Temple. 

Abdication of Emperor Shomu. 

Gold offered from Michmoku for 
gilding the Todai-ji Buddha. 

The Kalfuso completed. 



Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 



Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 
Embassy to Shiragi despatched. 



Ganjin, a monk from T’ang Court, 




Death of ex-Emperor Shomu. 





Hoji 1 


Death of Prince Funado. 
Death of Tachibana Moroe. 
Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 



Abdication of Empress Koken. 
Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 



Death of Empress Komyo. 



Death of £ Brahmin Prelate.* 
Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 



Rebellion of Emi Oshikatsu. 




Abdication of Emperor Junnin. 



Jingo i 

Hoki ! 

Death of ex-Emperor Junnin. 
Death of Empress Shotoku. 



Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 




Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 


77 6 7 Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 

Ill 8 Embassy to T’ang Court despatched. 

778 9 Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 

779 1° Embassy from Po-hai arrives. 

78 1 Ten-o 1 Abdication of Emperor Korun. 

784 Kammu Enryaku 3 Court removed to Nagaoka in 


7**5 4 Death of Otomo Yakamochi. 

794 13 Court removed to Heian-kyo 

(Kyoto) in Yamashiro. 


Poems m the order as they are found in the original work and their 
numbers according to the Kokka Taikan ( K . T ) are given m the left 
column, and their corresponding numbers in the present translation (our 
number) m the right column 


Our number 

K.T . 

0#r number 




























5 ° 




5 i 

5 i 

i 3 












1 6 

















7 i 





















79 8 


7 ^ 









3 <$ 



T 3 








i 5 










Our numb 













1 16 


















* 3 ! 






i 35 

9 1 


9 2 









i 47 















Our number 





34 2 














4 2 5 






43 i 



43 2 

35 ° 



35 i 








44 ° 


30 6 ! 





37 1 



37 2 










2 47 







45 i 



45 2 








45 5 


7 * 2 










2 45 



3 T 3 



2 57 









7 ° 



7 i 

47 ° 


7 2 


Our number 


0 #r number 


















4 2 3 



3 2 3 



3 2 4 



3 2 5 





37 ° 



37 1 








2 9 



3 i 




37 2 











35 ° 



2 73 



2 74 




35 1 


5 21 



5 2 7 





53 2 









54 i 














4 l 6 









48 5 

K.T . Our number 

K.T . Our number 

K.T. Our number 









33 2 4 


33 2 5 


3 3 2 7 




33 2 9 


3 3 3 1 

99 2 

333 2 






334 i 


334 2 








(Book XIV) 

33 50 


33 5 1 



















34 2 5 








345 2 








35 10 


3 514 


3 53 2 


3 546 






35 <S 9 




(Book XV) 








74 i 


74 2 
















2 77 






75 i 


75 2 






75 5 


75 ^ 




















34 i 


34 2 













(Book XVI) 





3 79 1 

22 3 


2 24 


22 5 




22 7 












33 ° 


33 i 














K.T. Our number 

K.T. Our number 

K.T. Our number 














































7 2 7 






35 2 










44 2 











397 ° 

























55 i 


5 5 2 




5 54 

















4 02 9 



















47 2 












• 478 







48 1 
























49 2 






























K.T. Our number 

K.T. Our number 

K.T. Our number 


































4 2 5 5 




























(Book XX) 















433 ° 

77 ° 








77 i 






































43 8 3 





53 o 


53 i 






79 ° 












79 1 














54 i 













Names of poets are printed in bold type. The references 
are to pages. 


abalone, 152, 153, 236 

Abe, Lady, 1 1 5 

Abe Okina, 1 12 

Abo, God of, <$n 

Ajifu (Field), 102; Palace of, 232 

Ainus, 8 in 

Akahito, see Yamabe 

Akashi, 49n 

Akashi, Straits of, lxii, 49, 194 
Aki, Prince, 88 , 89 
Aki, plain of, 30 
Akino Osamaro, 252 
Akitsu, 28, 192 
Akitsu-kami, xliil 
Ainus japonica , 67a 
Ama-no-Inukai Okamaro, 197 
Amaterasu Omikami, xxxix, 4jn 
Anacreontic verses, xlv 
animals, Ixiii 

Anonymous, 23, 67, 87, 128, 259, 
264, 271 

Anthologie de la Utter aiure Japonaise 
des Origines au zo z Siecle y lxxix 
Anthologie Japonaise , lxxix 
Arao, 213 

Arima, Mount, 124 
Arima, Prince, 8 

Arima Hot Springs, lii 
asagao , 213a 
Asaka, 265 
Asaka, Prince, 132 
Ashigara, 233, 254 

Ashiki, 185 

Ashinoya, 224 

Ashinoya, Maiden of, 234 

Aso River, 280 

Aston, G., lxxix 

Asuka, xxxiv, lx, lxi, 36, 37 

Asuka and Fujiwara Periods, ixxi 

Asuka, Palace of, 20, 189 

Asuka, Princess, 37 

Ato Tobira, 238 

Atsumi, Prince, 91 

aucbi, lxv 

Awaji, 48n, 49a, 94, 102, 195, 
245, 289 
ay a, xlviii 
qyu, 132, 147, 259 
aym (leg-ties), xhx 
Aya District, 9 
Ayuchi, 63, 308 
Azuma, 93, 234 
Azuma Uta, 278 
Azumi Mikuni, 257 
a%usa, 4n 


bamboo, lxiv, 172 
Bamboo-Cutter, Old, 74 
bead-tree, 199 
bed, sweep the, 301, 310 
Beggar Songs, 275 
Beowulf, xhi 
Bigamy, 154 
Biwa, Lake, lxi, 50, 5 on 
Bonneau, G., lxxx 


Bosom-soothing Stones, 202 
Boys’ Festival, liv 
boxwood, 168, 259 
Brahmin Prelate, xxxvi, 9m 
bu, 202 

Buddha, xliv, 200 ; Way of, 179 
Buddha’s Foot Stone Poem, xx 
Buddhism, xili, xxx, xxxviii, xliv 
bush-clover, 67, 161, 212, 2290, 
236, 249, and passim 


Caedmon, xiii 
camellia, lxiv, 302 
Central Asia, xxxi 
Chamberlain, B. H., lxxix 
cherry-flowers, 142, 284, 293 
Cherry-Flower Maid, lxviii 
Chi garni, Sanu, lvii, see Sanu 
Chikuma River, txi, 279 
Chikuzen, 202, 213 
China, xxix, xxx, xlvi, 96, 103, 
1 12, 160, 197, 207, 264, 265 ; 
embassy to, lvni, 264 
Chinu, 167, 224 
Chinese literature, lxix 
cbisa-trzz , 155 
cboka , xx 
Chuangtsu, xlvii 
Churo, 60 
Chu Tsu, xix 
cicada, lxiii, 135 

Classical Poetry of tbe Japanese, The , 

clothing, xlviii 
coiffeur, xlix 

‘ Collection of Ancient Poems,’ 
xvii, 287 

Confucianism, xiii, xxix, xxxviii, 
xliv, xlvi 
Confucius, xiv 
cormorant-fishing, 29, 147 

crab, 276 

crane, 64, 103, 176, 189, 191 and 

cricket, 87, 296 
cnnum, 51 
cryptomena, lxv, 54 
cuckoo, 135, 136, 143, 146, 164, 
165, 220, 288 
Cynewulf, xiii 


Daihangan, 247 

Dazaifu, xxxvi, 5011, 118, 119, 185, 

Dialogue poem, lvii, 58, 283 
dew-drops, 137 

Dicbtergrusse aits dem fernen Osten , 

Dickins, F. V., lxxix 
divination, xli 

Divorce, Seven Causes permit- 
ting, 153; Three Cases prohibit- 
ing, 154 

Divine Wind, 21, 271 
domestic animals, lxin 
domesticated birds, lxiii 
dragon, lxiii 
Dragon God, 17 
dream, xli 


Early Palace Style, xxiv 
Eastland, lviii, 93, 1, 173 

Eastland Poems, xxv 
Echizen, 49a 
eel, 138 

eighty, 244, 259. 3°4 
eighty clans, 168, 261 
elixir, lxviii, 242, 306 
elm, lxv 
Emishi, xxxii 
Etchu, J15, 153 


evil spirits, xli 


Feast of the Blue Horse, liv 
Feast of New-tasting, lv, see Ni- 
five virtues, 199 
Florenz, K., lxxix 
folk-song, xiv, lxxiii 
foot-divination, xli 
foot-wear, xlix 
fox, 62 

frontier-guard, xiv, Iviii, 17311, 

Fuji, Mount, lx, 187, 215, 301 
Fujie Bay, 49 
Fujii, 69 
Fujii Bay, 192 
Fujii Moroai, 240 
Fujiwara Fusamae, 8211 
Fujiwara Fusasaki, 65 
Fujiwara Hirotsugu, 112 
Fujiwara Kamatari, xxxiii, 10, 
T 3 

Fujiwara Kiy oka wa, 83,84 

Fujiwara, Lady, 17 

Fujiwara, Palace of, 20, 67, 69 

Fujiwara Maro, 124 

Fujiwara Period, xiii 

Fujiwara Sukunamaro, 251 

Fujiwara Umakai, 82n, 214 

Fujiwara Yatsuka, 21 1 

Fujiwara Yoritsune, lxxv 

Fukae, 202 

Fuki, Lady, 66 

Funado, Prince, 90 

fur, xlviii 

Furu Tamuke, 61 

Furuhi, 210 

Fuse Hitonushi, 252 

Fuse Lake, lxi, 166 

Fushimi, 53 

Futagami Mountain, 22, 144, 145, 

Futagi Palace, 230, 231 
Fuwa, 39, 254 


Gamo, 27711 

Gango-ji Temple, Monk of 
the, 237 

Gemmyd, Empress, xxiv, 81 
‘ Genryaku Comparative Texts, 7 

Gensho, Empress, 81, 88n 
Geschichte der japanischen National - 
hteratur , lxxx 
Go Dan-ochi, Wife of, 66 
God’s Wind, 40 
Graeco-Roman civilization, xxxi 
Great Buddha, xxxvii 
Great Purification, lv 
grebes, 198, 245 
Greek Anthology , The, xv 
guide-knot, 22 


Haetsuki (River), lxi 
hag, 6711, 74, 129, 229, 264, see 
haiku , xxiii, lxxviii 
hakama , xlviii 
Hakoya, 31311 
Han Empire, xxxi 
Hanishi Mitoshi, 197 
haniwa, lxx 

Haniyasu, 3n, 41, 69, 22611 
banka (envoy), xx 
harai , xl, see purification 
Harima Province, 49n 2 in, 

Harima, a Young Woman of, 

2 39 

hart, 275 

Harvest Festival, 84n, 241 


Hasetsukabe Hitomaro, 251 
Hasetsukabe Inamaro, 2 5 3 
Hasetsukabe Kuromasa, 2 5 1 
Hasetsukabe Mamaro, 2 5 o 
Hasetsukabe Taruhito, 256 
Hasetsukabe Tatsumaro, 185 
Hasetsukabe Tori, 253 
Hashibito Oyu, 4 
Hata-otome, 277 
Hata Iwatake, 150 
Hatsuse, lxi, 24, 30, 51, 312 
Hatsusebe, Princess, 36 
hawk(s), lxiii, 147, 16 x 
Hayahito, 58 
Hayato, xxxv 

Heavenly River, lv, 34, 212, 295 

Heguri, Lady, 1 1 5 

Heian Period, xvi 

hemp, xlvili, 223, 234, and passim 

Hi, 57 

Hijikata, Maiden of, 5 1 
Hikitsu, 247 
Hikuma Plain, 67 
Himeshima, 260 
Hinamishi, Prince, 31, 34 
Hiraga Motoyoshi, lxxviii 
hire (scarf), xlix 
Hirokawa, Princess, 92 
Hirume, Goddess, 34 
hisagi-txtt, 192 
Hitachi, xxxv, 278 
Hitachi, a Young Woman of, 

hitodama , 3 14a 

Hitomaro, see Kakinomoto 

c Hitomaro Collection, 5 xvii, xxiv. 

Holland, lxxviii 

Homer, xxii 

Horie Canal, lxi 

horse stumbling, xli, 97 

Hozumi, Prince, 22, 23, 85 

Hozumi Oyu, 240, 305a 
Hsuantsung, xxxiv 


Ichihara, Prince, 89 
Ichihi Ford, 62 
ichihi-txtz, 275 
Ie-no-shima, 94 
Ikago, Mount, 305 
Ikaho, 279, 280 
Ikeda— , 113 
Iki, 248 
Ikoma, lxi 
Ikuji, 89, 155 
Ikusa, Prince, 9 
Imald, Prince, 92 
Imamatsuribe Yosofu, 255 
Imizu (River), lxi, 146, 160 
Imo-Se Mountains, 98 
Imperial House, xxviii, xxxii, 
xliil, lv 

Imperial Rescript, 150, 154, 197 
Inaba Province, xxvi 
Inabizuma, 94 
Inarm, 6, 50, 193 
Inamizuma, 194 
India, xxxi 
Inland Sea, lxil 
introductory verse, xxi, lxx 
Inukai Kiyohito, 256 
Iohara, 96 
Irago (Island), 23 
iris, lxv 
Iruka, xxxii 
Isaniwa, hill of, 188 
Isaya (River of Doubt), 5 
Ise, 23, 30, 88, 271 
Ise, Shrine of, 21, 4on, 66 
Ishikawa Kimiko, 96, 239 
Ishikawa, Lady, 19, 59 
Ishikawa Taruhito, 121, 260 
Ishikawa Toshitari, 241 


Isonokami Otomaro, 104, 239, 

Isonokami Shrine, 2511 

Isonokami Yakatsugu, 90 

Ito, Sachio, lxxviii 

Iwamaro, 138 

Iwami, xxxv, 31, 33, 51 

Iwa-no-hime, Empress, 6 

I ware, 23, 73 ; Iware Pond, 19 

Iwashiro, 8 

Iwata, Prince, 23, 24 

Iwata Field, 248 

lyo, lii, 188 

Izanagi, 5 on 

Izanami, 5 on 

Izumi (River), lxi, 68, 162, 305 
Izumo, xxxv. 6n, 90 


January 7th, llv 
January 15 th, liv 
January 16th, liv 
Japanese morality, lviil 
Japanese Poetry ^ lxxix 
jewelled broom, liv 
Jimmu, Emperor, 27 
Jingu, Empress, xxix, 203 
Jinki (era), 98, 99, 213, 21 9n, 260 
Jmshin, War of, 2711, 39n, 60 
Jito, Empress, xxiv, 17, 19, 20, 
30, 3911, 67 

Jomei, Emperor, xxv, 3, 4, 9 
joshi (introductory verse), xxi 
juniper, 119 

Junnin, Emperor, 84 


Kachinu, plain of, 63 
Kadobe, Prince, 90 
kagaiy lx, 222 
Kagami, Princess, 12 

kagerd y 43, 228 

Kagu, Mount (Kagu-yama), lx, 3, 
5 j 18, 41, 54, 69, 226, 290 
Kahara Temple, 274 
Kaifusdy xlx 
Kaiyuan (era), xiii 
k,ah,e kotoba (pivot-word), xxi 
kakibe , xxvii, xxviii 
Kakinomoto Hitomaro, xx, 
xxiv, xxxvi, lxxi, 27 
Kako River, 49a 
Kamako, xxxil 
Kami, hill of, 189 
Kamnchi, 89 
Kamioka, 18 
Kamishima, 227 
Kamitsuke(nu), 96, 279 
Kamitsukenu Suruga, 257 
Kamo Taruhito, 226 
Kamochi Masazumi, lxxvi 
Kamokimi, 67 
Kamo-yama, 31 

Kamunabi, Mount, lx, lxi, 77, 
189, 3°3> and passim 
Kamunabi River, 9 1 

Kamutobe Kooshio, 256 

kanay xviii 

Kanamura, see Kasa 

c Kanamura Collection, 5 xvii, 104 
kao-bana , 138 
kao-dori (/6.-bird), 190, 229 
Kara, 75, 96, 245, 248, 275 
Karadomari, 247 
Karani Island, 194 
Karasaki (Cape), 14, 27, 33, 305 
Kariji, Lake, 48 
Karma, xlv 
Karu, Prince, 30 
Karu, pond of, 8 5 
Kasa Kanamura, 97, 104 
‘Kasa Kanamura Collection/ xvii, 

Kasa, Lady, 106 


Kase, 230, 251 
Kashihaia, 27, 179 
Kashiko, 263 

Kashima, Shiine of, xl, 254 
Kashimane, 274 
Kashiwadebe, 260 
Kasuga (Hill), lxi 
Kasuga Plain (or Field), llx, Ixiv, 
124, 190 

Kasuga Shrine, 84 
Katakai River, 183 
Katori Nahiko, Ixxviii 
Katsumata, 2 66 
c Katsura MS. 3 , lxxiv, lxxvii 
Kauchi, Prince, 26 
Kawachi, 218 
Kawashima, Prince, 36a 
Kazahaya, 244 
Kazuraki, Prince, 82, 266 
Kazurako, lxviii 
Kehi, 49a 
Keichu, 3 xxv 
Kei-no, 4911 
Keiun, 20 
Ki, 241 

Ki (Province), 13, 98, 19 1, see 

Ki Kiyohito, 240 
Ki, Lady, 1 8 1 
Ki, Princess, 8 5 
Kibi Province, 44 
Kii, lii, Ixii, 6 in, and passim, see 
Ki (Province) 
kin, 202 

Kinohe, 37, 39^ 73 
Kisa (River), 116 
Kisakibe Isoshima, 256 
Kiyomi, Cape, 96 
Kiyomi Palace, 3 5 
Kiyomihara, 6on 
Klaproth, Ixxviii 
Kofu, 202 

Kogi, lxii i, lxiv, see ManyoshuKogi 

Kogyoku, Empress, xxxii, 4 
Kohata, 7 

Kohon Manyoshu , lxxvii 
Koytki , xvi 
Kojima, 121, 238 
Ko kashii, xvii 

Koken, Empress, 83,174a 
Kokinshu , xiii, lxxiv, lxxx 
Kokin Wakashu, xiii 
Kokka Taikan , xv 
Koma, 75, 296 
Komyo, Empress, 84 
Konkomyo-gyo , xliv 
Kon Myogun, 236 
konote-gashiwa, 227 n 
Korea, xxv, xxviii, xxix, and 

Kose, 68, 286 
Kose Natemaro, 241 
Kose Sukunamaro, 1 1 1 
Koshi, xxxv, 105, 128, 14 1, 157, 
and passim 

koto , 91, 140, 274, 276, 290 
koto age, 5911 
koto dam a, 5911 
Kudara, King of, xxix 
Kudara Plain, 41 
Kukuri, 306 
Kumaki Sea, 274 
Kumanu, 51, 195 
Kuni, li, 132, 230 
Kuni-no~miyatsuko, 250 
Kurahashibe Aramushi, 257 
Kurahashibe Otome, 257 
Kuramochi — , Wife of, no 
Kuramochi Chitose, 109 
Kusakabe, Prince, 30a 
Kusakabe Minaka, Father of, 

kushro , xlix 

faigtt vine, xlviii, 213, 261 


Kyoto, 711, I2n 

Kyushu, xxxv, xxxvi, lviii, 5011, 
and passim 


Lady of the Court, 14 

Land-allotment Law, xxxii 
Laotsu, xlvii 
lark, 172 

leg-ties, 55, see ayui 
Lespede^a, xlviii, 67 
Li Po, xiii 
Liang, xxxi 
lily, lxv, 158 
Lopu, 258 

Lorenzen, Alfred, lxxx 

lotus, 266 

love poems, lxxii 


magical spells, xli 

Makami Plain, 39 

Makimuku, lx, 53 

makura kotoba (pillow- word), xxi 

Mallotus japonicus , 192 

Mama of Katsushika, 190,223,279 

Manchuria, xxxvi 

mandarin-ducks, li, 57 

Manners and customs, xlvii ff. 

Manu, xo6 

Manyo Daishoki , lxxv 

manyo-gana, xviii 

Manyoshii , xiii, xv, lxvii, lxxiii, 
lxxvi, 6 in, and passim ; Com- 
pilation of, xv E ; Language 
of, lxix ff. ; Translation of, 
Ixxviii E 

Manyoshii Kogi , lxxvi, see Klcjgz 
Manyoshu Kenkyu Nempo , lxxvii 
Manyoshii Ryakuge, lxxvi 
Manzei, 122, 237 
March 3rd, liv 

Mariko Omaro, 251 
Masaoka, Shiki, Ixxviii 
Masterpieces of Japanese Poetry 
Ancient and Modern , lxxx 
Matokata, xxn, 67 
Matsuchi, 263 
Matsuho, 49a 
Matsura (River), lxi, 258 
Matsura, Maidens of, lxviii 
May 5 th, liv 
medicine hunt, liv, 275 
Meiji era, Ixxviii 
melon, 200 

Mer curtails leiocarpa , xlviii, 2i8n 
metempsychosis, xlv 
Michinoku, 10711, 150, 152 
Mifune, Mount, 20, 99, 109 
Miho Bay, lxii, 96 
Mika-no-hara, 99, 132a 
Mikasa, lxi, 190, 291 
Mikata Shami, 65 
Mikawa, 23n, 67 
Mimana (in Korea), 26m 
Mimiga, 17 

Miminashi, Mount, lx, 5, 69 
Mimoro, 77 

Mimoro, Mount, 302, 303 
mma> 74a 

Minabe, Princess, 81 
Minamoto Sanetomo, lxxvii 
Minamoto Shitago, lxxiv 
Minu, Prince, 73 
Mmu Province, 184 
Minume, 48, 119, 233, 245, 289 
Mirror Mountain, 12, 26 
mint , 33 
Misaka, 256 

Miscanthus sinensis , lxv, 137 
Mishima Field, 148 
misogi , xl, lv 

Mitsu, lxii, 93, 197, 244, and 


Miwa, lx, ii 5 5211, 61 
Miyake, 222, 310 
Miyamori, Asataro, lxxx 
Mizuki, 121 
mo , xlvm, 3 on 

Mommu, Emperor, xxv, 20, 64 

Mononobe Akimochi, 250 
Mononob e Komaro, 251 
Mononobe Mane, 257 
Mononobe Mashima, 255 
Mononobe Tatsu, 253 
Moon God, 86, 87 
Moroe, see Tachibana 
Muko Bay, 243 

mulberry, lxiv, 264, 278, and 

Munakatabe Tsumaro, 213 
Muro, spa of, lxii, 8n 
Mushimaro, see Takahashi 
c Mushimaro Collection,’ xvn, 215 


Nabari, 26 
Naga, Prince, 48 
Naga Okimaro, 61, 67 
Nagahama, 149 
Nagai, 244 

Nagara, Palace of, 10 1 
Nagato, 244 
Nagaya, Prince, 89 
Nago, 155 
Naka, 46 

Naka-no-oe, Prince, xxxn 
Nakatomi, clan of, xxxii 
Nakatomi Yakamori, xxv, lvii, 

Naniwa, li, lx, lxi, 95, 175 
Naniwa, Palace of, 20, 101, 232 
nanoriso , 9411 

Nara, xxxiv, li, 11, 97, 185, 228, 
259, 264, and passim 
Nara Period, xiii, xvi, xxiii, xxxvi. 

lxxi, and passim 
Naruto, 246 
Natsumi, 86 

Nature, Outlook on, Hx ff. 
Nether World, 211,224 
New Year’s Day, ill 1, 181, 240 
‘ night-thrush, 5 9, 207, see nue 
Nigitazu, io, 189 
Nihonshoki , xvi, 28n, 66n 
Niikawa, 182 
Nuname-sai , xl, 8411 
Niitabe, Prince, 266 
Ninno-gyd , xliv 

Nintoku, Emperor, xxiv, 6, 

Nirvana, 274 
Nirvana Sutra , 5 7n 
nishiki , xlviii 
Niu, Mount, 304 
Niu, Prince, 24 
non to , xl 

nue, Ixiii, 9n, see ‘ night-thrush 5 
Nujima, 48, 193, 194 
Nukada, Princess, lxxiii, 10, 13 
nusa , xxxix, 263 


obarai , liv 

Ochinu, plain of, 36, 37 
Odai, Prince, 9 1 
Ogami (River), lxi 
Ogura Mountain, 3, 219 
Ohara, 17 
Oharida, 308 
Ohatsuse Mountains, 273 
Ojin, Emperor, 8511 
Okada, Tetsuzo, lxxx 
Okamoto-no-miya, 4n 
Okaru, 42n, 53 
Okazaki, Tomitsu, lxxx 
Okinaga Kunishima, 254 
Okiso Mountains, 306 


Okisome Azumabito, 64 

Oku, Princess, lvi, lxxiii, 21 

Okume-nushi, 151 

Okura, see Yamanoe 

omens, 7 n 

Omi, Prince, 23 

Omi, 5, 8, 11, 22, 193, and passim 

Omiwa Okimori, 113 

Onamuchi, 154 

Ono Imoko, xxx 

Ono Oyu, 97 

Onu, 149, J 99 

Onu Tamon, 180 

oracles, m 

orange-blossoms, 24, 136, 153, 
and passim 

orange-tree, lxv, 66, 136, 284, 
304, and passim 
Osaka, lxi, 2on, 19711 
Osakabe Chikuni, 253 
Osakabe Otomaro, 64 
Osaki, 263 

Oshikabe, Prince, 36, 53 
Oshima, ixii 
osuhi, xlviii 

Otabe Aramimi, 255 
Otomo, xvi, xxiv, xxxv, lxxn, 
_ I33> I5i» 152 , * 1 % 197= *9° 
Otomo Azumabito, 184 
Otomo Ikenushi, 140, 182 
Otomo Kojihi, 96 
Otomo Kumagori, 204 
Otomo Minaka, 185 
Otomo Miyori, 187 
Otomo Miyuki, 60 
Otomo Momoyo, 187 
Otomo of Sakanoe, Lady, lxxii, 
123, 128, 129 

Otomo of Sakanoe’s Elder 
Daughter, 129, 134, 136, 137, 
16511, 184 

Otomo Sadehiko, 261 

Otomo Sukunamaro, 59, 122 
Otomo of Tamura, Lady, lvi, 

Otomo Tabito, xxiv, xxxvi, xlvii, 
lxxii, 116, 122, 241, 242, 267 
Otomo Tanushi, 59, 60 
Otomo Yakamochi, xvi, xxiv, 
xxxvi, lxxii, 106, 1 1 5, 130, 18 1, 
182, 241 

Otomo Yotsuna, 184 
Otomobe Fushimaro, 257 
Otoneribe Chibumi, 254 
Otsu, Prince, lvi, 19, 21, 22 
Otsu, 45 
Ou, 90 
Owari — , 225 
Owari Okuhi, 1 5 3 
Oxherd, lv, 21 1, 295 
Oyakeme, 238 


pardanthus, 122 

peach-blossoms, lxiv, 160, and 

pearls, 152, 153, 166, 246, 283, 

292, and passim 
Peng-lai, 112 
Persia, xxxi 

Pfizmaier, August, Ixxix 
Pierson, J. L., lxxx 
pillow-words, lxix, see makura 

pine-branches, binding of, 8 
pine-tree, lxv, 89, 255, and 


plants, lxiv £f. 

plum-blossoms, lxiv, 128, 242, 

293, and passim 
poetry festival, liv 
Po-hai, xxxvi, 180 

Political and social background, 
xxvii if. 


Poverty, Dialogue on, 205 
Primitive and Mediaeval Japanese 
Texts, lxxix 

purification, 243, 248, see misogi 


Rahula, 200 

rain, Ixvii, 159 

rainbow, 279 

Rat, Day of, liv 

Realm of Nothingness, 3 1 3 

Reform of Taika, xxvii, xxix 

Reiki (era), 104 

renga, xx, Ixxv 

Re von, M., lxxix 

rhetorical devices, xix ff. 

n, 203 

rice-offering, 27811, 281 
Rigan, 123 

River of Heaven, 54, 267, see 
Heavenly River 
Rosny, L. de, lxxix 
Kuiju-Karin, xvii 
ryo , 202 


Saburu girl, 1 5 5 
Sado (Isle of), 24011, 3050 
Sagaraka Hills, 108 
Saheki, 1 5 1 
Saiga, 19 1 

Saho, lxi, 90, 124, 127, 13 1, 134, 
162, 259, 262 
Saikaido, 820, 214 
Saimei, Empress, 511, ion 
sakaki, xxxix, 123 
Sakamoto Hitogami, 250 
Sakatabe Obitomaro, 252 
sake , xlvii, 82, 1x7, 304, and 
Sakiko, 242 

* Sakimaro Collection,’ xvii, 228 

saki-kusa , 210 
Sakurada, 63 
Sakura-ko, 272 
Sami, 46n 

Samine, island of, 46 
sandals, xlix 
San-mdo, 82a 
Sanscrit, Ixxv 
Sanu, 61 

Sana Chigami, xxv, Ixxm, 113 
Sanuki, 9, 46 
Sasaki, Nobutsuna, lxxvii 
Sasanami, 45, 62, 63, 305, and 

Sasara Field of Heaven, 25 
Sata, 70 

Sayo of Matsura, 26 1 

Scarf-Waving Hill, lxviii, 261 

Se (lake), 215 

Sea God, 128, 217, 245 

sedoka , xx 

Sekigahara, 39 

Sena Gyomon, 227 

Sengaku, Ixxv 

sericulture, liv 

Settsu, lxi, 185 

Seventh Night, lv, 211, 267, 295 
shaku, 202 

Shibutani, Cape, 145, 167 

Shidoribe Karamaro, 254 

Shiga, lxi, 511, 14, 22, 45, 239, 305 

Shigatsu, 45 

skigure , Ixvii 

Shihi, Lady, 19 

Shika, 96, 2x3 

Shiki, Prince, 20 

Shi King , xiv 

shii, 9 

Shimaki, Akahiko, lxxviil 
Shimanosho, 3611 
shime, xli 

Shimofusa Province, 278 


Shimotsuke Province, 280 
Shinano Province, Ixi, 279 
Shmgu, 6in 
Shinsen Many os hit, lxxiv 
Shinto, xxx, xxxvih, xliii, and 

Shinto litanies, xxi 
Shiotsu, Mount, 97 
Shiragi, xxxvi, 123, 203, and 
passim ; embassy to, 242 
Shiragi hatchet, 274 
shisho , 153 
shz^u, xlviii 
Shoku-nihongi, 6 in 
Shomu, Emperor, 82, 84, 98n 
Shoso-m, xxxvii 
Sh 5 toku, Prince, xxx, xliv, 
xivii, 8 

Shucho (era), 30 
Siebold, Ixxviii 
silk, xlviii 
silk-tree, 181 
silkworm(s), lxiii, 57 
singing-frogs, lxiii, 91, 10 1, 109, 
189, and passim 
c Six Dynasties, 5 xxx 
sleeves, turn back one’s, 9, 139, 
and passim 

snow, 17, 65, 181, 182, 188, 278 
Snow-viewing banquet, 240 
Sogas, xxviii 
Sogi, lxxv 
song-feast, liv 
Sono Ikuha, 65 
staggerbush, li, Ixiv, 22, 302 
Suga, hill of, 149 
sugi, 25, see cryptomeria 
Sui dynasty, xxix, xxx, xxxi 
Suiko, Empress, xxiv 
Sukunahikona, 154 
Suminoe, 54, 74, no; Gods of, 
xl, 177, 263, 265 

Sumiyoshi, 1770 
sun, 202 
surtginu, xlviii 
Suruga, 96 

susuki, 30, 162, 249, 290, see 

c Sutra of the Benign King/ xliv 
£ Sutra of the Golden Light, 5 xliv 
Suzu, 149, 152 
sweet flag, Ixv, 1 5 3 


Tabito, see Otomo 
taboo, xli 

Tachi, Mount, 182, 183, see 
tachibana, 156, 171 
Tachibana, 82 
Tachibana Akenfl, Ixxviii 
Tachibana Chikage, Ixxvi 
Tachibana Moroe, 171, 240, 

Tachibana Naramaro, 84n 
Tagi, 184 

Tagima Maro, Wife of, 26 
Tago, bay of, 97 
Taguchi Masuhito, 96 

Taguchi Oto, 255 
take, 75 

c tail flower, 5 3on, 213, 221, see 

Taitsung, Emperor (of Wei);, 


Tajihi — , 95 
Tajihi Agatamaro, 1 20 
Tajihi Agatamori, 82a 
Tajihi Hironari, 207 
Tajihi Kasamaro, 93 
Tajihi Kunihito, 93 
Tajihi Takanushi, 96 
Tajihi Yanushi, 95 
Tajima, Princess, 22 


Tajimamori, 156 
Takachlho, Peak of, 178 
Takahara, Well of, 8 
Takahashi — , 108 
Takahashi Mushimaro, xxxvi, 
lxxn, 214 

Takaichi District, 3 6, 42, 6711, 

Takamado, lxi, 104, 137, 261 
Takamiya, Prince, 91 
Takashima, 63 
Takata, Princess, 92 
Takayasu Tanemori, nan 
Takazen, Mount, 33 
Take (in Ise), 67 
Takechi, Prince, 23, 39 
Takechi Furuhito, Ixxi, 62 
Takechi Kurohito, 62, 67 
Takemikazuchi-no-Kami, 2 5 4n 
Taketori no Ojl, 74 
Tako, 166 

taku y xlviii, 45, 75n, 176 
Takuno, 33 

Tama (river, hill), lxi, 257 
Tamana, Maiden, 216 
Tamatsukuribe Hirome, 252 
Tamatsu-shima, 19 1 
Tambaichi, 2 5n 
Tamochi, Princess, 26 
Tanakami, 68 
Tanabata Matsurz, lv, 21 in 
Tanabe Akiniwa, 246 
* Tanabe Sakimaro Collection/ 

T’ang customs, xlviii 

T’ang dynasty, xiii, xxix, xxxi 

Tango , liv, lv, lxv 

Taniha Ome, 238 

tanka , xx, and passim 

Taoism, xiii, xlvii 

Taoistic influence, xlv, lxviii 

Tateyama, lx, see Tachi (Mount) 

Tatsuta, Mount, lx, 8, 219 
Tatsuta(hiko), lxi, 219 
Tekona, 190, 223 
Temmu, Emperor, xxxiv, 17, 18 
Tempyd (era), xxiv, xxv, xliv, 
82, 103, 130, 207 
Tempyo-Hoji (era), 84, 180 
Tempyo-Kampo (era), 150, 158 
Tempyo-Shoho (era), 90, 96, 

160, 169, 171, 250 
Tenji, Emperor, lxi, Ixxi, 5, 7, 
8, 10, II, 14, 27n 
Thirty-six Master Poets, lxxiv 
Thoughts and beliefs, xxxviil ff. 
Three Hills, xxxix, 5, 6n 
Three Hundred Manjo Poems , lxxx 
( Three Kingdoms/ xxx 
three principles, 199 
thunder, 58, 280, 292, 302 
Thunder Hill, 47, i89n 
Tienpao (era), xiii 
tigers, 39, 275 
Todaiji- temple, xxxvii 
toga- tree, 100, see tsuga - tree 
Tokaido, 82n 
Toko Mountain, 5 
Tokugawa Mitsukuni, lxxv 
Tokugawa Munetake, lxxviii 
Tomi, 126 
Tomo, lxu, 1 19 
Tone (River), lxi 
Toneri, 67 
Toneri, Prince, 85 
Toneri Kine, 14 
Toocbi, Princess, 66 
tortoise-shell, xli, no 
Tosa, 262, 263 
Tosando, 82n 
Tot 5 mi Province, 67, 250 
Toyo, 26 

T oyo-no-akarz , xl, 84n 
T 5 zatoOnu, 74 


Tsi, xxxi 
Tsu, 44 

tsuga-tizz, 145, i 7 i 3 189 
Tsukan, 236 
Tsuki— , 227 

Tsukuba, Mount, lx, 93, 220, 
221, 222, 278, 279 
Tsukushi, xxxvi, lxii, 50, 61, 93, 
172, 197, 237, 250, 255, and 

Tsumori Okurusu, 255 

tsurubami , 156 
Tsuruga, xxxvi 
Tsushima, 213, 214 
Tu Fu, xiii 
tutelary god, liv 


Uchi, plain of, 4 
Udobe Ushimaro, 252 
Uetsuki, 72 

uguisu , lxiii, 140, 165, 220, and 
passim , see warbler 
(clan), xxvii 
Ujibe Kurome, 257 
uji~bzto , xxvii 
uji-no-kami, xxvii 
Uji River, lxi, 50, 53, 291, 305 
Ujima, Mount, 89 
Umashine, 23611 

Unai, Maiden, lxviii, 167, 224, 
2 34 

Unebi, Lx, 5, 27, 42, 69, 179 
uneme , 2011, 44, 88n, 266 
unohana , lxv, 143 
urabe, xli 

Urashima, lxviii, 216 
Utatsu, 4611 


Vega (star), lxvi 
versification, xix fF. 

violets, 92, 196 


Wad 5 (era), 81, 259, 260 
Waka, lxii, 19 1 
Wakamiya Ayumaro, 256 
Wakatoneribe Hirotari, 254 
Wakayamatobe Mumaro, 250 
Waley, Arthur, lxxix 
warbler, 141, 293, see uguisu 
wasure-gai , 246 
Watari Hill, 33 
Wazami Field, 39 
Wazuka, Mount, 132 
Weaver Maid, xlix, lv, lxvi, 2 1 1 
Wei, xxxi 
Wen Hsuan , xix 

c West Hongan-ji Temple Book/ 

wizard, 53, 81 

"words, lift up/ 59, 307, see 
wistaria, 166 

c word-soul/ 207, see kotodama 
Wuhsia, 258 


Yachihoko-no-Kami, 233a 
Yakami, 33 

Yakamochi, see Otomo 

Yakushi-ji temple, xx 
Yama, 81 
jama-ai , 2i8n 

Yamabe Akahito, xxiv, lx, lxxii, 


‘ Yamabito Tsuminoe/ lxviii 
jamabuki , 9m 
Yamada Kimimaro, 149 

Yamakuma, Prince, 23 

Yamamura, 81 

Yamanoe Okura, xvii, xxxvi, 
xlvii, lxxii, 197, 214 


Yamashina, i 2 

Yamashiro, lvii, nn, 108, 230, 
285, 291, and passim 
Yamato, xix, lx, 3, 20, 21, 59, 169, 
179, 207, 289, 307, and passim 
Yamato-hime, Empress, lxxi, 7 
Yamato Plain, jn 
Yasu Beach, 295 ; plain of, 120 
Yasumiko, 13 
Yezo, xxxv 
Yodo River, 5011 
Yokoyama, 66 

Yomi, 224, 235, see Nether 

Yoro (era), 88n, 99 
Yor 5 Waterfall, Ixvin 
Yosami (wife of Hitomaro), 51 
Yoshida Oyu, 138 

Yoshino River, 2011 
Yoshmu, hi, lx, Ixi, 17, 20, 28, 
29, 69, 71, 86, 89, 99, and passim 
Yoshmu, Palace of, 71, n 6, 196, 
and passim 

yu> xxxix, 40, 57, 310 
Yu River, 29 
Yuan Ku, 7611 
yudachi , lxvii 

Yuge, Prince, 20, 53, 64 
Yuhara, Prince, 86, 87 
Yuki Yakamaro, 246, 248 
Yuryaku, Emperor, xiv, xxni, 
xxv, lxxi, 3 
Yiiiai Sinyung . , xix 
Yuzuki, 52 
yw^utsu (Venus), lxvi